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The University of Toronto 












G. G. ZERFFI, Ph. Dr. 
























Dbab Sib, 

During my residence in England I have 
receivcd from you so much kindness and encouragement that I 
only perform an agreeable duty in dedicating this work to you. 

My object in this edition of Goethe's Masterpiece has been 
to promote a greater appreciation of the Language and immortal 
Classics of Germany. Such an aim, I am sure, you will approve, 
well disposed as you always are to take the will for the deed. 
The will has certainly been good, but the deed will require, 
I know, the indulgence of so kind and lenient a critic as you 
have always proved to 

Yours most obediently, 


16, Westbourne Gardens, Bayswater, 
June, 1859. 


With real pleasure and satisfaction I lay this Second 
Edition of my Commentaries on Goethe's et Faust " before 
the English public. Whatever was to be said on this 
master-piece of German Literature, I endeavoured to 
say in my Preface to the First Edition. The quick sale 
of the work, considering the number of other Foreign 
and English Editions, shows, that anything earnestly 
undertaken, will satisfy critics as well as the public. 

This Second Edition may be considered also, a proof 
of the continually increasing demand for the works of 
Germany's greatest author, and is sufficient evidence, 
that prejudices which have hitherto obstructed the path 
of genius, are being gradually cleared away, and the 
high-roads of intellectual tolerance opened to the 
thinking niind. 

Although some critics have reproached me with filling 
up too much space with easy grammatical explanations, 
I have not thought it necessary to cut them out of the 
prcsent Edition. Ten years' cxperience, as Professor of 

11 PliEFACE. 

the German Language in London, have shown me how 
often scholars are puzzled by idioms, abbreviations, 
dialectical expressions, and metaphors. A pupil of mine 
spent once a great deal of valuable time, turning over 
several dictionaries to find the root of the diminutive 
"©retcfyen" (®rct), an abbreviation of " 3D?argaretf)e. " 
I intended my Commentaries for students; and I shall 
feel amply rewarded> if I have spared them the trouble 
of looking into our defective German Dictionaries, and 
thus saved them more time to" meditate on the deep 
meaning of the poem. 

London, March, 1862. 


It seemed so presumptuous an act on the part of a 
foreigner to appear before the English public as editor 
of a work of which there already exist no less than two 
and twenty English translations, everj one with notes more 
or less copious, that it was not tili after a most carefu 
perusal of the whole of the different editions, and a con- 
scientious study of our most celebrated German com- 
mentators,* that I was convinced that I should not be 
altogether guilty of carrying " owls to Athens " in bring- 
ing before the public another annotated edition of so 
celebrated a work as " Faust." It is, however, usual for a 
foreigner to excuse himself when writing in a language 
which he has scarcely acquired ; in making my apology, 
I feel that I shall place myself on the safest ground in 
claiming the indulgence of the reader in Goethe's own 
words. He demands, in the notes to bis „2Seftöftti(tye 
'Dittan," " to be placed on the same footing as a traveller, 
of whom it is praiseworthy if he accommodate himself to 
the manners of the country he visits, appropriate its 
language, share its views and adopt the style of their 
inhabitants ; when he has done his best to master all these, 
he is sure to be excused though his accent may still be 

* I must mention especially the works of Kosenkranz, Düntzer, Schubart, 
Gervinus, Leutbecher, Weisze, Rötsher, Carus, &c. 



peculiar, and though an unconquerable nationality may 
every now and then betray his foreign extraction." This 
indulgence I feel will not be denied to me by any, for 
scholars will forgive, because I know them to be judicious, 
and amateurs, less disturbed by faults and peculiarities, 
will accept what is ofFered to then. without prejudice. 

To give a biographical sketch of Goethe would be al- 
together superfluous, when England possesses so excellent 
a " Life " as that written by Lewes ; and it may here be re- 
marked without flattery, that the English being of a more 
objective nature are undoubtedly far superior as Biogra- 
phers to the Germans, who, with their placid subjectivity, 
are more apt to put for ward their individual views of an 
object than to give the reader a clear, simple notion of 
the object itself. Any one who wishes to become ac- 
quainted with this part of the subject cannot do better 
than peruse Lewes' " Life of Goethe," where he will find 
all the information he can desire. 

We have selected the first part of Faust as the subject 
of our comments, as being decidedly the finest of Goethe's 
poetical compositions. Its beauties certainly surpass 
everything we have met with in modern literature, the 
mystery of its variegated allusions, the stern morality of 
its didactic poetry, the fervour of its dithyrambic effusions, 
the bitter mockery of its satire, and the deep feeling of its 
lyric songs are as yet unequalled. Under the ablest Sym- 
bols the various philosophical Systems are introduced and 
their tenets commended or exposed; Idealism, Realisin, 
Spiritualism, and the rest are exhibited in their true 
colours ; and though the whole abounds with apparent 
anomalies and paradoxes, yet we can always readily set our 


feet 011 the firm ground of truth; though we may at first 
feel ourselves lost in a rery ocean of metaphysical specu- 

latiou, yet we have but to look steadily around us to dis- 
o>\ er that the simple and impressive tone of tlie vvork lias 
in reality been wafting ns safely to the haven of the purest 
Christianity. But it is to the great scope — the univer- 
sality we might say of the subject, that this dramatic poem 
owes the irresistible fascination which it has always ex- 
ercised on those who have not contented themselves with 
a mere superficial reading, but have studied it thoroughly 
and so appreciated its general as well as particular 

We must look on poetry as we look on the productions 
of nature ; for, like them, poetry is but the outgrowth of 
climate, time, religion, nationality, civilization, and so 
many outward and inward influences. Works of poetry 
must therefore be considered with pure objectiveness as 
organic wholes entirely as they present themselves ; and 
each observer must be allowed to draw from them wdiat 
conclusions may seem to him the fairest. 

To ona man, a piece of clialk is merely a means of 
joining stones — a cement; to another \t is a part of those 
tertiary rocks of the floetz-formation, that carry back the 
mind to the antediluvian period ; a third observer sees the 
same chalk hardened into the calcareous spar, whose 
countless crystallisations are so many proofs of the powers 
of an Almighty. So it is w T ith every poetical work ; we 
must not be surprised, therefore, that in Faust one man 
should see the most dangerous tendencies, a second a 
harmless effort of speculation, while another may feel 
convinced that it is a work likely to exert the most bene- 


ficial influence on mankind, as a thoroughly Christian 
book ; — and did we dare to flatter ourselves that there 
is any merit in our notes, we feel that it must arise from 
our having taken this latter view, and having attempted 
throughout to show how the various characters, their 
sayings and their doings are calculated to conduce to the 
enlargement of our mind, the improvement of our morals ; 
in a word, to the elevation of our whole nature. 

It is certainly a most extraordinary feature in the his- 
tory of European literature, that in Germany, above all 
other countries, every poetical coraposition should not 
only serve as a landmark on the road of civilization, but 
also exercise a very decided influence on progress : this 
being the case we must expect to find this peculiarity 
more than usually prominent in Faust, which is but a 
dramatic representation of Humanity itself : and in fact 
we find that while representing humanity as the battle- 
field of the hostile inclinations of our divided nature— the 
evil and the good, it is placed as a mirror, in which may 
be seen reflected the period when it was conceived, and 
has always exerted the most beneficial influence on Ger- 
many's civilization. 

We shall endeavour before pointing out the general 
features of the poem, to glance briefly at the times and 
circumstances under which it was composed. 

From the earliest ages of German poetry, we find that 
one of its constant features is the conflict of two opposing 
principles. These antagonistic elements vary in different 
epochs. In the times of Heathen Mythology — Day and 
Night are the opponents ; each is represented as a deity, 
the one the source of joy, the other of sorrow ; the one sends 


forth thc cheering morning-star as the herald of joyous 
tidings, the other wraps the whole of nature in the sable 
clottk of mystery and gloom. In the Edda, Night appear3 
as the first originating power, and Light, or Day, is the off- 
spring of Night. First, the mystery, then the truth. Bnt 
truth, once engendered, is the constant enemy of mystery. 

Again, Summer and Winter are often the opposing 
powers. Summer, as the fructifying produetive agent, 
Winter, as its blighting and destruetive adversary. 

This feature in German poetry was not obliterated by 
the introduetion of Christianity, though a considerable 
change is to be observed in it at that period — for then, 
Light became by far the superior power of the two; being 
regarded as the emblem of reason, goodness, perfection, 
it gradually assumes the upperhand ; while Night, as the 
symbol of ignorance and evil, becomes simultaneously 
more and more degraded. Similarly, Summer, with its 
genial warmth, gradually thaws the icy coldness of her 
foe, typifying of course the victory of good over evil, of 
reason over passion, of spirit over flesh — in one word, of 
God over Satan. 

In process of time this dualism ceased to be repre- 
sented by the outward phenomena of Nature — civilization 
and progress began to be expressed in superstitious per- 
sonifications, then in allegories, though of the roughest 
and most palpable application ; these were gradually 
improved tili they gave rise to the sublime impersonation 
of our spiritual and earthly natures which we meet with 
in the poem before us. 

In the German drama as well as in the poem, though the 
figures and emblems may be varied, the same feature is 


always to be fbund — war waged and carried on between 
evil and good Similar to the ancient drama, which was 
but the offspring of the symbolical rites performed annually 
in honour of Bacchus and Demeter, the origin of our 
modern drama is to be found in the " Mysteries " of our 
early church; these, as the reader is probably aware, 
were religious pieces, representing various scenes from 
Scripture, such as the birth, baptism, or sufferings of our 
Saviour ; they probably were originally an invention of 
the priesthood for influencing the senses of the masses. 
Thus in the oldest of these representations, the Archfiend 
is introduced opposing God and destroying the happiness 
of mankind by his temptation of Eve, thus acquainting 
the people not only with the two opposing, conflicting 
forces in actual life, but also with the great spiritual 
powers which are in perpetual Opposition to save or to 
destroy mankind. Under these circumstances Faust may 
be considered as the outgrowth of the past, and the Solu- 
tion, so to speak, of those riddles which have occupied 
the metaphysical nature of the Germans from the days 
of Wolf von Eschenbach to the present Century. 

We must point out too, that even in the midst of the 
greatest coarseness and vulgarity (for these " mysteries " 
are little better than the grossest blasphemy) traces of the 
symbolical abound. Beings, which must remain invisible 
to earthly eyes, are there impersonated and embodied, 
frequently in the roughest manner, yet still in forms 
which correspond to the character in which they exhilit 
themselves to mankind. This love of the symbolical in- 
sinuated itself deeper and deeper into the German mind, 
tili at last their paintings and their architecture, as well 


as their poetry, were impregnated^with it; thus Gothic 
architecture abounds in crosses and roses 3 tlie former the 
emblem of salvation, the latter of love. The wliole build- 
ing is to represent the idea of eternity, or, as others main- 
tain, the idea of death. The altar placed at the east, and 
the three entrances on the north, south, and west, are to 
show that Christ will receive worshippers fröm every 
land. The three lofty towers pointing towards heaven 
are to remind us of the höhest mystery of our Faith — 
the Triunc God ! — 

Cabbalists, Necromancers, Magicians, Philosophers, 
Metaphysicians, had all been working in the sanie direc- 
tion, all had been seeking to nnveil the positive and 
negative, that is the creative and destructive powers of 
nature, and all had hidden their mysterious researches 
ander the still more mysterous cloak of symbolism. Num- 
bers, signs, letters, were turned into so many emblems ; 
an incoherent formula was considered powerful enough 
to open tlie gate of Hell, and summon forth its king to 
the aid of man. The very Heavens, with its fair sun, its 
planets and countless stars, were regarded as so many Sym- 
bols in which it was snpposed the human eye could read 
the secrets of fate, and ünveil the mysteries of the dualism 
which each feit to exist throughout nature, which creates 
on one side, destroys on the other, and though subjected 
to a continual change is continually fixed — fixed pre- 
cisely in this flux and reflux of growing and withering, 
of producing and annihilating change. The tendency to 
give to everything a symbolical form certainly reached 
its height in the Middle Ages, and hence it was that 
Goethe in coupling the leading ideas of that age with 


the scepticism ot his own times, has been enabled to give 
us the only possible means of harmonizing the contra- 
dictory mysteries of human nature. 

That the Roman Catholic creed did much to promote 
these tendencies is beyond all doubt ; its church seemed 
to glory in throwing the veil of symbolism over philo- 
sophy and art. By these strong means she continually 
reminds her members of those blessed times when reve- 
lation came to the aid of the limited faculties of the 
human intellect ; and the marvellous was found to work 
most efficiently on an ignorant people : but in mingling 
with Christianity too much of the heathen mythology 
which loved to personify every power of nature, and as- 
cribed everything that was beyond their comprehension 
to the agency of some particular god or goddess ; in in- 
troducing the mystöc ceremonies of an idolatrous Poly- 
theism, the poetical Mythology of the aneient Greeks and 
Romans was turned teto a dark mysterious Demonology, 
and the whole tissue of superstitious credulity with its 
witchcraft, sorcery, incantations, ghosts, spectres, roots, 
draughts, and the rest was step by step developed. The 
higher regions of our earth were peopled with phantoms, 
the lower with good and bad spirits, and the earth itself 
was considered totally under the influence of the devil as 
the impersonation of matter. 

As a counterpoise to this sad tendency, light was be- 
ginning to be shed upon the world by a succession of 
literary celebrities. Dante (1265—1321) had given to 
the world his inspired " Divina comedia." Wickliffe 
(1324 — 1384) had attempted by a translation of the Bible 
to refute some of the dangerous misrepresentations oi' the 


llomish Churcli, and to cast a ray of truth into the dark 
vault of superstition. Huss (1373 — 1415) had in another 
part of Europe expounded the gospel in its true simplicity 
and restored Faith to her original purity. Luther (1483 
— 1546) "who stoodbased on the Spiritual world of man, 
and only by the footing and miraculous power he had 
obtained there, could work such changes in the Material 
World ; Luther, who showed himself as a participant and 
disperser of divine influences, a true connecting medium 
and visible messenger between Heaven and Earth " * had 
given to the German nation in the language of the people 
the word of God in all its holiness and simplicity, in 
spite of Popes, Imperial Diets, Conclaves, hosts and 
nations. Calvin (1509 — 1564) with all the fervour of 
an inspired believer, hurled his thunderbolts against 
Romanism ; Bacon (1561 — 1626) in publishing his Novum 
Organum led many to a contemplation of nature which 
did much to check, if it did not eradicate their dim pre- 
judices. Kepler (1571 — 1631) raising his eyes to the 
heavens, assigned, as it were, a path to the sun, moon, 
and planets by his three celebrated laws (known as Re- 
gulse Kepleri), the study of which in after years led 
Newton (1642 — 1727) to his miraculous discoveries. Des- 
cartes (1596 — 1650) had drawn a distinct line of demar- 
cation between matter and spirit, with his indisputable 
u Cogito, ergo sum 9 " But the discovery which perhaps 
eflected more than all the labour of these celebrated men 
was the art of printing, which had been invented by 

* See T. Carlyle's " Critical and Miscellaneous Essays," pages 178 and 
179, on "Luther's Psalm." 


Guttenberg y Fansi (or Fast)* and Schoeffer( 1400 — 1463), 
in Mayence, and it is from this discovery that we must 
date the commencement of tho era of modern progress 
and civilization. A new world too had been discovered 
(1492), opening outto Europe immense sources of wealth 
and a boundless field for enterprise in art, industry and 
science. Shakespeare had in Ins admirable plays granted 
men a clear insight into the secrets of the human breast : 
still, thougli an entire change had come over Europe in 
consequence of all these powerful and dis- 
coveries, yet we see in philosophy and in religion, in society 
and in the individual thesametwo antagonistic principles 
— good and evil, spirit and matter, everywhere in elose 
and deadly conflict. All the splendid array of wealth and 
genius, knowledge and enterprise, only served to give 
more bitterness, more animosity to the strife. What once 
appeared as a battle waged between Day and Night, 
Winter and Summer, destruetion and creation, now be- 
came a war between opposing philosophical Systems, be- 
tween realism and idealism, between superstition and 
stern religious feeling. 

1t was at this juneture that Faust, the hero of the pre- 
sent drama, is supposed to have been born. 

We have now taken a very cursory glance both at the 
dark and at the bright side of the picture ; but looking 
at the superstitions that thwarted the march of progress, 

* This Faust or Frist mnst not be taken for the hero of our drama. 
He was a silver-snaith at Mayence, and it was his money that enabled 
Guttenberg to carry out his invention and to publish tlie first Bible in 
1450. The psalms appeared seA-cn years later. It may be interesting 
to mention that the first book in the Engligh language was printed by 
Caxton at Cologne, 1471, being a translation of the celebrated ''Recueils 
des histoires des Troyes." 


wc have not seen the füll extent of the difficulties with 
which it hacl to combat. Civilization makes its way bu 
slowly ; at its very outset it provokes an outcry from the 
foolish and Ignorant, who seein, like owls, to delight in 
darkness and to shun the light. Germany, during the 
tinies of which we speak, could scarcely be said to have 
acquired any degree of civilization ; the highest classes 
were depraved ; and though in the middle Orders there 
might be a general willingness for improvement, the great 
bulk of the people was no farther advanced than the 
Universities themselves, where the only knowledge to be 
obtained consisted of a dry, superficial study of Latin, 
Greek and Hebrew ; and a still more superficial acquain- 
j-ance with a few logical or metaphysical axioms. The 
seciuded monks, who were the only men with any pre- 
tension to learning, were not unnaturally looked upon by 
the iornorant masses as men under the influence of the 
evil spirit, and this idea was at times fostered by some 
"charlatans" who, by imposing upon the credulity of 
their less learned fellow-beings, found means to turn this 
supersritious belief to their personal advantage. 

Germany, at this period, swarmed with a class of men 
known as Scholastici vagantes (gctfyrenfce (Schüler), mem- 
bers of the Universities, but a set of rogues and vaga- 
bonds, who travelled through the country pretending to 
lay ghosts, conjure spirits, to predict the future, and to 
eure every kind of disease : they professed to be able by 
their incantations to avert hailstorms and similar calami- 
ties ; they sold salves and pastes, concocted from enchanted 
herbs, as a defence against charms, and also curious little 

images cut from the roots of the mandrake, to which they 

A 2 

xviii PREFACE. 

ascribed the power of foretelling events. These Wanderers 
were the more formidable as they formed among them- 
selves a sort of Corporation, while their power and in- 
flaence were held in equal estimation with that of their 
sisters the witches. 

This profound ignorance of the Germans may appear 
less astounding to the reader, when he is reminded that 
in England, even after so enlightened a reign as that of 
Elizabeth, her successor, James I., discnssed seriously 
the existence and criminality of witches, and the power 
of magicians, whom he believed " to be able to cause sud- 
denly to be brought unto them all kinds of dainty dishes 
and wine out of the wall by their familiär spirit." He 
will remember too that it is not many years since a case 
was brought before the Leeds justices, in which a "Wizard" 
was shown even now to have many believers in his powers, 
and those not of the lowest classes. Such instances will 
show the reader that our picture of German superstition 
is not an exaggerated one. Superstition forms the Night, 
in the contest with the Day of progress. The struggle of 
civilization with this ignorance and bigotry is but the 
strife of Day and Night, Summer and Winter, of idealism 
and realism, of good and bad, only in another form, under 
another prospect. 

Bacon fought the same battle with the masses of the 
seventeenth Century, yet from the field of battle sprang 
Spinoza, called by Novalis "the God-intoxicated man,"' 
for, intoxicated with that sublime power of reasoning 
which had been poured into his fragile fraine by an Al- 
mighty Creator, Spinoza mistook the frame for a God — 
and thus deified matter. The same confiict was carried 


on by Copernicus and Kepler agaimt astrologers and a 
prejudiced priesthood, yet from the contest there arose 
Newton and Leibnitz, and from them our improved System 
of Astronomy. The tendency of Humanity, since Chris- 
tianity tnrned our eyes upwards to that Creator who shows 
Himself great in inanimate no less than in animate nature, 
in the wild strife of the elements no less than in the still 
activity of organic development,* has been directed to- 
vvards the infinite — the spirit would soar aloft but is 
chained down within the walls of its earthly prison. 

In the play before us the two opposing principles of 
our nature are embodied in the two graphic dramatical 
conceptions, Faust and Mephistopheles; they are engaged 
in perpetual conflict, and though represented as two dis- 
tinct individualities form in reality only one Being. The 
one (Faust) exhibits the spiritual, better part of our nature, 
ever striving with incomprehensible restlessness towards 
the invisible world, and ever trying to grasp the fir t 
great cause of all things; the other (Mephistopheles) re- 
presents the grosser, evil part of our system, the part 
that cares for mere worldly or sensual pleasures, and de- 
lights only in whatever can stifle and stupify the spirit. 
In the play before us w r e shall see Faust, the great Meta- 
physiciin, by overrating the purest, brightest light of our 
nature— Reason — fall into a degrading worship of the 
lowest eloment of our nature — Matter ; and it is by this 
character that Goethe impresses upon us the great truth, 
that an unguided course on the field of speculation will 
always lead man to the verge of ruin if not to eternal 

* Humboldt's "Cos nos." page 392 


destruction itself; that a mere worship of matter must 
lead to the most fatal results ; and that reason and body 
must alike submit to the guidance of the bright star of 
Religion : indeed the object of the whole drama is to 
show that the dark spectre of Atheism, the tottering skele- 
ton of materialism, and the incomprehensible phantom of 
supernaturalism, must one and all vanish into nothingness 
before the impressive doctrines and practiees of the true 
religion. We knowthat our view is not that of the many 
commentators on Faust, but feel asbiired that lt is the right 
one, and shall not, therefore, in the following notes fail 
to notice any Single link in the chain of proofs which has 
made us feel so confident in tlie justice of our conclusion. 
After these general remarks, which may serve to make 
the reacler acquainted with tlie object of Goethe's Faust, 
it may be equally interesting to know the elements from 
which the poem has been taken. 

The " Faust-Saga," or the miraculous stories concern- 
ing Faust which have been current throughout Europe 
since the sixteenth Century, always excited the deepest 
interest, from the mystery in which the fate of tlieir hero 
is involved. It is pretty certain that Faust was an actual 
personage, and that he belonged to the higher class of 
Scholastic or rather Professores vagantes, who without 
any other aim than a vain desire for earthly distinction, 
strolled through Germany, performing astounding feats 
of magic, and draining tlie purses of the superstitious. 

Seven towns contended for the honour of being the 
birth-place of Homer, more than a dozen profess to have 
given birtli to tlie necromancer (^cfytDCtrjfünftfer) Faust, 
and as many claim to be the scene of bis last struggle 


with the infernal spirit ; Maulbronn, Colognc, the castlc 
of Waerdenberg, ncar Bommel, in Holland, are the prin- 
cipal rivals for this last mysterious combat. 

The first account of Faust's violent death is to be found 
in the " Sermones conviviales " of the thoologian John 
Gast, where we meet with the following passage: " When 
I once dined with Faust at the great College Hall at 
Basle, he gave the cook a variety of birds, his possession 
of which I was much supprised at, as they were different 
from any I had ever seen in our country, and could not 
be purchased at Basle at that time. He had also a dog 
and a horse with him, both of which were, in my opinion, 
devils, for they could do anything. Several persons told 
me that the dog had sometimes assumei the appearance 
of a servant, and brought his master food. But the 
wretch, Faust, came to a frightful end, for the devil 
strangled him. His corpse was always lying on its face, 
although it had been turned five times." 

We find a somewhat simiiar account in Melanchthon 
who in talking to one of his disciples, Meunel (about 
1550 — 1560; says : " Some years ago this John Faust on 
the very last day of his life, was sitting sorrowfully in a 
village inn, in the Duchy of Wurtemberg. The host 
asked him the cause of his melancholy, as he was usually 
so cheerful, being always a wild scamp, who would even 
endanger his life in the pursuit of an intrigue. To this 
he replied by warning the host not to be frightened at 
anything which might happen that night. At midnight 
the house was shaken as if by an explosion, and the next 
day, as Faust had not made his appearance by noon, the 
host went to his room, and found him by the side of his 

xxii PREFACE. 

bed, with his face turned down, and dead. The devil 
had strangled him." 

In the records of the two authors just quoted, who seem 
to Le perfectly in earnest about what they say, ia con- 
centrated tlie moral of Goethe' s conception. Both ac- 
counts describe Faust as an ungodly theorist, who by his 
doubts and discontent, and by the absence of all true 
religion, was driven to commit with his own hand the act 
of destruction which has been attributed to the devil. 

The person and life of Faust were of peculiar interest 
to the German nation, inasmuch as they saw impersonated 
in them the whole of their metaphysical inolinations. 
Such indeed was the delight she took in the history of 
his adventures and fate, that like " Puuch and Judy " in 
England, " Faust and Mephistopheles " has been for the 
last two centuries the favorite " puppet-show " in Ger- 
many ; where the representation of Faust's life, and sub- 
sequent removal to the infernal regions is interspersed 
with a number of metaphysical remarks on nature, man- 
kind, spirits and ghosts. 

Faust is represented in this " puppet-show " as a man, 
who had dared to overleap those limits which an Almighty 
power has assigned to reason ; dissatisfied with this life 
and its limited knowledge he wishes to know something 
of the next, and thus becomes an easy prey to the devil. 
To show how the serious has been coupled with ridicule, 
w r e may mention that in this puppet-show we find intro- 
duced the jester Caspar, Kasperle, or Käsperl, who playa 
in Germany the part of the Italian Arlcquino, the French 
Palaisse, the Spanish Grazioso, and the English Punch. 

The oldest book on Faust appeared in 1587, at Frank- 



fort on Maine, and was edited by John Spiess. In this 
edition the daring Philosopher is represented as borrow- 
ing the winga of an eagle in liis desire to become om- 
niscient, on these he visits every part of earth and heaven, 
bnt in bis desire to obtaiu every thing, he gives himself 
np to the devil, and is annihilated. In the same year a 
transcription of the tale in the form of an epic poem was 
commenced, though it was not eoncluded tili the following 
year (1588) when there were also published two transla- 
tions in the Danish and Lower German. Two years 
later the first English version appeared, and in 1597 and 
1602, Marlow published an edition under the title "Life 
and Death of Dr. Faustus," whose history now appears 
for the first time in a pure dramatic form. Marlow's 
tragedy certainly has great poetical power, but is entirely 
devoid of every loftier or higher tendency. Faast is ex- 
hibited as a mere sensualist ; he has studied Necromancy 
and uses his secret knowledge only to gratify his passions. 
The last seene (in which he repents) is of terrific gran- 
deur; his repentance however, the consequence of fear 
and not of love to God — is of no value, and the un- 
happy hero is carried off by Lucifer and Mephistopheles. 
Of a deeper meaning is a sketeh from the pen of Ger- 
many's greatest critic — Lessing. Faust is there depicted 
as a youth in all the vigour of life, anxious to know and 
to enjoy everything ; in his speculations on a mysterious 
future he falls asleep, and in his slumber becomes the 
hero of his tragedy. He barters away his soul to the 
Infernal spirit, and goes through a life of revelry, crime, 
and debauchery. At the very moment that his soul is 
to be handed over for ever to the devil he starts up in 

x xiv PEEFACE. 

the wildest agony, and finds that tlie whole has been 
but a warning dream. The youthful philosopher then 
thanks Providence for his escape, and for ever renounces 
his presumptuous and vain desires. It is to be lamented 
that so beautiful and poetical an idea should be an un- 
finished sketch ; but that the reader may be enabled to 
judge for himself of the deep meaning and the true philo- 
sophy contained in the " Faust-Saga " we quote a most 
interesting scene from Lessing's sketch, in which (in ac- 
cordance with the populär legend) Faust interrogates the 
seven spirits on the 3ubject of their power. 

Faust and the Seven SriRiTs. 

Faust. You then are the swiftest spirits of hell ? 

All the Spirits. That we are. 

Faust. All the seven of equal swiftness ? 

All the Spirits. No ! 

Faust. And which is the swiftest of all ? 

AU the Spirits. It is I ! 

Faust. What a wonder that amongst seven devils there should 
be only six liars. I must know you better. 

First Spirit. That you will surely by and bye ! 

Faust. By and bye ! What doest thou mean ? Do devils also 
preach repentance ? 

First Spirit. Certainly, to a hardened sinner. But do not 
detain us. 

Faust. What is thy name, and how swift art thou ? 

First Spirit. Thou couldst have a proof sooner than an answer . 

Faust. Well then — look here, what am I doing ? 

First Spirit. Thou passest thy fiuger quickly through the 
flame of the light. 

Faust. And do I burn myself ? Well then pass as quickly 
seven times through Hell, and do not burn thyself ! Thou art 
silent ! Thou lingerest ? Do devils also boast ? Indeed ! no sin 
is so small that you should slight it. — Second, what is thy name ? 


Second Spirit. Chil ; that is in your tiresome language M Arrow 
of plague." 

Faust. And how quick art thou ? 

Second Spirit. Doest thou think that I am but an empty 
name? As the arrows of plague. 

Faust. Well then go and try to serve a physician. Thou 
art too slow for me. Thou third one, what is thy name. 

Third Spirit. My name is Villa ; and I am carried on the 
wings of the wind. 

Faust. Thou fourth one ? 

Fourih Spirit. My name is Jutta ; and I travel on the beams 
of light. 

Faust. O you wretched ones — whose swiftness can be reckoned 
in definite numbers ! 

Fifth Spirit. They do not deserve thy wrath, they are Satan's 
messengers in a material world. We are of the spiritual World 
— thou wilt find us quicker. 

Faust. How quick art thou ? 

Fifth Spirit. As quick as human thoughts. 

Faust. That is something ! — But human thoughts are not 
always quick — not always, when truth and virtue require them. 
How slow they are then ! Thou canst be quick if thou wilt ; but 
who assures me that thou wilt always choose to be quick ? No, I 
shall trust thee as lifctle as I ought to have trusted my own seif, 
Helas! (to the sixth spirit) Teil me how quick thou art. 

Sixth Spirit. As quick as the revenger's revenge ! 

Faust. The revenger's ? which revenger's ? 

Sixth Spirit. Of that allpowerful, terrible One who kept re- 
venge for himself — for revenge is so gratifying. 

Faust. Devil! thou blasphemest! I see thou tremblest. 
Say quick as the revenge of — I was about to name hiin — no, bis 
name must not be pronounced amongst us — His revenge quick ? 
Swift his revenge ? And I still alive, and still sinning ! 

Sixth Spirit. Thy being aliowed to sin is already revenge ! 

Faust. And that a devil must teach me this ! To day, — No, 
no his revenge is not swift — and if thou art not quicker than his 
1 evenge — go — (to the seventh) How swift art thou ? — 

Seventh Spirit. Discontented raortal, if I too should not be 
swift enough for thee — 

Faust. Speak, how swift art thou ? 

xxvi PREFACE. 

Seventh Spir. t. Not quicker and not slower than the transition 
from good and evil ! 

Faust. Ha ! Thou art my devil ! As quick as the transition 
from good to evil! Yes! Indeed ! that is quick — there is nothing 
quicker tlian that ! Away from here, ye terrors of Hell ! Away ! 
Than the transition from good to evil ! I have experienced how 
quick this is — I have experienced. 

In addition to Lessing's sketch we possess two dramatic 
pieces on Faust by the celebrated painter, engraver, and 
poet, Frederic Müller, the first of which appeared 1776, 
at Mannheim, under the title „ (Situationen au$ gauft'3 
Seben;" the second „gaufrs geben" was published 1778. 
In these pieces, Faust is represented as a man of too 
gigantic genius to be content to tread the same path as 
ordinary men ; his breast is filled with hatred and con- 
tempt for everything a round him ; though capable of great 
love, an intense pride häs made him wearj of a world 
whose horizon limits his sight and whose " Matter" clogs 
the flight of histhoughts; he cannot brook the scanty 
knowledge which men can acquire on earth, and in his 
disgust he sells himself to the devil, who on witnessing 
his wretchedness sympathizes with him as a being more 
unhappy than his own accursed seif, The moral is that 
a desire for unlimited knowledge and power must cause 
our ruin, and we are impressively warned never to over- 
leap the boundaries of pious humility and contentment. 

Augustus Klingemann next attempted to write a 
tragedy on the same subject, and free from all allegorical 
or mystical allusions; but notwithstanding its great poetical 
merits, the drama has little or no interest in consequence 
of the rough blunt manner in which the scenes are 
written, and from the entire absence of all philosophical 

PREFACE. xxvii 

meaning ; it represents the deadly consequences of a Jite 
of licentiousness, as Faust is at the end carried off by the 

Far grander and wilder is Grabbe's „Sauft unb £)ott 
3fuatt." This unhappy author, in consequence of a habit 
of intemperance inherited from his mother, became, in 
spite of his wonderful abilities, the antitype of the two 
principal characters of his play ; he united in himself all 
the sensuality of Don Juan with the spiritualism of Faust. 
These two characters are painted in the most dazzling 
colours. Faust's burning thirst for knowledge is a kind 
of exaggeration of Goethe's picture, which it seems to have 
been Grabbe's aim to eclipse ; but Grabbe's poetry was 
likc his private life — aimless and hopeless ; there runs 
through the whole a vein of scepticism and materialism, 
the only effect of which is to shock and terrify the reader. 

We may next mention Byron's " Manfred," which has 
been said to bear some resemblance to Goethe's Faust ; 
but Manfred is rather a melancholy misanthrope than 
an audacious doubter ; dissatisfied with everything, he 
buries himself among the glaciers of the Alps in order 
to give himself up to boundless despair. 

We find in Manfred a blind fate, a sort of Nemesis, 
led on by which the hero is influenced, and which is 
said to be an imitation of Mephistopheles ; here, however, 
all similarity ceases. Manfred interests us only as far as 
the greatness of his sufferings calls forth our sympathy. 
Byron's poetry is grand, and the misery of Manfred is 
exquisitely described, but there is an immense difference 
between " Manfred " and " Faust ; " for Manfred's suffer- 
ings are merely those of one solitary fanciful individual 

xxviii PKEFACE. 

mau while in Faust we see Condensed all the sufferings 
errors, yearnings and delusions of Humanity itself. 
Manfred is the prototype of a romantic drama, but 
Goethe united all the elements of the ancient Greek 
tragedy into perfect harmony with the modern romantic 

Another highly interesting poem on the same subject 
is that by Lenau, undoubtedly one of the greatest Ger- 
man poets of our age, though an Hungarian by birth ; 
as lyric poet he is unsurpassed in depth and warmth 
of feeling, in beauty of expression, richness of simile, 
originality of metaphors and fluency of rhymes. Lenau, 
himself an unhappy and unsettled character, with a heart 
too great and too noble for the country in which he lived, 
and who was doomed to end his days in madness, wrote 
his Faust by painting his own desolate feelings and in- 
satiable yearnings after knowledge ; the hero resembles 
" Manfred " more than the " Faust " of Goethe ; he is dis- 
satisfied with the world, and, feeling utterly lonely, gives 
himself up to the Devil ; but he is represented as an ex- 
treme Idealist, everything is to him a mere delusion — 
all around him is a dream ; the Devil is a mere phantom ; 
grief, happiness, guilt, and the like are the creatures of 
an excited imagination. The impression left upon us 
by the poem is most painful, as in this conception the 
cheering element of trust, the last refuge against doubt, 
is never introduced ; the modern Hegelista, with his me- 
taphysical sophistry, is personified, ending his wretched 
sceptic existence by suicide, and boasting with his last 
breath of that unlimited freedom of his \ Ego,' which 
makes him Lord of himself — nay, of the Evil Spirit too ! 

PREFACE. xxix 

We may, as a finale, mention that a French writer 
lias lately exerted his powers on the same subject and 
has brouolit out a piece, which appeared on the Parisian 
stage towarda the closeof last year (1858). The author, 
however, being unable to enter into the philosophical and 
inoral meaning of the fable, has plundered Goethe of 
his ideas to murder them; Faust is turned into a Vol- 
tariian fop, Mephistopheles into a diabolical "commis 
voyageur," and the gentle, poetical Margaret into a sigh- 
ing, virtuous grisette. Unlike the English, who liave, 
as stated above, twenty-two translations of Faust (some 
of which, as Hay ward's, have reached a sixth edition), 
the French seem to take no great interest in the subject, 
as there exist but four noticeable translations in that lan- 
guage ; they are all, with the exception of that by Henry 
Blaze, of a very indifferent stamp. That by St. Aulaire 
is brilliant but not faithful; to anything he could not 
understand he gave his own arbitrary Interpretation . 
Stapfer's translation is so faithful as to be in many parts 
utterly incomprehensible, for, not understanding the idio- 
matic phrases, he has translated them literally, instead 
of by corresponding French expressions, thus rendering 
here and there whole passages totally unintelligible. As 
to Gerard's translation, its preface is the best portion of 
the work. 

By the ,/gauftfage/' whether as puppet-show, biographi- 
cal sketch, or in a dramatic form, in remote as well as in 
recent times, with all its allegories, mysteries and super- 
stitions, the object with the Germans has always been to 
discover and support truth ; and certainly this object has 
been best attained in the work before us. Goethe, though 


adherinn; closely to the original i le i of the Faust-tale, 
Iias included in his work not only thos? gsneral truths to 
which we have already referred in the earlier part of our 
preface, but also a faithful picture of his own times, when 
was commencing the reformation of German literature, 
its emancipation from a contemptible mimicry of tlie 
French, and the self-imposed oppression of an antiquated 
and un natural style. Lessing, who expelled the false 
idols of French literature from the temple of German 
poetry, was the father of Klopstock and Herder, and 
Luther was the child of the expiring days of chivalry 
and Ilomish credulity. In both instances we see super- 
stition, ignorance and progress mixed in the same cup: 
Tetzel and Luther, Kant and Lavater, Rousseau and 
Cagliostro, seemed to have combined to bewilder the 
world with their heterogeneous theories ; so that uncom- 
promising scepticism was marching side by side with the 
most childish belief in spectres and ghosts, charms and 
incantations. The presumption which leads men to ask 
questions far beyond their reach, and which must remain 
unanswered, and then to plunge into the grossest licen- 
tiousness because they do remain unanswered, the gradual 
development of truth from error, the overstrained en- 
deavours of the reason, and the coarse degradation of 
humanity, are all concentrated in the single character of 
Planst. He shows us plainly that the attempted analysis 
of our spiritual nature, the ruminating ov^er useless me- 
taphysical problems, and the pompous verbosity assumed 
by many to conceal their real ignorance, are the destruc- 
tion of science and a deathblow to knowledge. He hat es 
the empty formalities ot life, the jingle of words, and 

PKEFACE. xxxi 

the carieature of seien ce, — and to a certain extent he is 
right, — for human knowledgc is limited enough. But 
Faust goes further; he is discontented with his religion, 
with his God ; he has lost all faith in the truths of the 
Bible, and gives himself up, body and soul, to the powers 
of Hell, determined to enjoy the bodily pleasures of life, 
and to stifle the outcryings of his spiritual nature by 
sensuality. But human nature is twofold ; to eultivate 
one part exclusively and to disregard the other lead to 
crime against God and nature ; Faust' s character shows 
that it is only in a harmonious union of the two that we 
can discover the Solution of the great problem of human 

Goethe has more eloquently than any other poet excited 
humanity to solve the holy problem of' the universe, 
and to renew the bond which in the dawn of mankind 
united together philosophy, physics and poetry — he has 
drawn us with powerful attraction to that land, the home 
of his intellect, where knowledge rests on faith, and faith 
guides the whole life ! 

Throughout the following notes it has been our aim 
to justify and promote these general ideas, but we have 
endeavoured at the same time to explain each gram- 
matical or idiomatic difficulty; we have tried to point out 
the many hidden allusions with which the work abounds, 
and which render it at first sight obscure and unin- 
telligible ; sketches are given here and there ot German 
life in its different phases ; I have tried to draw the at- 
tention of the scholar to the meaning, origin and history 
of many a word — for " language is fossil history," and 
in one word we often find petrified the historical develop- 

xxxii PKEFACE. 

ment of ]ong-perished races, tribes with their half-for- 
gotten views, customs, &c. ; in short my intention has 
been to leave nothing unnoticed that might perplex tlie 
reader. I have also introduced, and briefly noticed 
several of Germany's poets and historians in the hope of 
drawing the attention of the scholar to these modern 
classics, a deeper study of which tends to cement that 
feeling of brotherhood between England and Germany 
by which alone we can hope to see established the uni- 
versal dominion of the Anglo-Saxon race, under which 
the celebrated brothers, Grimm, foresaw the universal 
spread of civilization. 

In the second part of " Faust " the spiritual nature of 
the hero regains its mastery over Ins rebellious passions, 
and we see him, after passing through a wild and ad- 
venturous life, entering at last into eternal peace. The 
allegories and philosophy of the second part are even 
finer, and its political allusions more interesting than 
those of the first; and we hope at some future day to be 
able to offer to the public this part of the poem in a form 
similar to the present. 

London, May, 1859. 

Dq 2£ra0ff4M 

erfter £l;etL 

g a u ft 

Ott einem $o<fyßen>ölbtcn, engen, <jctT)Hd?en ^imitier muut>t<j anf feinem 

©effel am ^ulte.) 

£>abc nun, ad; ! ^fy[(o|*tyfyte, 

3urifteret ' imb SDiebtctn, 

Unb, tetber ! and; £fyeo(ogte 

£>nrd;an3 ftnbtrt, mit feigem 33emülm. 

£)a fteb 1 id; nun, td? armer £l;or! 

Unb bin fo fing, als rote juöor; 2 

£)eijje 9Jiagifier, ^eige £)octor gar, 3 

Unb gtefye fd;on an bte je!;cn 3afyr> 

$evanf, fyerab, unb qner nnb frmnm, i 

1 Obsolete form of „3u8" —Law, 

2 Although " glutted now with learning's golden gifts," as 
Marlow says, and though he has studied with untiring fervour 
every subjeet, he has never feit satisfied, and believes himself 
"just as wise as before" — „bin fo fing, als tok snfcor." 

3 An allusion to the fact that Goethe was honoured by different 
Universities with the deorees of all the four fiiculties: viz. Phi- 
losophy, Law, Medicine and Theology. 

4 iZlner nnb Euraun, idiomatic. — Oner means literally, cross, 

oblique ; hnntm, crooked, curved, winding ; the corresponding 

translation would be ; up and down, to the right and to the left; 

that is : iie has guided Ins disciples on the cross and winding paths 

of sophistn. Filinore, in his metrieal translation of Faust, has 

" to and fro." 



teilte ©cfyüter an ber s J*afe fycram, * 
Unb fefye, ba§ toir nid;t£ tmffen lönnen ! 6 
£>a$ null mir fd)ter 7 baS <per3 Derbrennen. 
gtoar bin icfy gefdjeibter at$ alle bie Waffen, 
£>octoren, iWagifter, Treiber nnb Pfaffen ; 
<$lli&) plagen leine ©crnpel noefy %mz\\d, 
gürdjte mtety toeber üor S>ötte nod? Teufel. 
«Dafür ift mir and; alle grenfr' entnffen, 
S3ilbe mir nietyt ein, »aS 9ied?t£ jn troffen, 
23ilbe mir nicfyt ein, \&) lönnte tt>a§ lehren, 
*X>te 5Dtafd?en 31t beffern nnb jtt belehren. 
3lud> l)ab r id? lieber ©ut nod; ©etb, 
%d? Grfyr' nnb £errlid;leit ber Seit ; 
(5g mM;te lein *pnnb f o länger leben ! 
üDrum t)ab' td; mid? ber 9Jtogie ergeben, 10 
Ob mir bnreb ©eifteS Straft nnb UTtnnb 

» 8 

5 2tn ber ifeafe fyerum3tel}en, to lead by the nose ; used also in Ger- 
man for, to cheat, to mock, to laugh at; here more in the sense 
of the same English phrase : " to ]ead or mislead one, whose 
opinions are entirely subjeet to oifr own." 

6 Confessing, what great inen always have confessed, that 
the deeper they plunge into learning, the more they feel their 


7 ©djter, nearly, from fiteren, fcfyneu', quickly. @$ter 2)itf;, is 
used in some parts of Germany for — make haste. 

8 ©djreifcer, lit. writer, clerk, means here students of Theology, 
corresponding with the English legal name fora clergyman ; from 
the Gr. K\ripue6s, Lat. " clericus." — Raffen, from the Lower 
Srtxon "Pape," Anglo-Saxon "papa," Wallone " pope," Gr. 
TraTTTras, Lat. "papa" — lit. priest, used in German contemptuously 
of such priests as care only for their own interests. 

9 Faust is overcome by despair, because he has missed the 
comfort of religion. 

10 This is the reason of bis having devoted himself to the 
study of Magic ; to learn from ghosts and spirits, by unnatural 
means, what he has failed to discover in the usual course of study, 
and on the humble path of religion. 


yiityt ntand) ®et)etttrai§ " tofirbe firab, 
Dag td; mit mer)r, mit fanrem 5d>nxi[;, 
3it fagcn brande, roaS tcr) nid;t meig, 
Dag idr) erfetme, loa8 He SQSett 
3m 3mterften jufamtnenfyält, 
@$au' atfe SöittenSfraft imb ©amen, 
Unb tr)u' nid;t met)t in Porten framen. w 

O feibft ©u, voller 9Jionbcnfd;cin ! 
3um testen y ))lai auf meine ^etn, 
5Den td; fo mand;e Mitternacht 
5ln biefem *ßult fyerattgett>adt)t ! 13 
Tann über 33ud)cr nnb Rapier, 
^riibfeFger grennb ! erfdnenft bit mir. 
91 d) ! formt' idj bodj auf ^ercjeSbötym 
3n beinern lieben 8t<fyte geiw, 
Um 33erge$r)öt)le mit ©etfterti fcfytöckn, 
&uf SBiefcn m beinern Kammer mcben, 
23on Willem SßiffenSquafot enilaben, 
3n beinern £fyan gefimb mid; baben ! M 

11 The mysteries of creation, or the secret working of nature 
— an allusiou to certain philosopiicrs and metaphysicians of whom 
the proverb says : „@te Ijörert bct§ @ra§ warfen," or aecording to 
the English adage, " they make mountains of mole-hills." 

12 2Sttten8fraft — the power, the force of will, ©amen, the seed, 
in an alchemical sense, the elementary matter from which every- 
thing is formed. — 3?n ^Sorten trennen, to traffic with words, in order 
to hide one's ignorance. 

13 Speranflettxtctit, though a subjeetive intransitive verb, is usecl 
here in a transitive sense. 5)en 9J?onb fyeranrcadjen means, to 
watch the moon on, that is, as it were to bring her on by watcli- 
ing. A fanciful idea as if the moon hurried on, because the 
watcher was getting impatient. 

14 The moonlight Streaming throngh the narrow gothic Win- 
dows of his gloomily vaulted study, excites in him the desire tc 
leave his dry books, to throw himself into the arms of gentle 
nature, and to dwell on the mountains with the elementary spirits 
of air, which, aecording to the superstitious belief of those times, 


SBeb' ! ftecf \ä) in bem Steifer nocfy ? 
SßerflucfyteS, bumpfe« SJtouertod?, 
2öo felbft ba3 liebe ^nmmeteitcfyt n 
grub' bnrcfy gematte Reiben bricht ! 
Sßeftyränft mit btefem 23ütyer^auf, 
£)en SSürmer nagen, (gtaub bebecft, 
£)en biö an« fyofye ©ettclb' hinauf, 
(gin angerauht Rapier nmftedt ; 
Wt ©l&fent, Söütyfen ring« tratftettt, 
Sfttt 3nftrnmenten fcoflgepfropft,. 
toäter §an«ratfy bretn geftopft— 
£)aS ift beine Söelt ! ba3 fyet$ eine SSBelt ! 

Unb fvagft bn nocfy, ttantm bein £erj 
(gicfy bang in beinern Jßufeti Hemmt, 
Sarnm ein nnerüärter @d?mei*ä 
£)te alte £ebenSregnng tyemmt ? 
(Statt ber tebenbigen s Jktnr, 
£a ©ott bie Stoffen fdmf hinein, 
llmgiebt in föaucfy unb ifiober mir. 
£)tcfy £t)iergertyp' nnb £octenbein ! 15 

güefy ! Inf ! £htau8 in« weite £anb ! 
Unb'bicj? geheimnisvolle 33ncfy, 

rose just at the moment when the moon was füll. Füll moon, as 
possessin«' magic power, was considered in the Middle Ages as the 
proper time for conjuration, digging for treasures, or searching 
for enchanted roots. 

15 By §ttnmeMidjt (heaven's light), the _,snn is understood. 
Ovid calls the sun, the eye of the world — mundi oculus; Pliny 

the soul: huhc mundi esse totius animum; Milton combiues 

the two ideas : 

" Thou Sun, of this great world both eye and soul ! " 

16 These lines must be considered as a beautiful description of 
the little world— his study — in which he lives, as it really sur- 
rounds him, and of that higher world which in his phantastic 
Imagination, he wishes to attJn. 


SBott StoftrabamuS 17 eigner £aub, * 
Oft btr e$ ntd;t ©eleu genug? 
Srfenneft bann ber Sterne Sauf, 
Unb wenn s 3£atur ^Dtd> unternxift, 
Tann gebt bte ©celenfraft btr auf, 
2Bte fprtd;t ein ©eift jum anbem ©eift. 
Umfonft, baß troefneö ©innen fyier 
£)ie beilegen $ciü)en btr erftart : 
3fyr fcfyicebt, ifyr ©etfter, neben mir ; 
9fatroortet mir, toenn tfyr mid; bort ! 

Qv fdfjtä^t baS 33ud) auf unb erbtteft ba8 3etcJ;en be3 27tof rofoSmoS; 18 
Jpa ! SMtye Sßonne fliegt in btefem 23lt<f 
2Iuf einnal mir burd; alle meine ©innen ! 19 
Od; fii^te iun.qeö, fyeil'geS Sebenögtitd 

17 Michel de Nötre-Dame, called Nostradamus, aecording to 
the custom which prevailed in the Middle Ages of giving every 
narae a Latin termination. Nostradamus was born at St. ßemy, 
in Provence, December 14, 1503, and died at Salon, July 2, 
1566. He was of Jewish origin, and celebrated as an as- 
trologer and a physician. He published a collection of prophecies 
in 1555 in rhyming quatrains underthe title of : "Les prophecies 
de Michel Nostradamus." The MS. alluded to in the text is a 
magico-cabbalistic book, the " Aurea Catena Plomeri," which 
Goethe studied at Frankfort, in which is taught the existence of 
a seci et connection running through all nature ; a connection, no 
longer a secret to those who study Natural Philosophy, as they 
everywhere observe a gradual, scarcely perceptible transition froni 
one phase or kingdom in nature to another. Many of the pro- 
phecies of Nostradamus have been fulfilled ; but we must remember 
that p?'op Tiecies at those times included all mathematical or as- 
tronomical calculations, aud even political combinations ; their 
fulfilment, as also the extreme clepth of Nostradamus' learning, 
as evinced by these " Prophecies " has been fully shown in the 
"Etudes sur le seizieme siecle en France" of Philaretes Chäsles, 
a learned French critic. 

18 The sign of the Universe, from the Greek nanpos, great, and 
ko(tij.6s world. 

19 No longer used'with „m" in the plural. This shows that 
the first monologue was written before 1789. 


^englüfyenb mir bnrd; 9>to' unb Slbern rinnen. 

Söar e$ ein ©Ott, ber biefe 3etd?en fd;rieb, 

£>te mir ba3 inn're £oben füllen, 

£>a£ arme £)er$ mit grenbe füllen, 

Unb mit gefjeimmßü ollem Xrieb, 

£)ie Gräfte ber %*tnr ringö um mid; fyer entluden ? 20 

20 In the old cabbalistic books (see Note 448) every idea and 
doctrine had its own peculiar sign. It rnay be intercsting, to 
know, what these cabbalistic ideas of tbe secret powers of nature 
were. As an illustration we give some brief extracts from a work 
published under the title " Heptaplus," by John Pico di Miran- 
dola* (1463 — 1494) as a mystic and cabbalistical Interpretation 
of the history of creation, the principle object of which is to re- 
concile Plato with the Mosaic account. " There are, undoubted- 
' k ly three different worlds ; the bodily world, the heavenly world 
" and the super-heavenly world, this latter comprising the intel- 
" lectual world, or as Theologians call it : the angehe world. 
u These three worlds form One, not only because they have One 
"originator (creator), but also because they have One ahn. Any- 
" thing existing in the inferior world, exists also in greater per- 
" fection in the higher one. Thus, what in our world is elementary 
" heat,is in the heavenly world heating power, and in the intellectual 
" world the abstract idea of heat ; therefore in our world elemen- 
ie tary fire only exists ; in the heavenly world this flre is ethereal : 
" — the Sun — and in the super-heavenly world the same element 
ei becomes seraphic fire or pure intellect (ratio, raison, reason, 
" $erftcmb) ; the elementary fire bums, the heavenly fire animates, 

* Giovanni Pico of Mirandola was born in 1463, and was the youngest son of a petty 
Prince cf Concordia and Mirandola, by a danghter ef the house of Boiardo, the poet. 
He was sent, when only fourteen, to study common law at Bologna, and actually ob- 
tained the rank of a prothonotary Apostolic. But after two years, tlie burning thü-st 
for knowledge drove him out into foreign Lands, to study tlie mechanical dialecta of 
Lully at Paris, or to write fluent Latin under Baptista Mantuanus. After seven years 
of restless study, Pico tumed his steps towords Borne, and proclaimed a tournament of 
learning, such as the world has never agaiu witnessed. An unrivalled master of dialec- 
tics, he had extracted four hundred theses from the Neo-Platonistß, the writers on 
Magic, and the Tahnudists; to these he added five hundred of his own creation, and 
proposed to defend tliem against all comers : and in true knightly style, he added thal 
he would defray all the exi^enses of those who aeeepted the challenge. At the age ol 
twenty-eight, Pico determined to withdraw from the world. But the student's mode of 
life never seems to have varieJ. Twelve hours of the day were spent in reading and 
wi-iting; the Cabbala had been laid aside for the Bible; the old dialectics wer 
used — Pico hadlearned to regard themas learned triflings; and heonlysoughtto finish 
the great works of his life, a Harmony of Aristotle and Plato, a Commentary on tlie 
Bible, and a Defence of the Faith. Always keeping up a liberal hospitality, Pico liad 
practised in secret the most rigid austerities; and an attack of fever, in 1494, found a 
frame unable to resist disease, and carried him oft" in the space of a few days. (See for 
further details an excellent articie on Pico of Mirandola in tlie " Saturday Beview," 
November 6, 1858, page 451.) 


öttl id; ein ®ott ! Wx totrb fo (icfyt 

•• and the scrapliic fire — is love. Again, therc is water on carth, 
M water in heaven, water above the heaven. Water on earth ex- 
" tinguishes the heat of life ; the hcavenly water produces and 
" nourishes it, and the seraphic water — coneeives it. In the 
u first world, the Highest one — God is the supreme Unity, motion- 
" less himself, all things move towards him ; in the middle world 
M the empyrean, the Sun forms that unity; motionless itself, all v 
" other bodies move round it ; in the elementary world Matter is 
" the fundamental substance surrounded by nine circles of tran- 
" sitory things; three of which are lifeless — the elements; three 
" — unfinished ; three Irving, as : trees, bushes, plants, animals. 
" These three worlds form the ' Macrocosm/ Besides them 
" there is a fourth, includino- evervthino: that the three others 
" contain, the 'Microcosm' — MAN. In him is to be found a 
" body formed of all the elements, a heavenly spirit, the vivifying 
" power of plants, the feeling of an unconscious soul and lastly, 
"reason as the angehe soul, that is — God's likeness." 

The Cabbala on the other hand teaches : that four worlds ema- 
nated from the Divinity as the source of all things ; the first pure 
emanation was the world called Aziluth — a word then used to 
designate God's most spiritual produetions, (bie geifttgfte %xt ber 
göttüdjen ^robultion) — which is unchangeable in itself; thesecond 
world called Briah which changes ; the third JeziraJi ( Jehxirah, 
Jesrahia, Jesraja, meaning : 2)er @d)ein be§ §errn, the Lord's 
lustre, that is, the Lord's shining, the Lord's splendour) — was 
formed by degrees, and contains the souls of the stars, and all pure 
spirits; the fourth AsiaJi was considered as the elementary world. 
—The deeper the pure light descends, the more it loses of its 
spiritual power, the thicker it becomes, tili it is at last embodied. 
The higher world influences the next inferior, and this again 
aspires to the higher one. 

The " Cabbala denudata, seu doctrina Hebraeorum Transcen- 
dentalis et Metaphisica" (1677) gives the secret doctrine of the 
Cabbalists on the creation of the world in the following terms : 

" Totum mumdum materialem in primsevo suo statu aut dia- 
phanum fuisse aut lucidum hoc est, in soles, transparentesque 
ccelos, iEthereosve Vortices fuisse distributum. 

" Duo quasi esse prseeipua mundi materialis elementa. Ma- 
turale alterum, alterum Divinum. 

" Spiritum Natura — Sandalphonem appellant Cabbalistse. 


Gcfy fd;cm' in biefen reinen Sügen 

£)ie roirfenbe s Jtotur cor meiner Seele liegen. 2 ' 

3el3t erft erfenn' idj \va% ber 2Seife fprid>t : 

„£)te ©eiftertoett ift nid;t oerfd?! offen ; 

©ein ©inn ift $11, betn £er$ ift tobt ; 

2iuf ! Babe ©cfyüler, nnoerbroffen, 

£)ie irb'fdje SBruft im SDtagenrotl) ! 


" Elementum Divinum — Ezechiclis, sive Mercavam. 

" Solem in uno quoque vortice et Meaium esse et Irmim, sive 

M In quatuor insequales partes dividi posse Vorticem quatuor- 
que inde fingi Mundos, sive Orbes, eorumque suprernum vocari 
Aziluthicum, alterum Briathicum, tertium Jezirathicurn, et ulti- 
mum denique Asiaihicuw. 

" Orbis sive Munclus Aziluthicus extendatur ab margine Vor- 
ticis Solis ad Orbitam Saturni. 

" Briathicus ab Orbita Saturni ad Orbitam Martis. 

" Jezirathicus ab Orbita Martis ad orbitam Mercurii. 

" Asiathicus ab Orbita Mercurii ad corpus solis jam frigescentis. 

" Duplicem enim Parmenides posuit, et calidum et frigidum 
Solem, qui primo Corneta factus mox Planeta fit seu Terra" 

"Wagner in his celebrated " People's Book" (Soiföluid;) speaks 
of six different worlds comprised in the " Macrocosmos." Man 
forms, according to his doctrine, the fifth world, or the " Micro - 
cosmos." — Many interesting passages concerning the above 
mentioned worlds are to be found in Agrippa's well-known work 
" De occulta Philosophia," a book which Goethe appears to have 
studied thoroughlj. 

21 Faust fancies, he has discovered the connecting link between 
the elementary and intellectual world. 

2i 2ftorgertrotfy, morning dawn, Stands for the whole of nature. 
The more we make ourselves acquaintcd with nature, the more 
capable does our heart become of appreciating the greatness of its 
Creator. The word (gd)ütcr, by which Faust addresscs himself, is 
used in a sense taken from cabbalistic works, the writersof v>hich 
addressed their readers as their disciples or sons. Although it is 
denied by the celebrated Düntzer in his work on Faust, that the 
last lines are a rhythmical condensation of Nostradamub' preface 
to his son Ca3sar, ihe sign of quotation shows, that Goethe has 
quoted from some author, and as Nostradamus addresses his son 


(5r behaut ba3 3^$ cn - 
Sie affeS fiel; $ura ©anjen triebt, 
(§ht$ tu bciii anbem tuirft unb lebt ! 
2öte ftttttmeisfräfte auf * unb ttteberftetgen 
Unb fid; bie golbnett Cnmer reichen, 
SWit fegenbuftettbett ©dringen 
Statt $imtttet burd; bte (Srbe bringen, 
^armonifd; all ba$ s 2Ul burd;ftmgett ! 



Seid? ©cfyaufptet ! aber ad; ! ein ©cfyaufptcl mir 

So faff M \d) bid;, unenblid;e Sfathtr? 

Cht;l;, Prüfte, rco ? 3fyr Quellen altes SeoenS, 

3ln benen £>immel unb (Srbe t^ängt, 

SDafyttt bie toetfe SBntft fiel; bvctiigt— 

3f;r quellt, tfyr tränlt, unb f efytnacfyt' tety f o bergebenS ? 25 

in a similar strain, there is no reason against onr aeeepting the 
above lines as taken from Nostradamus. 

23 Scarcely ever has been described more powerfully and gra- 
phically the continual motion of nature's forces. These lines show 
us, how our intellectual powers are constantly acting upon the 
elementary or carthly substances within us, and how a union of 
the two produces a longing towards the infinite. 

The words „unb ftcfy bte golbnen (Simer retten" are an allusion to 
the creed of the Manichseans (the followers or disciples of Mani 
or Manicheus, who founded a religions sect that flourished in the 
third Century after Christ), who believed that the souls of the 
dead are retaken in golden vessels through the moon to the eternal 
light, — the Sun, whence they had emanated. 

21 Raffen, to seize, here to understand ; exactly like the English 
" grasp ; " — fcujüd), intelligible, goffimgSlraft, the iritellect or 
power of understanding. 

5 These lines, often objeeted to as unpoetical, must be con- 
sidered as personifying nature. In the bold figure of heaven and 
earth hanging on Nature's bosom, like a child on its mother's 
breast, there is nothing common place. Eesides its metaphorical 
beauty, this pa-sage also contains the confession, that all he sees 
is still incomprehensible to him, as his limited intellect is too weak 
to understand the real source of nature, 


(Sr fdjläflt untotttio, ba8 ©u$ um, unb erMtat baö B e ^^ n fce ß C?rba,eifle8. * 3 

2öie anberS tüirft bie$ &\d}tn auf micfy ein ! 

£)u, ©eift ber (*rbe, bift mir näfyer ; 

©c^on füfyP idj meine Gräfte fyöfyer, 

©cfyon glitt)' tcfy tote Don neuem 2Bein ; 

3cfy füfyle 9Jhitfy, mtcfy in bie SBelt ju tuagen, 

£)er (Srbe 2Befy, ber (Srbe ©lue! in tragen, 

W\t ©türmen miety fyer um juf dalagen, 

Unb in be$ <Scbiffbrud;8 $ nirfcfyen nid;t gu jagen. 

@3 toötft fid? über mir— 

£)er SOtab verbirgt fein &ctyt — 

£)ie ?ampe fd?ttunbet ! — 

(SS bampft!— (5« gueten rctfye (Strahlen 

Wix um ba$ Jpaupt!— (58 toebt 

(Sin ©cfyauer com ©eü)ölb ? fyerab, 

Unb faßt mid? an ! 

3d? füfyl% bu fd;toebft um miefy, erflehter ©eift! 

(Sntfyülle bicJM 

§a! U)ie'8 in meinem ^er^en reifet ! 

j}u neuen ©efüfylen 

Slir meine @imte fieb eüoüfylen ! 

3cb füt)le gattj mein §er§ bir Eingegeben ! 

Tju mußt ! bu mußt ! unb loftet' es mein £eben ! 

(Sr faßt baö 33ud) unb fandet bo§ 3etd)en be§ ©eifteS cjeljeimnißtootf aus. 
(S$ jud't eine röu)lt$e flamme, ber © e i ft erfdjeint m ber gfomme. - 7 


SBer ruft mir ? 

20 (Srbgeift — the spirit of earth. Archeus — an obscure term used 
chiefly among ancient chemists, to express some oecult principle 
of life, or the cause of all the effects which vve observe in nature ; 
derived from apxn-, principle ; it is also used in the sense of the 
spirit of this elementary world. Accordingto Paracelsus — Archeus 
is that power, which separates the elements andformsandchanges 
them into the various forms they assume. Faust inust feel him- 
self more at ease on looking upon this sign. 

27 The spirit conjured by Faust is supposed to appear in a red- 
dish flame ; flames being always considered as emblems of earthhj 


g a U ft (abgeweubct). 
^d>rccfUd;cö ©efid;t? 

& e i ft. 
S)u fyaft inid) mäd;tig angejogeir, 
2ln meiner ©pljäre laug gefogeu, 
Unb nun— 

SÖefy ; td) ertrag' btd; nid;t ! 

© e i ft. 
Du fielet erattjmenb mid; 51t fdjauen, 
SNeine ©timtne 51t fyören, mein ^liitülj 51t fel;cu ; 
Wid) neigt beiit mächtig (geelenflefyn, 
3>a bin id;!— 2öetd) erbärmlid; ©rauen 
gaßt Uebcrmenf d;eu 28 biet) ! 2öo ift ber Seele Wuf ? 
Söo ift bie ©ruft, bie eine Söelt in fid) erfd;uf ? 
Uub trug unb t)egte, bie mit greubebeben 
Crrfcfytt>olI, fiel; un$, ben ©eifteru, gtetcl) tu lieben ? 
8Ö0 btft bu, gauft, bej} (Stimme mir erftang, 
£cr fid; an mid; mit alten Gräften brang ? 
SBift bu ?3, ber, t>on meinem §aud) umwittert, 
3u a((en ^ebenStiefen gittert, 
(Ein furd;tfam meggefrümmter Sßurm ! 

^oü id) bir, gtammenbilbung meiden ? 
3d? bin'3, bin gauft, bin beineS ©(eid;cn ? 


3n MenSflutfyeu, im £batenfturm 

Sßatr id) auf unb ab, 

SSebe fyin unb t)er ! 

©eburt unb ©rab, 

Orin cu)ige$ 9Jteer, 

(Sin wcd?felnb Soeben, 

(Sin glül)enb &ben, 

23 " Uppennan," supernatural man, one whose ideas are capable 
of higher flight than those of ordinarj men. 


(So fcfyaff icfy am faufenben Söebftutyt ber £?\t, 
Unb tütrfe ber ©ottfyett lebenbigeS Ätetb. 

©er bu bte wette 2Be(t umjd>n>eifft, 
©efctyä'fttger ©eift, tüte nafy füi)C ich mid? btr ! 

£)n gleicht bcm ©etft, ben btt begveifft, 
^ichtmir! 30 


g a U ft (sufammenftüräenb). 
Sßem benn ? 
3ty, ©benbitb ber ©ottyett! 

Unb ntd;t einmal btr! 31 

@§ fropft. 
SD £ob ! — icb femr 8 — ba$ tft mein gamulnS ! 2 

29 In floods of life, in storms of deeds 
I wand er up and down, 
I weave hither and thither, * 
Birth and grave, 
An eternal ocean, 
A changing weaving, 
A glowing life — 

Thus I ereate on the rattling loom of time, 
And work the living garments of God ! 

There is scarcely anjthing to be compared with these few lines 
of Goethe in modern poetry, not only for brevity of expression, 
and purity of versification, but also for intensity of meaning. 
Nature in its eternal changes creates only the outward forms of 
Divinity, but not Divinity itself. Thus the visible creation re- 
presents, as it were, the garments of Divinity, which in itself must 
reniain invisible to our earthly eye. 

30 Man is man, and nothing eise, he cannot rise above his hu- 
man nature. The secret working of nature must »-emaiii for ever 
an incomprehensible riddle to hiui. 

31 Ashamed of his pride and conceit, Faust breaks down under 
the consciousness of his failing. 

32 By this title were distinguished all tliose eldcr students in 
the Universities who had been intrusted with the special atten- 

* That is : now to produce, now to destroy. 


($6 totrb mein fdbönftcS ©lud ju ntd)tc ! 

Dag biefe ptfe ber ©eftetyte 

SDer troefne ©djletctyer 18 ftürett muß! 

$5agner, im Sddlafrodc unb bev ^acOtmuiic, eilte 2ampe in bev £>anb. 
i^auft »enbet fiefy unroiuifl. :il 


523er^etfyt, ttfy fyör' eud; beetamiren ; 

3fyr Capt gewiß ein griefyfd; Xrauerfptel ? 35 

dance on the person of a Professor; they had to copy the MSS. 
of their learned master, to collect fees, to take down the names 
of the students, and to superintend the classes, for which Services 
they enjoyed free board and lodging in the house of the professor. 
— Famulus Wagner is the personification of pedantry, of that 
book-learning that deals only in words, in sentences, in gram- 
matical subtil ities, without ever penetrating into the spirit of the 

33 3)er tredne &ü)U\d)& t the groveller unconscious of his higher 
human dignity, wanting in Inspiration' for anything better, an au- 
tomaton looking out at his ease for his own profit. 

This first monologue of Faust is füll not only of poetical beauty, 
but also of truth. There is no man of intellect who has not feit 
in a greater or less degree all the despair by which Faust's soul 
is tormented in his yearning to penetrate the mysteries of nature. 
The natural philosopher seeking on the heights of the Antilles 
and in the depths of the earth to discover its age, by means of 
strata, and the different formations of coals, clay, &c. ; the astro- 
nomer calculating the course of some mysterious star ; the poet 
living in the empiie of thoughts; the investigator of ocean : s 
hidden paths ; the analytical chemist surrounded by his retorts — 
must one and all have feit in certain hours like Faust. $ay ! even 
those, who have devoted themselves to branches of science more 
tangible and apparently less abstruse, must have ehared with 
.Faust the same feelings of hopelessness, and have been humbled 
by the same despair. Men may alvvays find in reiigion, in the 
confiding trust in an Almighty Being a clear Solution to their in- 
quiries, and avoid the risk of falling a prey to the demon of doubt. 

34 In Wagner's dressing gown, night-cap and lamp we see be- 
fore us ernblematically the dry pedant. 

35 A Greek tragedy seems to him all that could disturb the 
night's rest of a learned man, and in that tragedy not the horrors 


3n biefer ftunft möctyt' icfy n>aö profittren ; 

SDemt fyeut $11 £age roirft ba£ oiel. 

3cfy J;ab' e3 öfter« rühmen fyören, 

(Sin Üomöbtant lönnt' einen Pfarrer lehren. ?6 

3a r toenn ber Pfarrer ein Sfomöbiant ift ; 37 
2Bie ba3 benn u>ol)t $u fetten kommen mag. 

233 a g n e r. 
%&) ! tuenn man fe in fein SUtafeum gebannt ift, 
llnb fielet bie SDSelt faum einen geiertag, 
ftaum burefy ein gerngtaS, nur t>on weiten, 
2£ie f oll man fie burcl; Ueberrebung leiten ? 38 

Sa« ft 
Senn ifyr'3 nifyt fiil>tt, ifyr werbet'« nicfyt erjagen, 
Söenn e£ nid)t aus ber ©eele bringt, 
Unb mit urfräfttgem 35el)agen 
£)ie Sperren aller §örer jimngt. 39 

of an inexorable fate, driving men to unnatural crimes, but the 
difficulties of a declension or a conjugation, the critical use of a 
subjunetive or Optative mood, the mode of scanning a doubtful 

36 That is, to teach him, how to profess feelings when there are 
none in his breast ; how to feign belief, when there is no faith 
in his bosom ; in one word, how to play the hypoerite successfully. 
Wagner, who is not inspired by any higher thoughts, wislies at 
least to know, how to become a teacher of words — of great, sound- 
ing words. 

37 That is : if the preacher does not believe what he teaches, 
he is nothing but a comedian. 

38 Here Wagner hnmbly confesses, how difficult it is for us to 
govern mankind by mere persnasion, whilst we look on the world 
from our studies, and see it only at a distance as through a teles- 

39 If there is no higher inspiration, you will never learn to move 
the hearts of your hearers. „Söa8 nidjt toom £erjen fömmt, bringt 
ntdjt inxvi §erjen," — "what does not come from your own heart, 
does not touch another's heart" — says the German adage ; that 
is, if we are not ourselves convinced we never can convince others. 



Sifct \\)x nur immer, leimt jufammen, 
SBraut ein Ragout uon anbrer ©dmtauö, 
Unb Haft bte füinmerlicfyen Stammen 
SluS eurem ?lid;eufyäurd;en 'rauä ! 41 
SBenmnb'rung oon Ämfcern unb ^Xffcn, 
2öenn euefy 42 barnad? ber (Daumen ftefyt ; 
£)o# werbet ity nie £er$ 31t £)eqen (d^affen, 
Söenn eö eud; ntcfyt »ort §crjen gefyt. 

20 a g n e r. 
Ktfetn ber Vortrag 43 mad;t beS töebner« ©tuet; 
3cty ffi$F e$ tr>oW, nod; bin td? meit juriict. 

Sau ft. 
'Sud)' (£r ben reblid?en ©eunmt ! 
<2et <5r fein fcfyellentauter H £fyor! 

40 What a deep Satire is contained in these few lines. Meu 
who gather the ideas of others, to cook, as Faust says, a stew from 
them, or who endeavour to shine only with borrowed flames of In- 
spiration, can never persuade. 

41 2lfdjenfyäufdjen, our body — lit. a little heap of cinders ; as in 
the words: "ashes to ashes." 5lfdje, obsolete for dust; a dusty 
ground is still called in many parts of Germany 5t[$e— afdjic&t. 
The word itself is derived from the Greek d£a — dust ; in Notker 
and Ottfried we find Ascu, and Asgu. Gothic : Azgo, Anglo- 
Saxon, Acse, English, Ashes, Swed: Aska. This word oecurs 
also in the follovving idiomatic expressions : (53 glimmt Reiter unter 
ber %\§t — there is some danger ; 3m @acf unb ber 2If$e Sttfce t(um 
— to be sorrowful — to mourn — to be grieved — referring to the 
Jewish custom, pouring ashes 011 their heads when iu great dis- 
tress. Ungebrannte 2i|$e means a stick ; — in the comic style, 
^emanbeu mit ungebrannter 2lfd)e beftreuen — is to beat somebody. 

42 By addressing Wagner here in the second person plural, 
Faust addresses in him all those, who, incapable of all deeper 
feeling, are mere "every-day-men." 

43 The delivery, the diction is all that he cares for. 

44 2>ie &ü)tUt, the little bell ; fdjettenlaut, noisy like the jingiing 
of a foolscap. An allusion to the words of the Apostle : " Though 
I speak with the tongues of meu and of angels, and have not 
charity, I am become as sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal" 
(the German version reads " Utile he\V\ 


£3 trägt Sßerftanb unb rechter @itm 

yjttt toentg ftunft fid; felber cor ; 

Unb iüenn'S eud? (Srnft ift was ju fagcn, 

3ft'8 nötfyig Porten nad^ujagen ? 

3a, eure s J\eben, bie fo btinfeub finb, 

3n benen il)r ber Wten\öfyt\t Sktynifeel träufelt, 

<2>mb unerqutdticfy, tüte ber 9ßebehüinb, 

!£er fyerbftlid; burd? bie bürren Blätter f äufett ! 4& 

2ß a g n e r. 
9id; ©ott! bie ftunft ift lang, 
Unb furj ift nnfer geben. 46 
5Dtir toirb bei meinem fritifcfyen Söeftreben 
£ocfy oft um Stopf unb 33ufen bang. 
3Bte fdjioer finb nicfyt bie 9Jitttel ju erroerben, 
SDurcfy bie man ju ben Citeüen fteigt ! 
Unb itf man nur ben falben 2öeg erreicht, 
2Huß toofyl ein armer Teufel fterben. i7 

£>a$ Pergament, " 8 ift ba8 ber fyeil'ge 33ronnen, 

45 He adviscs Wagner, to use his own reason ; this, he says, 
does not require any Ornament, but readily adapts itself to any 
style and can always express itself clearly ; he then points out the 
" errors of the word-makers " and compares their florid Speeches 
to shreds of paper in which they twist humanity, and again, to 
a cheerless, damp wind blowing through dry autumnal leavcs. — 
£>ert>fi— autumn, fyerBftlidj, autumnal. 

46 „Sang ift bie Äitnft — furg ift ba§ ?eben" one of those epigram- 
matical observations in which Goethe is so rieh and slriking — its 
meaning is : that the brevity of man's life never allows him to 
become perfect in any branch of science or art. 

t7 Wagner realises only the outward difficulties of study, the 
grammatical knowledge, which is so difficult to obtain. Sie 
äftittet, refers to the necessity of acquiring the language, before 
any real use can be made of the original authors : bie Duetten. 

48 Faust expresses his utter contempt for crifical and historicai 
commentaries, as, by their dry treatment of the living bouk of 
history, those matters a v e frequently made most prominent which 
are in roality of only secondary importance. Faust knew that 
there is a logic in events as well as in reasoning. 


SBorctuö'cm STrunl bett SDurfl auf etotg füllt ? 
(Srqukfung l?aft bu 49 nid;t gewonnen, 

ÜBetltl fic btr nid;t ans eigner Seele quillt. 

SBerget^t! cß ift ein groß Grrgefcen/ 50 

<5id) in ben ©eift ber Reiten ju &crfcfccn, 

3u flauen, voie oor im$ ein lueifer ÖJiann gebaut, 

Hub totr nnr'8 bann jitle^t fo fyentid; weit gebracht. 

O ja, biß an bie Sterne weit ! 
äRetn greunb, bie Reiten ber Vergangenheit 
Sinb unö ein 33ud; mit fiebert Siegeln ; 51 
28aS iljr ben ©eift ber Reiten Ijetft, 
!£a$ ift im ©runb ber Ferren eigner ©eift, 
3n bem bie 3^iten ftd? befpiegeln. 52 
Ta iff e benn 53 tr-afyrtict) oft ein Sammer ! 

49 The 2) u is here taken in a general sense, aa the two last lincs 
are a o-eneral Observation rather than an address to Wajnicr in- 

50 Or ©rgö^en — an amusement. 

01 An allusion to Eevel. V. 1-3. 

" And I saw on the right band of him tliat sat on the throne 
a hook written within and on the back side, sealed with seven seals. 

" And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with aloud voiee, who 
is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof. 

il And no man in heaven, nor in earth, ueither under the earth, 
was able to open the book, neither to look thereon." 

52 Faust breaks out into bitter satire as he thinks how his- 
torians sulstitute their own narrow thoughts for the spirit of by- 
gone times, and how apt they are to lay down their own biassed 
views as historical facts. Goethe aimed in these lines more par- 
ticularly at the well- known historian Luden. Are not bis words 
applicable to inany modern writers ? 

53 Samt is found in the old editions, and agrees better with the 
general sense of the speech, as this exclamation should simply be 
united by a copulative conjunetion to the preceding sentences. 
£)emt, as a causal conjunetion, would imply a conclusion from ar- 


Wlan läuft eitcfy, bei bem crftenSBlid babom 
Grin Äefyrtcfytf a£ 51 unb eine ^umpelfammer, 55 
Unb fyödjfteuö eine §am>t* unb ©taatöactton, * 
SDtit trefflichen bragmattf d;en 57 üDtopmen/ 
95Me fte ben flippen ttor/1 im SJtonbe fernen ! 

20 a g n e r. 
allein bie SSBelt ! beö Stfienf djen $erj unb ©eift ! 
$HW iegticfyer bod? n>a3 babon erlernten. 58 

3a, roa$ man fo ernennen ^etgt ! 
5Ber barf batf ftlnb beim regten Tanten nennen? 
Die roenigen, bie roa# babon erfannt, 
£)te tr/öricfyt g'nug ifyr bofleg ßer^ ntcr/t toat/rten, 
£)em '»ßö'bel i(?r ©efü^f, ifyr ©chatten offenbarten, 
§at man »on je gelreujtgt unb berbrannt. 59 

guments, which does not exist in the simple exclamation — " 2)a 
ift'8 bann toafyrüd) oft ein Jammer ! " 

54 The dust-bin. 

56 Lumber-roora. 

56 The name given to dramatical representations of evonts, 
taken from the old Testament, and from the histories of Greece, 
Rome, Turkey or other countries. They were first introdueed 
into Germany by Magister Velthem at the end of the seventeenth 
Century ; the pieces were generally bad translations from the 
Spanish, and a clown or other comic character always took a pro- 
minent part in the Performance. Lessing intended to publish a 
collection of these „§aupt=unb Staatäaftionen" but left the work 

47 With " pragmatical maxims," because the prineipal characters 
of these „QautyU unb ©tacttSafttonett" had to utter vague political 
doctrines. The term " pragmatical" was first used by the Greek 
historian Polybius forthe doctrinal part of the historical narrative. 

58 Goethe puts the word " knowledge' 1 in the mouth of Wagner 
merely as a contrast to his pedantry. 

5 * Faust alludes not to the oatward formal learning which 
Wagner considers knowledge, but to the true inward knowloj-e 



vvcb bitt' eud>, fjtcunbi e$ ift tief in ber Stockt ; 
SBtr muffend biejjmd unterbrcd)cn. 60 

5ß3 a g n c r. 
AI; fycitte gern nur immer fortgeu)ctd;t, 
Um fo gelehrt mit end; mid; ju bef prcd;cn. Sl 
Vofy morgen, als am erften Oftertage, 
Ertaubt mir ein' nnb anbre ^ragc. 
t$Rit Grifer l;ab' icfy mid? ber ©tubien befliffen ; 
3war torijj td; biet, bod; mödjtf icfy aücä ttrfffen." 

gaitft (allein). 
5öic nur bem ®opf ntcl;t ade $offmmg fd;nnnbet, 
3)er immerfort an [dualem .geitge Hebt, 
Wxt gter'ger £>anb nad? ©cfyä^en gräbt, 
ilnb frot; ift, toenn er 9?eaemonrmer finbet ! 65 

of those reformers, who wished to draw the masses from erroneous 
religious views, and who generally had to suffer for their noble 
intentions on the cross or on the stake, as the martyrs, Huss, 
Giordano Bruno, Savanarola, and others. 

6U It is impossible for Faust to put up any longer with Wag- 
ner's shallow speeches, and he begs him to postpone the conver- 
sation tili another day. 

61 How coneeited and self-engrossed this narrow-minded pedant 
is ! He has observed nothing of the painful excitement under 
which Faust suffers during the whole colloquy. 

62 What contrast is here ! Wagner indeed pretends to know 
tnuch, and would fain know all, but how widely does the "AU" 
of the Famulus differ from the metaphysical "AU" of Faust! 
These two plastic characters represent Genius in Opposition to 
formal Icnowledge, (a word which must be taken in the sense in 
which Aristotle uses it, namely as a demonstrative habit, by which 
we acquire the science of things necessary and eternal. See 
sixth book of the JS'icomachsean Ethics.) We see here the 
machine put in Opposition to its inventor ! 

63 Faust feels himself thorowghly depressed and unhappy. 
Wagner has shown him the utter nullity of human knowledge, 
and in him Faust sees his whole species degraded — he is juslly 


SDarf eine fotd;e 2)'ienf($enfttmjne fyier, 
2Bo ©etfterfülle micfy umgab, ertönen? 64 
g)ocfy acfy ! für biennal banf icty btr, 
£)em ärmlicfytten bon allen (Srbenfölwen. 
'Du riffeft mid? bon ber SSerjtDeiflung lo$, 
£)ie mir bie ©inne 65 fc^on jerftcren bellte. m 
9lcfy ! bie (5rf cfyetmtng tr>ar f o riefengroB, 67 
1)a6 id) mtd) recfyt als S^erg empftnben feilte. 

3tf;, (Sbenbilb ber ©ctt^it, 68 baö fiefy f$on 

disgusted with a raee that professes to scareh after treasures, and 
yet is contented on merely finding a rain-worm l 

With these lines ended the first fragment of this immortal 
poetry ; it was sketched in February, 1788, and published as a 
fragment in 1789 in the midst of tbose eventful times, in which 
the attention of the whole of Europe was directed towards the 
eonyulsions in France, and when all minds were filled with hopes, 
as a new era in Continental life dawned upon them. How many 
Fausts did not France produce ! How few have survived their 
times so gloriously as this poetical creation of Germany's master- 
mind ! 

64 The second monologue did not appear in the fragment pub- 
lished in 1789. That it was written much later is beyond all 
doubt, and it is thought to have hecn eomposed in 1799 or 1800. 
Not only the versification, but also the orthography is much altered: 
thus Goethe in the first monologue uses „©innen" for the plural 
of „@inti," while he now has „©htne." There is too a deeper 
feeling, a greater intensity of passion in the second monologue, 
though it is not written quite in aecordance with the spirit and 
style of the first. 

65 ©inne__ v i(Je preceding note. 

66 He thanks Wagner for having saved his soul from utter 
despair by such shallow and limited reasoning. 

67 Not to be taken literally. üftefemyccß, refers to the intellec- 
tual superiority of the spirit of earth. 

68 In the first monologue, (SknMlb ber @otü)ett, is taken in its 
usual sense, as in Genesis I. 27. " So God created man in his 


(Sctnj nafy gebünft bcm ©^tcget ctD'ger SSafyrfyeit, 
(Sein felbft geno§, 69 in frtrameUglanä unb 5ttarl;ett r 
Unb abgeftretft ben Grrbenfofm ; 
Sä), mefyr at$ (ifyerub, 78 beffen freie tfraft 
@$on butefy bte albern ber s Jtatur ju fliegen 
Unb, fdjaffeub, Lotterleben ju genießen 
@i$ aljnungSüolt uerinaS, tüte muß td;'$ bitten 
(Sin ©onnerroort n Ijat miefy fyiutt)ecjgerafft 

Widjt barf tefy bir ju g(etd;en miefy bermeffen. 
$ab' id; bie $raft biety anjitjtel;n bejeffen, 
(&o Ijatt' tefy biefy ju fyatten leine ßraft 
3n jenem fePgen $tu$enblic!e 72 
3cfy füllte mid? f o Kein, f o groß ; 
£)u ftiegeft cjraufam mid? jurüde, 
3nß uugetöiffe $?enfd)en(oo$. " 

own image, in the image of God created he him " ; but here 
„(Sbett&ttb ©otteS" refers to the godly power of acting with con- 

69 " Enjoying my ownself" — he would have feit the füllest satis- 
faction in looking with spiritual purity into the mirror of eternal 
truth — in which his own seif would be reflected» 

70 "I more than Cherub." Allusion to Ezekiel XXVIII, 14, 
vide also Note 51. " Thou art the annointed Cherub that 
covereth ; and I have set thee so : thou wast upon the hol j moun- 
tain of God; thou hast walked np and down in the midst of 
the stones of fire." I more than Cherub — meaning : I Stand- 
ing nearer to the Almighty — like a Seraph ! 

71 That thundering word „iDottnerrcört" viz : that he is equal 
only to the spirit which he is able to coneeive. 

72 Faust distinguishes here between two moments, the moments 
of appearance and disappearance of the ghost : the demonstra- 
tive proDOun „iener, e, es," is therefore perfectly correct. Many 
commentators took it as referring to the remoter period at which 
the first, monologue had been wntten by Goethe. 

73 The antithesis — fo Kein— fo aroß, refers to the dualism in our 
huinan nature ; Utile in consequence of our being earth-born, yet 



Ser lehret nud; ? \va& foll icfy meiben ? 

(Soll icfy gel)ord;en jenem £)rang? 7 * 

51cfy ! unfre Zitaten felbft, fo gut alö unfre Reiben, 

Sie lammen imfreä Gebens ®ong. 75 

£)em !perrlid;ften, toctö auefy ber ©etft empfangen, 

drängt immer fremb unb fvember 76 Stoff fiel; an ; 

Senn mir jnm ©uten biefer Seit gelangen, 

£)ann l;eigt ba$ 33effre £rug unb Söaljtt. 

£)ie und ba$ £eben 77 gaben, fycrrltcfye ©efüfyle 

(Srfiarren in beut irbifd;en ©etuüfyte. 

Senn ^fyantafie fiel; fünft mit tulutem ftlug 

Unb l;offnung$ooll jum (Steigen erweitert, 

So ift ein fleiner 9%aum ifyr nun genug, 

Senn ©lücf auf ©lud im ^eitenftrubel fetyettert 

Die Sorge niftet gleich im tiefen §)ei*jen, 7Ö 

(jrr^a^ as regards the power we possess in the world of thoughts ; and 
as Faust reflects on thf- power of the carthly part of man 's nature, 
he is again thrown back upon, and overwhelmed by the recollec- 
tion of his fettered existence. 

74 After the highest knowledge ! That is, to pluek the forbidden 
fruit frofn the tree of knowledge. 

75 „©emej" — used for the flight of our spirit. 

76 A poetical license very often used by Goethe in connecting 
two comparatives by the conjunetion unb, and omitting the termi- 
nation er of the former : the words should be : „frember unb frember 
©toff" — (matter); that is, However high our spirit may fly, 
there is gross matter enough in us to drag us downwards to earth. 

77 ÜJefcen — life, in the sense of consciousness, knowledge, un- 
derstanding. What gave us life, and developed in us the faculty 
of thinking? and why is this faeulty continually ehecked by 
earthly bonds? 

58 Every man, who has been visited by misfortune ceases to a 
certain extent to delight in life, and care nestles in his heart, 
creating in him secret sorrows ; but such extreme disquietude and 
despai**, as is here painted, is the fate only of one who is with- 
out faith. 


©ort tohrfet fic geheime ©dmterjen, 

Unrutyig tolepjt fic fid) unb ftöret 8uft unb Viiii? 

©ie beeft fiel; ftetS mit neuen 9Jto§fett ju, 

@tc mag als £)au$ nnb £)of, als SEBeib unb fiinb erfechten, 79 

»Iß geuer, Gaffer, Dofd; nnb ®tft; 

Tu bebft bor allem, toerö nid;t trifft, 

Unb ioaS du nie oerlierft, baä mußt bn ftetS bemeinen. 80 

Den ©Ottern gleich' ici? nicfyt ! $u tief ift e§ gefüllt ; 
Dem SBurme gleiel;' ify, ber ben ©taub burefytoüfytt, 
Den, roie er fiel) im ©taube näfyrenb lebt, 
Des Söanb'rerS Stritt oernid;tet unb begräbt. 81 

3ft e§* nid;t ©taub, toa3 biefe fyofye Skttib, 
3lu8 intnbert gäcfyern, mir verenget, 
Der Probet, ber, mit taufenbfacfyem £aub, 
3n biefer äMtentoelt miel; bränget? 82 
$ier foil tety finben, toa§ mir fefylt ? 

79 To such a man, everything becomes a source of fear : house, 
wife, children, fire, water, dagger, poison — all excite in him the 
feeling of suspicious dread. 

80 iBeroetrten, designates the anxiety that a man without faith is 
constantly suffering in Ins fear of losbg something dear to him. 

The part of this monologue, commencing at »3$ Gsbenfcttb ber 
©otU)ett"— to the words »baö mußt bu ftetS beweinen" is too plaintive, 
too like an elegj in its composition, and therefore not quite in 
aecordance with Faust's active, dramatie character. 

81 Expressing the nullity, the utter impotence of our nature, 
tho vanity of our existence. Cf. the follovving passage from 
Werther: — »©er fyctrmlofe ©jjetgtergang fofiettaufeuD armen SSürmcfyen 
t>a$ ?eben, e§ jerriittet ein guf tritt bie muffeligen ©ebäube ber SImcifen 
unb ftair^ft eine Heine SBelt in ein f$mäl;lttf;e§ @rab.» 

82 Everything surrounding us is bat dust. „SDcottenweft" world 
of moths. — The word «©taub" is in Geiman often used for body ; 

Unflerbfitf, bod? be§ £obeS Stab 
@inb nur fyalb Sngel unb f;atb ©taub. 

£ r o u e a, f. 



@ott id; üieiteid;t in taufenb SBüdjern tefen, 

£)a§ überaß bie ÜJterifcfyeti ficfy gequält, 

©ag fyie uns ba ein ®(Müd;er gemefen ? 83 

2öa$ grinfeft bu mir, r/ofyler <2cfyäbet, 81 fyer, 

5115 baß bein £irn, tote meinet einft &eru)irret, 

ÜDen leiden Sag gefud;t unb in ber £)ämm'rung fd;toer, 

SRit &uft nacfy SBa^r^ett, jämmertid? geirret ! 85 

3fyr 3nftruntente freittd; 86 Rottet mein, 

JL>ttt s J?ab unb Stammen, Söalj unb 23ügel. 

3d? ftanb am £fyor, tfyr foütet @ci>(üffel fein ; 

gtuar euer 33art ift frauS, bod; t>ebt ifyr nicfyt bie Siegel. 

©efyeimnitföoll am tieften Sag, 87 

l In this sense it is also used in the plural, thus : 


(Sin (Stein ftdj wölbet über beibe Staube, 

2)ann wirb ber ^luj^ entwaffnet fein. @ dj t II e r. 

83 In a conversation with the celebrated historian Luden, Goethe 
once said — " Ev?n were you able to unveil and scrutinize all 
" the sources of history, what would you discover ? nothing but 

" one great truth, which was known long ago 

" viz. that everything, in every age and in every land 

" has been miserable enough, that men have tortured themselves, 
" and have schemed, have tormented and harassed each other, 
"and that but very few have enjoyed comfort and happiness." — 
The confession that bere and there has been seen a happy man 
does not quite agree with the dark despair imder which Faust 

84 Compare these lines with Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act V., Sc. I, 
"Here hung those lips that I have kissed I know not hosv 
oft. Where be your gibes now ? your gambols ? your songs ? 
your flashes of merriment that were wont to set the table on a 
roar ? " 

85 „ Lämmer Itd;," wretchedly, miserably, implies the idea of 
„fd^Wer" in a higher degree. „©er fcid&te Sag" the day's clear light. 

85 „greitid)" — indeed — forsooth ! — niaking a strong contrast 
between his actual despair, and bis former confidence in the 
success of his philosophical inquiries. 

87 Nature is described as a " dark secret in the open day.° 


8&gt ficfy üRatltr bcS (2d;(eicr3 md;t Berauben, 

Unb toa« fie beinern ©etft nicfyt offenbaren mag, 

Da8 suungft bu ifyr nid;t ab mit Jpebelu unb mit Strauben. 88 

©u alt ©erätfye, baö id; nid;t gebrandet, 

©u ftefyft nur fyier, weil bid? mein $>ater braud;te. 

©u alte 9Me, bu ioirft angerauht, 

(So lang an biefem $ttft bte trübe ütompe fd;maud;te. 

Söett beffer fyätt' tefy bod; mein Weniges »erfragt, 

511g, mit bem Wenigen betaftet, t^ier p fd;ioiijen ! 

SBaS bu ererbt oon beinen Tätern fyaft, 

(irtüirb e§, um e$ 31t befifeen ! 

2öa& man nicfyt nü£t, tft eine feiere 8aft ; 

9ta wa$ ber 2lugenblicf erfd;afft, ba£ lann er nüijen. 


©od; toarum heftet fid? mein 23tid! auf jene ©teile ? 
3ft jenes gläfd;d;en bort ben klugen ein Magnet? 
Sßtorum loirb mir auf einmal lieblid; fyelte, 
s JU3tr>enn im näcfyt'gen 2Mb uns $Jionbenglan$ mmoefyt? 

She lies before us, yet none of us is able, in spite of all our 
nietaphysical hypotheses, to clraw the bolt that guards her mys- 

88 Compare these lines with Haller's version ; 

$n'S 3nnre ber 9?atur 
©ringt fein erfcfyaffner ©etft; 
©lücffeltg, wenn fie nur 
2)te äußre <&ä)ak weift. 

Or with Lessing's transcription of the same idea ; 

3n'§ 3nnre ber 9catnr 

3)rtngt nie beut fnrger 25(tcf, 

Sein Riffen tft 31t letdjt 

Unb nur be§ $öbet§ ®IM. 
the two last lines meaning that all our knowledge may be 
sufficient indeed to please the generality of men, but cannot really 
penetrate the secrets of nature. 

9 The lines „2) U a tt ©erätt)" „SaS tann er nü£en" repeat the 

idea of general disgust with everything around him, contained in 
the firat monologue. The sense of the last two lines is, that 
anything which cannot be used, anything not practical, is a bur- 


Sd) grüße btcl), bu einige Sp^tote, 
£)ie \d) mit 2lnbadjt nun herunterhole ! 
3n bir üeretyr' tcfy 9#enfcfyenh>i£ uns Änafl. 
£)u Inbegriff ber fyotben ©cbtwnmerfäftc, 
£)u $u$pg aller tb'btttcfy feinen Gräfte, 
(Srtoeife beinern Ifteifter beine (Stonft ! öl 
3cl? fe^e bicfy, e$ tü-rb ber <Scfymerg gelinbert ; 
3cfy f äffe btcfy, ba§ (Streben toirb geminbert, 
SDeö ©eifte£ glutfyftrom ebbet nacfy unb nad), 
3n$ fyofye SJccer tt)erb' id) tnuauggetoiefen, 
£)ie ©m'egelflutl; 92 erglänzt ju meinen güjsen, 
gu neuen Ufern Iccft ein neuer £ag. 93 

©in geueriuageu fd;roebt auf leidsten (Scfytoingen 
5ln mid? fyeran ! 94 3d? fül?le micfy bereit, 

den to us, and that only that is useful which the present moment 

90 Faust's mind is wholly given up to the one daring dream 
of seeing clearly into the dark night of our earthly existence. 
Having failed to penetrate this darkness, alike by the beaten track 
of study, and the mysterious paths of magic, he concludes that 
the only remaining road to success is Suicide — he determines 
therefore to free his soul from its bodily bürden, in the hope of 
beginning a fresh unfettered existence, in the antieipation of which 
he feels himself already surrounded by a glorious flood of light. 

91 Compare these lines with Shakespeare' s Romeo and Juliet, 
Act. V., Sc. I. where Romeo asks for the phial that contains the 
means of procuring eternal slumber. Goethe calls the poison, 
" the essence of gentle lulling Juices — an extractof all deadly re- 
fined strengths." — Eomeo speaks of it as a Cordial. 

V ©UnegeifluU)— the glassy waters. 

93 6m neuer Sag— a new day, a newly beginning life. 

94 (Sin geuemetgen— may be an allnsion to the " chariot of fire n 
in which Elijah was transiated to heaven. Faust in his excited 
imagination continually compares himself to those more highly 
gifted spirits, which in sacred as well as in profane history he 
sees selectcd to shine above the vulgär crowd. 


Huf neuer 93afyn beit 3lct(;er gu buntybringett, 

3u neuen Sphären retner $£|Stigfeit. M 

Tiefe bcfyc tfebcii, tiefe ©öttertöomte ! 

£)u, erft nodj SBurm, unb bte öerbieneft bu ? 

3a, fel;rc nur ber fyolben (Srbenfomte 

eiutfcbt offen beuten SRüden ju! 

^eruteffe biet;, bie Pforten aufeureißeu, w 

S5or betten jcber gern borübcrfd?teid;t ! 

£icr tft eö 3eit, turc ty Saaten 31t betoetfen, 

Tag äRatmeSlcDÜrbe uid;t ber ©ötterfyöfye toetcfyt, 

05 3u neuen ©Vetren retner Sfyättcjfett — of a pure activity ; i.e. 
an activity no longer clogged by earthy matter. 

96 Compare this and the followiug lines with Shakespeare's 
Hamlet, Act 3, Sc. I. 

" To die, — to sleep; — 

" To sleep ! perchance to dream ; — ay, there's the rub ; 
" For in that sleep of death what dreams may come, 
" When we have shuffled off this mortal coü, 
" Must give us pause ; there's the respect 
" That raakes calamity of so long life — " 

What a üifference between the two characters. There the 
wavering, undeeided, terrified philosopher — liere the daring, fiery 
doubter, who is continually wishing, like the fallen angels, to prove 
himself equal to that eternal source from which he inherits bis 
intellectual powers. Hamlet bears a much closer resemblance to 
Werther, who with bis weak and womanish character, is too great 
a coward to bear misfortune, and exclaims despairingly : 

®en SSorfyana, anzuheften unb bafyinter ju treten ! 2)a§ tft 2tt(e$ ! Unb 
warum ba§ 3 all ^ ern uni) 3 a 8 en ? ^^ mart n ^t weiß rote es bahtnter 
ausfielt? unb to e 1 1 man nneberfefyrt? Unb baß ba3 nun bie (5iqenfd)aft 
unfere« ©etfteS tft, ba ^errotrrung unb gtnftermfj ju ahnen, wo voix: 
ntdjts $3eftimmte8 »tffen. 

We see Faust at the very beginning of the tragedy wishing to 
put au end to his existence, from a desire of unriddling bis dreams 
of the future life — of discovering the after-state of his spirit 
when freed from all its bodily fetters. Unable to bear his igno- 
rance of things that are beyond the reach of human knowledge, 
and to free himself from his unhappy State of fear, of doubt and 
of despair, he would risk the awful step of self-destruction, " a 
path whose narrow portal is wreathed around with flames of hell." 


$or jener bunfetn §öfyle md?t ju Beben, 

3n ber fid^ ^antafic ju eigner Qual serbammt, 

$acfy jenem £mrcfygang fyinjuftreben, 

Um beffen engen SJtonb bie gange £)ölle flammt ; 

3n biefem <5d;>ritt ftcfy fyeiter gu entfalteten, 

Unb toäf eS mit ©efafyr, ine 9ft$t3 bafyin ju fliegen. 9T 

sftun fomm' IjeraB, frtyftallne, reine ^cfyale, 

§erbor aus beinern alten gntterale, 

§ln bie ity »tele 3a^re ntd;t gebad;t! 

£)u glänjteft bei ber SSäter greubenfefte, 

(Srfyeiterteft bie ernften ©äfte, 

SBenn einer bid? bem anbern gugebrad^t. 

£)er fielen Silber lünftltcfy reid?e ^)3rad;t, 

£)e8 £rmfer$ ^fütyt, fte reimtoeie gu erHären, 

2luf einen 3ug kie £)öfylung auszuleeren, 9d 

Erinnert micfy an manche 3ugenbnad;t. 

3cfy werbe jefct bicfy feinem 9£ad;barn reid;en, 

3d> werbe meinen 2Bii2 an beiner Jfttnft ntcfyt geigen : 

§)ier tft ein ©aft, ber eilig trauten mad;t ; 

äliit brauner glutfy erfüllt er beine £>öfyle. 

£>en td; bereitet, ben tcfy ftäfyle, 

97 In this last Hne he clearly discloses bis character as a doubter, 
and is ready to destroy himself " even at the risk of vanishing 
into nothingness." 

98 The Germans introduced into their feasts a kind of poetical 

System, exercised principally during the free libations afterdinner, 

when the cup of frateraity was passed round. Every one present 

was obliged on such occasions to recite some rhyrnes ; if he niade 

a mistake in his delivery, or failed to finish his cup at one 

draught, he was obliged as a punishment to drink off a second 

buraper. These drinking-cups were of the most extraordinary 

shapes ; very often in the form of horns, boots, &c, the latter 

with the inscription : 

2)er tft fein beutfdjer Wloaxt, 

S)er nidjt feinen Stiefel trinfen fann. 

A most curious collection of cups of every variety of device 

is to be found at Hanover in the King's treasury. 


Ter Icfctc Zxnnt fei) nun mit ganzer Seele, 
911$ fcftlid; fyofyer ®tttfc beut ÜftöTgen— lJ,J 

(Sr fefet bte @$ale au ben SDfautb. 


£l?or ber (Snget. 

6Wt ift erftanben ! 10 ° 
greube bem <Sterbtid;en, 
£)en bie fcerberbüd^en, 
©d;teicfyenbett, erbtid;en 
Mängel umtoanben. 


Sßetcfy tiefet Summen, toelcfy ein fyetter £on 

3iefyt mit ©etoalt ba§ ©lad fcon meinem ÜJiunbe ? 

SSerfünbtget ifyr bumpfen ©loden fd;on 

£)e$ DfterfefteS erfte geierftuube? 

3fyr (Sfyöre, fingt ifyr fcfycn ben tröftlicfyen ©cfang, 

©et einft um ©rabeSnacfyt son QhtgelSltypen Hang, 

©etMgtieit einem neuen 23unbe ? 101 

(Sfyor ber Leiber, 

9Jcit Spejereten 

Ratten rotr Um gepflegt, 

99 " A festal high greeting to the morn \ " — the dawning of a 
new life. At the very moment he puts the eup to his lips the 
Easter chant is heard frora an adjoining church. 

100 This chant is what the Roman Catholics call a sequence, a 
song sung between the Hallelujah and the reading of the Evan- 
gelium. It was introduced in the ninth Century. 

101 The chorusof angels announcesthe victory gained by Christ 
over sin and death ; a victory by which men have reeeived ihe 
clearest proof of a new covenant. The associations called up in 
Eaust's mind by the song which of old pealed from the lips of 
angels amid the darkness of the sacred tomb, draws down the 
cup from his lips, and he is at once seized with all the terrors of 
that destruetive and all pervading inherited evil, from which 
Christ redeemed mankind — he begins at once to feel the whole 
weight of his criminal intention. 


2Btr feine ÜTreuen 
Ratten tfyn Eingelegt ; 
Üücfyer unb SBinbctt 
SReinticfy umtoanben toir; 
W) ! unb ttn'r f anben 
(Sfyrift nid;t mefyr fyier. 

Qfyor ber (Saget. 
(Sfyrtft ift erftanben ! 
(Selig ber Siebenbe, 
£)er bie betrübenbe, 
§ettfam' unb übenbe 
Prüfung beft anben. 102 

SBaS fucfyt fljr, mächtig unb gelinb, 
3fyr £ummet£töne, tntcl> am (Staube ? 
klingt bort umber, too rcetc^e 9Jtenfd?ett finb. 
£)ie 23otfcba;t fybV icfy tt-ofyt, allein mir fefylt ber ©taube ; 
£)aS ££unber ift be$ ©tauben« tiebfteS ftinb. 
3u jenen Sparen trag' \&) nicfyt ju ftreben, 103 
SBofyer bie r)otbe tftotyrtctyt tönt ; 
Unb bocb, an biefen Ätang fcon 3ugenb auf getoölmt, 
SRuft er clvlü) jcfet prüct micfy in ba3 Sehen. 
Sonft ftürjte ficfy ber £immet3ltebe ^u| 
Stuf mid? fyerab in ernfter Sabbatbftilfe : 


102 The augels praise those who in tlieir love for the Lord have 
gone through the trials of sorrow. These trials, heavj though 
they be, are yet wholesome, as they purify us, and make ua the 
more fit for salvation. 

113 Having forfeited the purity of his faith, though he knows 
the happy tidin gs they teil, yet he does not dare to raise his 
thoughts to those spheres of büss ; he does not indeed belicve 
now, but he remembers those happy, innocent days of his youth, 
in which he could share the deep enjoyment of a prayer. 

101 The calm of piety araidst the solemn silence of the Sabbnth 
is here described as a kiss of heavenly love, imprinted on out iu- 
ncrmost soul. 



Da ftang fo alwuugSoofl bc§ ©todentoucö Sütte, 

Unb ein GJcfcct toar brunftiger ©emtg ; 

(Sin unbegrciflid; fyotbeö (Seinen 

Xrieb mid;, burd; 2Mb unb liefen tyinäugclm, 

Unb unter taufenb feigen Z grauen 

gitfjtt' td; mir eine SBelt entftefm. 

'X)teg Sieb oerfünbete ber 3ugenb muntre «Stiele, 

£)er grüfylmgSfeier freies ©lud; ; 

(Srinn'rung fyält rrticfy nun, mit finbücfyem ©efüfyfe, 

23om testen, ernften ©cfyritt jurüd. 

O tonet fort, ifyr fügen |)immet3tieber ! 

£)ie £fyräne quillt, bie ($rbe fyat miefy toieber ! 

(£f)or ber 3ünger. 

$at ber begrabene 
@cfyou fidt> naefy oben, 
Sebenb Qrrfyabene, 
^errlid; erhoben ; 106 
3ft er in Söerbeluft 
©cfyaffenber greube 107 ml) ; 
<äö) ! an ber (Srbe SBvuft 
@inb toir jum Seibe ba. 
£ieß er bie ©einen 
@d;macfyteub uns fyter jurM, 
2Id; ! h)ir betoeinen, 
SWetfter, bein ©tiicU 

105 The fiery man who but a few moments ago resolved to 
throvv his life as a bürden from him, is now withheld from perdi- 
tion by the sweet remembrance of his early childhood, and a tear 
again gives him back to earth. 

6 The inverslon in the first part of the whole period is against 
all grammatical rules. It seems to have been Goethe's intention, 
to mark out forcibly the antitheses „2)er begrabene"— „nadj oben." 
„(Srfyabene"— „erhoben," 

107 Quite right, and not as in many modern editions „fdjaffenbe 
^i'ettbc," which would mean, the joy of creating. 


ßfyor ber (SngeL 
ßfyrift ift erftcmben 
$lu$ ber 23ert»efung ©cfyooj}. 
Zeiget fcon Tanten 
greubig eucfy fo$ ! 
£fyättg tfyn preifenben, 108 
£tebe betoeifenben, 
23rüberlid; fpeifenben, 
^rebigenb reifenben, 
2Bomte berfyetBenben, m 
<&\xti) ift ber Reiftet nafy, 
(Sucfy ift er ba ! "° 

«Bor bem Efcor. 111 

@})aätergatiger aller Slrt gießen fymaitS. 

Einige £anbtt>erf$burfcfye. 
Sarum benn bcrt fyinauS ? 

ln8 Stetig — through good deeds ! that is, let your good deeds 
be his praise. 

109 Söonne— -for eternal salvation. That is, u preaoh the Gospel, 
and save all believers." 

110 »p^ug Paust has been given back to life by a pure human 
feeling, by a child-like emotion, which was not extinguished 
even in this doubting bosom. ■ — As Faust's glowing spirit 
cannot fall into a dead resignation, he intends to satiate his as- 
piring nature in a whirl of sensual pleasures. Goethe prepares 
the reader for this entire change in Faust' s life in the following 

111 The German commentators differ in their opinions as to the 
town at which this scene is supposed to take place : some contend 
for Strasburg, others for Frankfort. The lively genial descrip- 
tion, the true and characteristic sketch of the lower classes of 
German society drawn here, affords by its epigrammatical shortness 
a striking proof of Goethe's power of producing a finished pic- 
ture by a fevv hold touches. From the dark room of a philosopher 
>ve are at once taken into the open air on an Easter-day's after- 


SStr {jefyn tynauS auf)? 3äaerfyxu$. 

5DU örfien. 
SEBir aber »ollen nad? ber SKü^le toanbern. 

<5in §anbmcrf$burf cty. 
3$ ratb/ eitty, nadj bem SBBafferfyof |ii ge^iu 

3 tt e i t c *f 
£*r XBcfl baljin ift gar mcfyt fcfyön, 

£)ie 3 weiten, 

(gin ©Titlet. 
3cfy gefye mit ben anbern. 
9tecty 5Burgborf fommt herauf ! ©emift bort fmbet tljr 
$>ie fünften ^Jtäfcdjen unb baS befte 33ier, 
Unb Raubet tvon ber erften Sorte. 

g ü n f t e t. 
£)u üfeerlufti^er ©efell, 
3ucft bid? gitm brittenmat ba$ ged ? 
3cfy mag nietyt l;in, mir graut es oor bem Orte. 

9lein, nein! icf; gelje naefy ber @tabt jurüct 

5Bir finben ilnt getoig bei jenen Rappeln ftefyen. 

&a$ ift für mid; fein großem ©lud ; 
dx toirb an beiner @eite gefjen, 

noon in a thoroughly Roman Catholic town ; a great feast is be- 
ing celebrated in the usual Romish method, by Walking, drink- 
ing and courting. Artisans begin the conversation, oue of whom 
expresses a wish to go to the Burgdorf, as there are to be found 
those greatest inducements, the pi ettiest of girls, the best of beer, 
and a first-rate fight ! Some maid-servants are next introduced, 
indulging in their usual topics. 



Tut bir nur tanjt er auf bem <ß(an. 
2£a# geint mid? beine greuben an ! 

£eut ift er ficl;er nicfyt allein ; 
£)er ÄrauSfopf, U2 fagt' er, würbe bei ifym fein. 

© cfy ü l e r. 
SBltfc, tote bie toacfern kirnen Bretten ! 
£err SBruber, f omm' ! toir muffen fie begleiten, 
©in ftarfeS 23ier, ein betßenbcr £obad, m 
Unb eine SWagb im $u£, baS ift nun mein ©efdmtact 

£)a fiel) mir nur bie frönen ftnaben ! 
@3 ift ioafyrfyaftig eine (Sdnuad? ; 
©efetlfcfyaft tonnten fie bie allerbefte fyaben, 
Unb laufen btefen 9Jiägben uacfy ! 

3 weiter ©cfyüler (311m erfien). 
9Rid;t f o gef cfytoinb ! bort l)inten f ommen gtoei ! 
©ie finb gar niebticfy angezogen. 
'« ift meine s Jtad?Barin babei ; 
3d? bin bem 9Jtäbd;en fefyr gewogen, 
©ie gefyen ifyren füllen <£cfyritt, 1U 
Unb nehmen unö bod? aud; am Gmbe mit. 

(5 r ft e r. 
£>err trüber, nein ! 3d; bin nid/t gern gentrt. 
(§efdm)inb ! baß toir baö SSMlbpret m nid;t ocrtiercn. 
£)ie £anb, bie ©amftagS ifyren Sßefett füljrt, 

112 A person with eurly hair, 

13 Instead of the modern word „Xabad" from the Spanish 
" Tabaco," Goethe, like Adelung, uses the more English and 
older form, " Tobacco ; " the nanie as well as the use of which 
plant was introduced into Germany from England. — In speaking 
of tobacco-smoking in the times of Faust, Goethe commits an 
innocent anachronism. 

111 They walk with " prim step." 

\\t> m fhat we do not lose our game," 


Sßirb £onntagö bid? am fceften carcffireu. "■ 

23 ü r g e r. 
Stein, er gefällt mir nid;t, ter neue SBurgcmeifter ! ll7 
üRutt, ba cr'ö ift, a>trb er nur tä'gücfy breifter. 
Unb für bie ©tabt was ttmt benn er ? 
SQförb c$ nid;t alle Sage fd;timmer? 
(^el;ord;cn feil man mefyr als immer, 
Unb jafylcn mefyr als Je »orfyer. 118 

SB etiler (fingt). 

3l)r guten £crrn, ifyr fd;önen grauen, 

©o tooljlgepufct unb batfenrotl?, 

belieb' c$ eud;, mid; angehauen, 

Unb fefyt unb milbert meine Wctfy ! 

8aßt tyier miel; nid;t bergefcenS leiern! 

Nux ber ift froi), ber geben mag. 

fön Sag, ben alle äKenfctyen feiern, 

(5t fei) für miefy ein ©rntetag. 

Ruberer Bürger. 
9ttcfyt8 Keffers h)ei£ id? mir an @onn * unb geiertagen, 
311« ein ©efpräd; t>ou itrieg unb $rieg3gefd;rei, 

116 A germanized form of the French verb " caresser, " only 
used in a low style of writing. 

1,7 An obsolete form for „53ürcjermeifler." 

118 In these lines is sketched a discontented townsman, one 
of the class known as " Philisters" a word nearly corresponding 
to the English " cockney ! " — Philister is a corruption of the 
Latin word "Balistarii" or " Balist8ei, ,, as the militia in smal! 
towns was called, from the cross-bows (9lrmbrüfte, Balistii) which 
they generally used. In later times the corrupted derivative 
was used in the sense of vulgär, low, common people, unlearned 
men, pedants, government officials, &c. In German Univer- 
sitie.s the name " Philister" is applied by the students to all who 
are not at the time members of their body, whether they have 
previously studied at Alma Mater or not. Many commentators 
derive the word frorn the " Philistines; " the students, consideiing 
themselves as the " chosen peojile of Apollo and the Muses, ?; 
look upon every "non-reading" man as a hostile Philistine. 


2öemt hinten, toeit, in ber dürfet, 

£)ie Golfer auf einanber fragen. 

2Ran ftefyt am genfter, trtnft fein ©läScfyen au8, 

Unb fiefyt ben gluj* fyinab bie bunten (griffe gleiten ; 

'Dann fefyrt man 9lbenb8 frot? nacfy §au$, 

Unb fegnet grieb' unb Unebenheiten. "■ 

Dritter Bürger. 
£)err 9?acfybar, ja ! fo lag id>'ß aud; gefd;efnt : 
©ie mögen ficfy bie ftb>fe fpatten, 
SDtog alles burcfy einanber gefyt, 
Docfy nur ju Spaufe bleibt beim Otiten. 

31 1 1 e (51t ben 53ür^ermäb^en)- 
(St ! rote gepult ! baö f cfyöne junge 231ut ! 
SBer f oll ficfy nicfyt in eud? »ergaffen ? 
5^ur nicfyt fo ftolj ! (5* ift ftyon gut! 
Unb i»a$ il?r toünfcfyt, ba$ toüßt' id? toofyl $u fcfyaffen. ™ 

^Xgattje, fort ! icfy ttefyme mtcfy in $ld;t, 
üDiit folgen §eren öffentlich ju gefyen ; 
(Sie lieg micfy iwax in «Sanet 91nbreae ^actyt, 
Den fünft'gen Siebften leiblid? fefyen. 

119 In this character we see a good specimen of the " pot-house 
politician," wbo does not care what goes on in remote countries, 
as long as he can drink his glass in peace at home. 

m »pkg fortune-teller may be considered as a hurnorous allusion 
to Faust. She also oecupies herseif with the study of magic. 
The great metaphysician and the old woman meet on the same 
field of superstitious research ; the only difference between the 
two being that she makes a sordid business of her pretended 
seeret lore, while Faust is driven to it by an instinctiTe and ir- 
resistible yearning for knowledge. 

121 On St. Andrew's eve she showed her her future lover ; — 
„tetblid)" — in body — leally — living. — St. Andrew is considered 
among the lower classes of Roman Catholics in Germany as the 
patron-saiiit of all the girls, who pray to him for a husband. If 
on the eve of bis festival a girl iraplores the saint, she is sure to 
have her wish gratificd in her dreams. Again, if at miduight 



£>ie SInbre. 
9Rb jeigte fic il>n im tfrtjftafl, m 
(Solbatenfyaft, mit mehreren SBertocgnen ; 
3d) fefy' mid; um, id; fxtd^' ifyn überall, 
Slflein mir toill er nicfyt begegnen. 

© o t b a t e n. 

SBurgen mit fyofjen 

dauern unt> 3\nntn, 

9Jiäbd?en mit ftotjen 

£)öfynenben ©innen 

$)iö#f id? gewinnen ! 

Äü$n ift ba$ 2Wüfcn, 

§errlid; ber Soljn ! 

Unb bie trompete 
Saffen n?ir werben, 

she melts some lead, and pours it through the open parts of a key, 
(the wards of which must form a cross), into water drawn the same 
night between eleven and twelve o'clock, the rnetal will infallibly 
take the form of the tools used in her future lover's oraft ; a third 
method is to lay a table for two persons, carcfully omitting forks, 
the presence of which would destroy the spei!, she is then sure 
to meet her future husband in propria persona ; anything that ne 
might leave behind on such occasions was to be kept and carefully 
concealed from the lover in the visits which, before long, he was 
sure to pay her — but woe to her if the lost article was discovered : 
the certain consequence was death ! The custom of melting lead 
is still preserved in many parts of Germany on St. Thomas's eve 
and on the eves of Christmas and the new year. For a fuller 
aecount of these quaint but interesting superstitions of Germany, 
see Grimm' s .,3)eutfdje 2Jtytf>oto<jte" or „2)eut[d&e ©agen" Vol. I. p. 
171, <fcc. 

182 And mine (lover) she showed rae in a crystal glass. The 
superstitious belief in the power of revealing the future by means 
of crystal is very ancient and general. The crystal-spirit usedto 
exhibit, to those who wished it, persons as well as objeets. It is 
said that Christopher Haylinger instrueted Faust in the art of 
prophfisying by means of crystal -glasses. Vide Grimm as above. 


3S3te ju ber greube, 

©o jum SBcrberBen. 

$)aS ift ein ©türmen ! 

£)a$ ift ein £eben ! 

3ftäbctyen unb Burgen 

Püffen fidj geben. 

Aufm ift ba3 äftityen, 

£)errlicfy ber M)tt ! 

Unb bie ©etbaten 

3iefyen bctüon. 123 

^anft unb SBagner. 
23cm @tfe befreit finb ©trem unb SBäcfye 
T)urd) be3 g-rüfytingS fyotben, befebenben Wid ; 
3m Xfyate grünet ©offnungSglücf ; 
©er alte hinter, in feiner ©cfytoäcfye 
30g ficfy in raufye 23erge jurütf. 124 

123 This song of the soldiers must be considered as the expres- 
sion of a bold and reckless mirth. — The „unb" at the beginning 
of the second Strophe is used without any idea of connection. In 
the modern Germ an style it is not unusual to begin a sentence 
with „unb" without any idea of coupling it to what has gone be- 

124 According to the ancient mythology of the Germans, 
winter and spring were persons. It may be noticed as a pecu- 
liarity of northern as well as German mythology that everything 
has reference to humanity itself, as the originating power of the 
whole creation. — Thus the earth is looked upon as a living creature, 
its blood is the water, its hair, flowers and trees, while rocks 
are the bones and teeth ; and the general belief was that the 
earth contained in itself the vital prineiple. — The first human 
being was the giant Ymir or Aurgelmir, that is Uralter (old age) 
— the second was Bury, the father of Bor, whose three sons, 
Odin, Wili, and We, killed the giant Ymir, and formed of his flesh 
the earth, of his bones the rocks, heaven of his skull, and seas 
and rive'rs of his blood. The sun and the moon were regarded as 
fiery sparks, wandering at random in the sky. The whole ten- 
dency of the Scandinavian and German mythology was to attri- 


SSon borttjer fenbet er, flic^cnb, nur 
Ohnmächtige Sctyancr förntgen (StfeS 
3n «Streifen über bie grüuenbc gütr. 
\Hber bie dornte butbet fein 2öcifee$ ; 
iieberatt regt fiefy 23ilbung unb Streben, 
SSLUed will fie mit garten beleben ; m 
©od; an 23turaen fe^tt'ö im Gebier, 
Sie nimmt gepufctc 9Jtenfd;en bafür. 
ßefyre biefy um, oon btefen £öt;ea 
9tocfy ber (Statt jurücf gufefyen. 
5lu$ bem fyofyen, fmftern £fyor 
©ringt ein buntes ©etoimmel Ijeroor. 
3eber fonnt 128 jtcfy t?eute [o gern ; 
Sie feiern bie 5luferftel)ung be$ §errn : 
©enu fie finb fetber aufer [tauben ; 127 
3lu3 niebriger $äufer bumpfen (Semäcfyern, 
2lu$ £)anbn)erf$> unb ©etoerbeSbanben, 

bute life and consciousness to lifeless objeets. This led to those 
poetical superstitions of the Middle Ages, which, with their gnome8 
aad elve3, ghosts and spirits, dwarfs and devils, now frightened, 
now cheered the lower classes, and gave rise to those varied and 
interesting fairy tales and sagas, which not only amuse children, 
but supply even philosophers with arnple matter to explain much 
of the dreamy and mystieal nature of the German mind. 

125 On this view is founded the theory of colours. The firsfc 
natural philosopher who attempted to explain the origin of colour 
was Newton. Goethe differed widely from Newton in many points, 
and tried to demonstrate that colour is but a greater or less in- 
tensity of light. Thus the sun at its highest position in the heavens 
appears white, but as it descends it assumes a yellowish and at 
last a reddish tint — a phenomenon, which Goethe attributes to the 
faet that we reeeive less and less of the sun's light as he desceuds 
towards the horizon ; the colour of perfect light being, in his 
opinion, white. 

125 A reflective verb formed from „@onne." 

127 Considering spring as the resurrection of nature from win- 
tert death. 



$lu$ beut £)ru# Den ©iebeln unb £)äd?env 
&u$ ber ©tragen quetfcfyenber (Snge, 
8tuS ber ftircfyen efyrtoürbiger s Jtocfyt 
©inb fie alle ans Sicfyt gebraut. 128 
eiel) nur, fic^ ! toic befymb 1W ftcb bie SOienge 
$)urd) bie ©arten unb gelber jerfctylägt, 
Söte ber gtuj&, in «Brett' unb Sänge, 
@o mannen luftigen $atyen bewegt * f 
Unb, bis jum ©infen übertaben, 
Entfernt fid? btefer lefcte Äatyu 
©efbft Den be8 23erge$ fernen ^fabett 
Sötinfen uns farbige Kleiber an. 
3$ tyxt fd?on be$ £)orf$ Getümmel; 
§ier ift beö SSolleS wahrer £immel, 
aufrieben jauchet ©rog unb ßtein : 
£ier bin ity Wknfä, tyer barf i<y « fein. ls * 

mt eucfy, £err £)octcr, ,31 $u fpa&ieren 
3ft efyretrt? oll unb ift ©etotnn ; 
£)od? toürb r id? nid?t allein micfy fyer toerlieren, 
©eil, idj ein geinb cmt allem föofyen bin. 132 

188 The beaut y and force of the epithets in. these descriptWe 
ttnes should be observed. 

m Handy — fce^enb— from £anb— band. 

130 ff er4 1 am a man — a human being — equivafenfc to the Latin : 
homo; — "Tiere I may feel like all other beings." ^aust con- 
fesses that in tbis gay and cheerful simplicity exists real content- 

131 Wagner addresses Faust by tbe title of Doetor, and not 
Professor, wbicb last is a mucb higher distinction. In the 
" puppet- show^ (see preface) Wagner addresses bim by the 
title due to a Rector, viz. •JKagmftcens (Magnifice.) 

133 Wagner really detests coarseness, and as he is unable to 
see in tbe boundless joy of his fellow-creatures any of the better 
purer feelings that exist in it, he sets down all their natural eheer- 
fulness as coarseness. 


£aö giebeln, freien, ftegetfcfyieben 
3ft mir ein gar »erfaßter Klang; 
Bit toben, n)ie oom böfen ©eift getrieben, m 
Unb nennend greubc, nennen'ö @efang. 

Sßaucrn unter ber ^ i n b e. 
£anj unb ©efancj. 

£)er @d;äfer pufete fid) jum £an$, m 

mit bunter 3acfe, S3anb unb ftranj; 

(Samuel toar er angezogen. 

©cfyon um bie Stube toar e$ ootl, 

Unb alles taugte fc^on mic toll. 

3ud$e! 3u^e! 

3i|c^eifa! £eifa! #e! 

(So ging ber giebelbogen. 

(5r brücfte fyaftig jtcfy Ijeran, 

£)a [tiefe er an ein 9Mb<$en an, 

9ftit feinem Ellenbogen. 

T)it frifd?e £)irne fefyrt' fid? um, 

Unb fagte : Sflnn, ba$ finb' icfy bumm t 

3u^e! 3ud^e! 

3udb^eifa ! £eifa ! §e ! 

@eib ntc^t f o ungezogen ! 

$5ocfy Imrtig in bem Greife ging'S, 
©ie tankten rec^tö, fie tankten ItnfS, 
Unb alle 9?öcfe flogen. 
'Sie würben rotfy, fie tourben toarm, 
Unb ruhten atbmenb $lrm in 9lrm, 
3ud$e! 3u^e! 
3ucbf?eifa1 £eifa! $e! 
Unb §>üft' an Ellenbogen. 

133 As if possessed by an evil spirit. 

13i An old German song quoted by Goethe in his celebrated, 
enchanting novel „bie Sefyrjafyre," published 1795. This song 
first appeared in its present form in the complete edition of the 
first part of Faust in 1808. 


Unb t^u' mir bo$ ntd^t fo bertraut ! 

2öie mand;er Ijat nid;t feine Sraut 

belogen unb betrogen ! 

(Sr fcfymeicfyelte fie bocfc bei Seit', 

Unb oon ber £inbe fd?olt e$ toeit, 

3ud^e! 3ud^e! 

Sucbljeifa! £>eifa! §e! 

©efd;rei unb giebelbogen. m 

miter Sauer. 
$err £)octor, ba6 ift fcfyön oon eud;, 
£)a& ifyr un$ freute ntc^t oerfdnuäfyt, 
Unb unter biefeg SolfSgebräng', 
W ein fo £ocfygelaf)rter 138 gefyt. 
<2o nehmet auety ben fd;önften tag, 
£)en toir mit frifcfyem grünt' gefüllt. 
3ä) bring ilm $u unb toünfctye laut, 
£)a§ er ntc^t nur ben Dürft euefy ftiüt ; 
Die gaty ber £ropfen, bie er fyegt, 
@ety euren Sagen jugelegt. 137 

3cb nefyme ben (SrquirfungStranf, 
Gmoiebr' euefy allen £eil unb ©an!. 

$)aS 23oU fammett ftcfy im ÄretS umfyer. 

bitter Sauer, 
gürtoaljr, e$ ift feljr toofylgetfyan, 

135 This song is a humorous warning to young girls not to give 
themselves up to voluptuous dancing, which amusement was con- 
sidered in many parts of Germany as of demoniacal origin. The 
raoral of the song is : " Enjoy life, but do not allow passion to 
become your master, for the careless, unfeeling crowd shout 
alike during the miseries of the fallen and the enjoyments of the 

135 An expression common in the Middle Ages for gelehrt ! 

137 A very usnal wish among the lower classes in drinking a 
health : " May you live as many years as there are drops in my 
bumper of wine/' 


£)a§ ifyr am froren £ag crfdjeint ; 
§abt it;r e3 bormatS bod; mit un3 
$ta 6öfcn Sagen gut gemeint ! 
($ar monier fteljt lebenbig fyier, 
1>en euer 23ater nod; jutefct 
Der feigen giebernntti} entriß, 138 
311$ er ber @cud;e 3^1 gefegt. 
9lud; bamatS ifyr, dn junger 2Hamt, 
3fyr gingt in jebeS tfranfentyauS ; 
(9ar m<md?e Seiche trug man fort, 
3fyr aber !amt gefunb fycrauS, 
35eftanbet maud?e fyarte groben ; 
Dem Reifer tyalf ber Reifer broben. 139 

©cfunb^ett bem beh>äfyrten 3ftann, 14 ° 
Daß er noefy lange Reifen fann ! 

$or jenem broben ftefyt gebücft, 
Der Reifen lefyrt unb §ülfc fcfyicft, U1 

(Sr gefyt mit 2öagnern weiter. 
2B a g n e r. 
SBetcfy ein ©efüfyl mußt bu, o großer Hftatm, 
Söei bev 35erel;rung biefer s 3Jtenge traben ! 
O gtücflicfy, tt>er bon feinen ($aben 

188 Referring to the great plague that raged throughout Ger- 
many in the sixteenth Century, which visited Nuremberg in 
1533, Augsburg in 1535, Dresden in 1540, Vieiina in 1541, 
Ulm in 1547, &c. 

139 §elfen, used both as a verb and a Substantive — the Helper 
helped the helper, i.e. Gk>d assisted those who assisted others. 

140 Setoäfyrt — proved, tried men. 

141 Faust speaks here as a believer to a believing people, and 
touched by their hearty kindness and gratitude, which he cannot 
but feel unmerited, repays thera with words of truly pathetic 


(Sold? einen Sortiert jte^en !ann ! ,42 
©er Sßater jeigt bid) feinem ftnaben, 
(gm jeber fragt unb bra'ngt unb eilt, 
©ie gibel ftocft, ber STän^er »eilt. 143 
©u gefyft, in 9?eifyen fielen fie, 
©ie 9Jiüfecn fliegen in bie §öfy' ; 
Unb toenig fefylt, fo beugen fid^> bie $me, 
SU« Mm' ba$ 2$enerabile. m 

9to toenig ©dritte nod? hinauf ju jenem «Stein ! — 145 
£ier »ollen tmr oon unf'rer Söanb'rung raften. 
§ier faß id? oft gebanfenooll allein, 
Unb quälte micfy mit 33eten unb mit gaften. 
&n Hoffnung retcfy, im (glauben feft, 
9Jüt £fyrä'nen, ©euf $en, £änberingen 
©acfyt icty ba$ (Snbe jener ^3eft 
5Bom £erm be$ £immel8 l n ergingen, 
©er SDienge 23e!fatl tönt mir nun toie §ofyn. 
£) fönnteft bu in meinem 3nnern lefen, 
2Bte trenig 23ater unb Solm 
<2otcfy eines SRufymeS toertfy getoefen ! 
SJiein S3aterfU)ar;ein bunlter 146 (51?renmann, 
©er über bie Statur unb jfyre IjeiPgen Greife, 

142 Wagner again thinks only of the materiell advantages which 
Faust has gained by his great learning. 

143 SSeticn — to stop, to stay (intransitive and transitive). 

144 A fine double sense. " Venerabile " also used for the Host, 
which the Roman Catholica keep in peculiarly shaped vessels, 
called " Monstrantise," from monstrare, to show. 

145 An elliptical sentence in which both verb and subjeet are 
omitted ; „2B i r fy a b e n nur noey wenige dritte gu jenem ©tein 

146 £)unfel — a simple, humble, obscure man; not, as Filmore 
translates it, a sombre man. £)unfel is used in exactly the same 
sense as the English, or rather Latin word " obscurus," obscure. 


3n 9\etticfyfeit, jebod; auf feine SSBcife, 

3n grillenhafter aftulje fann, 

©er, in ®efeüfd;aft üou 5Xbcpten, 

©id; in bie fd/mar,$e Äüd;e U7 fd;iog, 

Unb, nad; unenbtid?en s Jieccpren, 

£)a$ übrige, lw äufammengoS. 

©a warb ein retber &u, ein fütmer greter, 

3m lauen 33ab ber 2itie bermäfyft U9 

Unb beibe bann, mit offnem gtammenfeuer, 1M 

147 The laboratory was called in the language of the German 
Alchemists the " Black kitchen." 

148 2)a$ SSibrtge— opposing forces. 

149 From the eighth Century of the Christian era the endeavours 
of all alchemists were exerted to find by their secret arts a mix- 
ture which would bestow not only riches, by turning anything 
whatever into gold and silver, but also health, and a long or even 
endlcss life. The alchemists, aecording to Goethe's description 
given in 1807, wished to represent emblematically the three ideas, 
God, Virtue and Immortality, by the philosopher's stone with its 
three creations (gold, health and eternal life) ; they also generally 
believed that the philosopher's stone could be produced by an un- 
known mixture of metallic " seeds." Aecording to Paracelsus, 
„ein rotier Seit" is the seed of gold ; a lily is the seed of silver ; 
„£)a§ laue $3ab" is the first fire to which gold and silver were 
exposed ; the vessel in which this was done was called the " ovum 
philosophicum," and the alchemist himself obtained the name of 
a fire or coal-pbilosopher (philosophus per ignem). From the 
first fusion (technically called the putrefastion) was obtained a 
black substance, which, by a continuation of the fusion (distin- 
guished as albification) turned into a white one, called the white 
swan or lily ; the heat being again increased the matter changed 
into a yellowish, and finally into a reddish substance, and this last 
was the philosopher's stone in its liighest perfection ! 

150 By an open flaming fire, i.e. the most intense heat. Com- 
pare Milton's Paradise Lost. Book V. 

" nor wonder, if by fire 

" Of sooty coal th'empirick alchemist 
" Can turn, or hold it possible to turn 
" Metals of drosslest ore to perfect gold 
"As from the mine " 



Sluö einem 23rautgemad; 151 ing antere gequält. 

<5rfd;ien barauf mit bunten garben lö2 

£)ie junge Königin im ®(a$ : 153 

£)ier toar bie ^Ir^enei, bie Patienten ftarben, 

Ünb niemanb fragte : teer gena$? 

@o Ijaben totr, mit fyöllifcfyen 8attt)ergen, 

3n biefen £fyä(eru, biefen bergen, 

SEßeit fcfylimmer als bte ^3eft getobt. 

3d? fyabe felbft ben ®tft 154 an £aufenbe gegeben ; 

151 The different vessels. 

152 In allusion to the above-mentioncd succession of colours, 
black, yellow and red. 

163 2)te junge Königin is here the philosopher's stone, to which 
numerous names were given. In the old alchemical book, " Do- 
num Dei Samuelis Baruch," we read the following : — 

" Put the royal maiden or hermaphiodite into an oblong vessel 
" of "acures" (glas?), and that into a sand chapel ''alazabus," and 
" this again into an oven, if thou appliest such algir (the four 
" degrees of heat) as Termon, Hervo, Humor, Algir, then will 
" arise the ' anima regis,' or lilium album, which is also called 
" draco volans ! " 

Wieland in his " Amadis " Vol. X, 29, describes the fabrica- 
tion of the philosopher's stone in the following channing lines : 

€d)on babet fidj int Sftorgenroü) ber tabmetfdje 3)va($e, 
9?a$bem e§ tfyn gafytn $u machen 2)tanen§ Stauben gelang ; 
$n rcenig Sagen, totelleidjt in ttenig ©tuncen, 
SBirb ifyreö aftralifdjen ©cfyns baS mtyftijdje SBeib cntbnnben. 

The white and red doves of Diana, and the drngon of Cadmus 
are often mentioned in alchemical Operations. Thestory coneern- 
ing Cadmus is, aftcr killing the dragon that guarded the fountain of 
Ares, he sowed its teeth, from which immediatel y sprung up armed 
men ; these turning their arms against each other, all feil with 
the exception of five, who afterwards assisted him in founding the 
city of Thebes. 

The •' bathing in the morning" refers to the change into the red 

154 ü£)er ©ift — in conformity with some old authors as Canitz, 
Günther, &c. Modern writers always use „baS ©tft." Opitz even 


Sic loctt'tcn tyw, id? muft erleben 
SDof man btc frechen körbet tobt. 

So a g n e r. 
$LMe fönnt ifyr eud; barum betrüben ! 
Stylit nid;t ein braver SKann genug, 
£>ie ftunft/ bie man ifym übertrug, 
($eioiffent;aft unb pünftttd; auö&uüben ! 
Söenn bu, atS 3üng(ing, beinen SSater efyrft, 
So toirft bu gern oon tfym empfangen; 
Söcnn bu, als $iann, bie SßMffenfctyaft oermefyrft, 
«So lann betn ©ofyn ju fyöfyerm 3tet gelangen. lö5 

£) gtücfttd), toer noety hoffen lann, 
&u3 btefem ^eer be$ 3rrtl)itm3 aufzutauchen ! 
SBaö man nicfyt toeijj, baö eben brauchte man, 
Unb loa« man toeig, fann man nicfyt brauchen, 
©od? lag unö biefer ©tunbe fd;öneö @ut 
£)ur<ty fotityen Xrübfinn md;t oerfümmern ! 
23etractyte, tote in Stbenbfoimeglutb 156 
£>ie grünumgebnen §ütten flimmern ! 
<Ste rüctt unb toetetyt, ber Sag ift überlebt, 
©ort eitt fie fyin unb förbert neues geben. 
£), baß fein gtüget mtety oom 53oben ^ebr, 
3fyr naety unb immer naefy ju ftreben ! l57 

makes it feminine, but „bie ©tft" like 2fth\uft, is now exclusively 
used in the sense of a dowry. 

155 Wagner i s incapable of appreciating Faust's remorse ; lue 
thinks every one has done his duty who has acted aeeording to 
the wisdom and will of his father ; but Faust, convinced that we 
are ourselves answerable for our doings, is not contented with the 
vulgär consolaüon of his disciple, though he wishes not to dis- 
turb this pleasing moment with gloomy reflections. 

156 A Compound of three substantives, 2lknb, ©onne and ©fatl)— 
the glowing of the setting sun. 

157 Eipressing his infinite longing to struggle for light. 


36) fä'fy' im etotgen &benfeftral)l 
£)ie fttöe äöelt in meinen güjjen, 
(Sntjünbet alle §>öfy'n, beruhigt jebeß £fyal, 
£)en ©itberbacfy in gotbne Ströme fließen. 
Sftctyt lammte bann ben göttergleicfyen 8auf 
ÜDer toilbe 33erg mit allen feinen ©cfylucfyten ; 
@d;on tbut baö TOeer fid^> mit erwärmten 33ucfytcn 
93or ben erftaunten fingen auf. 
£)octy fcfyeint bie ©öttin enblicfy toegsufinfen ; 
allein ber neue £rieb ermaßt, 
3d? eile fort, it?r eto'geS £icfyt ^u trinfen, 
$or mir ben £ag nnb hinter mir bie Wacfyt, 
£)en £)immel über mir unb unter mir bie ^Bellen 
Grin ferner £raum, inbeffen fie entroeicl;t ! 
2Icty ! ju beS ©eifteS glügeln toirb fo leidet 
Äein törperlid^er glügel ftcfy gefellen. 1 8 
£)ocfy ift e3 jebem eingeboren, 
£)a& fein ©efütyl hinauf unb oortoärtS bringt, 
SBenn über uns, im blauen 9?aum oerloren, 
3l?r fcfymetternb Web bie 8erd;e fingt, 
2ßenn über fctyroffen gidbtenfyöfyen 
©er SIbler ausgebreitet fcfyftebt, 
Unb über gläcfyen über @een 
£)er tranid; nad? ber £eimatfy ftrebt. 

SB a g n e r. 
3cty fyatte felbft oft grillenhafte ©tunben, 
£)ocfy folgen £rieb fyab icty nocfy nie empfunben, 
9Wan fielet fid? leicht an SBalb unb Reifen fatt, 
3)eS Vogels Sittig toerb' id; nie beneiben. 
SBte anberS tragen uns bie ©eifteSfreuben 

23on 33u$ $u ^ u * » cn ^ Iatt S u ^ latt ! 
£)a toerben SSMnternätyte tyclb unb fcfyön, 
(Sin feiig Seben härmet alle ©lieber, 

168 There is no " bodily " wing to help our spirit in its flight, 
still it is our nature to strive upwards. 


Unb aty ! entrottft bu gar ein uuirbig, *ßergamen, 
v^o fteigt ber ganjc \nmmel ju bir nieber h " 

jDu bift bir nur be$ einen £riebö bßtoußt; 
C lerne nie Ten anbewi lernten ! 
^tpet ^eclcu »ofynen, ad) ! in meiner abruft, l61 
JDie eine will fiel; Don ber aubern trennen ; 
£)ie eine l)äit, in berber &ebe3luft, 
©id; an bie SGBelt, mit t'lammernben Organen ; 
SDie anbre fyebt geroaltfam fid; com SDuft l62 
3u ben ©cfilteu l/ofyer Sinnen. 163 
£) gibt e8 ©eifter in ber Suft, 
£)ie j\i)ifd;en (&rb' nub §tramel fyertjcfyeub weben, 
(So fteiget nieber auö bem golbnen £)uft, iül 
Hub f ül;rt mid) toeg, ju neuem, buntem geben ! 

159 An older form for Pergament. 

160 Here we again find tlie dry Icarned pedant considering only 
the outward comfort whicli study affords, unable to appreciate tlie 
higher ränge of Faust's thoughts. 

101 Faust avers openly that Wagner is impressed by the one hn- 
pulse of bodily comfort, while in his own heart, alas ! there are 
two souls. We find the same view in Xenophon, where Arespes 
Bays that he has two souls, a good one and a had one. Pytha.o-oras 
also spuke of two souls, of which one had its seat in the heart, 
the other in the brain. 

Uiz 2)nft — a provincialism of Frankfort and its neighbourhood 
for „Staub." In English this word is still used in the sense be- 
forc us. 

163 Used of the higher beings with whom men are connected 
by their superior mental capacities. 

161 Golden is not to bc taken literally in this passage. It is 
very frequenily usediuGerman for excellent, distinguished, brave, 
aweet ; thus Goethe says : gotbener Mutige, golbette ftriidjte, .qolbene 
©^rfic&e, golbeue Soge, golbene dlnljt u. f. tt>. «— Here golden atmos- 
phere Stands for the higher atmosphere, as opposed to the lower 
and less pure air near the surface of tlie earth. 



3a, toäre nur ein gaubermantel mein, 
Unb trüg' er micfy in frembe öänber, 
TOtr foflt' er nm bie föftlid?ften ©etoänber, 
Wityt feil um einen ftönigSmantel fetm. 165 

2B agner. 
Berufe nictyt bie toofytbefannte ©cfyaar, 
£)ie ftrömenb ficfy im £)unftfrei3 überbreitet, l0G 
£)em 9J?enfd?en taufenbfäftige ©efafyr, 
$on allen Gmben fyer, bereitet 
$on Sorben bringt ber fcfyarfe ©eifter^atm 
Huf bid? tyerbei, mit pfeitgefpi^ten jungen ; 
$on borgen jielm, certroänenb, fie Ijeran, 
Unb nähren fidfy bon beinen Sungen ; 
SBerat fie ber Mittag aus ber ffiüftc fötdft, 
£)ie ©dttl) auf ©lutfy um beinen Reitet Raufen, 
@o bringt ber 2öeft ben ^cfytüarm, ber erft erquitft, 
Um btd; unb gelb unb $ue ju erfäufen. 167 

165 In the time of the " Fathers " it was the general belief that 
demons in the service of sorcerers lived in the lovver regions of 
the atmosphere : it is these demons that Faust here invokes. 

166 Ueberbreitet, in the sense of " pervading all space " — „üfceraft 
fyitt fid) toerbreitcn." Goethe also uses „ükrbrtngetr' instead of 

167 The superstitious, narrow-minded Wagner with all hislearn- 
iuo- still believes in the existence of these spirits of the elements, 
and even ascribes to them the several destructive characteristics 
of the four winds. The sharpness of the north wind, the drvness 
of the east, the buming of the south, and the obnoxious rains 
hrought by the west, are (he thinks) so many attributes of these 
spirits. Angelo Manzolli, better known as Marcellus Palingenius, 
published in 1527 a poem with the title: "Zodiacus Vit», or 
the four kings of ghosts," in which he describes very circumstan- 
tially all the demons which torment humanity. In spite of all 
the apparent folly which seems to have dictated these visions, 
there is much truth allegorically hiddcn in them, discernible in 
the names given by Manaolli to his demons ; for instance : Ty- 
phurgas ^the preparer of vapours), Aplestus (the insatiable), Phi- 


©ie fytfren gern, gum ©cfyaben frolj getoanbt, 
(Sc^ord)cn gern, toeil fic un$ gern betrügen, 
«Sie ftelten wie öom £)immel fiefy gefanbt, 
Unb lispeln englifety, m totnn fie lügen. 
Xtocfy gelten ttrir ! Ergraut ift fcfyon bte 2öelt, 
£>ie fttft gefügt ber gffefel fällt ! 
2lm $lbenb fcfyäfot man erft ba$ §au$. — 
2BaS ftetyft bu fo, nnb btidft erftaunt $mau«? 
$ßaä tarnt bidj in ber ©ämmrung fo ergreifen ? 


©teljft bu ben f c^ar^en £unb burd; «Saat unb «Stößel ftwifen ? 

So a g n e r, 

3d; fafy tljn lauge fcfyon ; nietyt tüictytig fetyien er mir. 


23etrac$t' itm recfyt! gär toa« fyältft bu ba8 Styer ? 

25 a g n e r. 
gür einen ^ßubel, ber auf feine Seife 
<5iü) auf ber ©pur be$ Ferren plagt. 

33emerfft bu, roie in weitem (Sdmed'enfreife 
@r um uns fyer unb immer näfyer jagt ? ie9 

iokreus (the friend of flesb), and Miastor (the avenger). These 
again are all subjeet to the great Sarkotheus (the god of flesh or 

168 They speak " angelically " — like angels — and not as Lord 
Gower wrote in his translation of Goethe's Faust, published 1823, 
page 46 : 

"They feign their native horae the sky, 
Assume a false gentility, 
And lisp in Engiish when they lie." 

ßngltfdj Stands for engelhaft, derived froni öngel, and is not here the 
contraction of ettgettänbtfd), derived from (Snglanb. 

189 AHuding to the seducer's closer and closer approach as he 
encircles his victim. 


Unb irr' tcty mcfyt, fo gtcf^t ein geucrftrubet 
$luf feinen ^ßfaben fyinterbrein. 17 ° 

$B a g n e r. 
3$ fefye tttci)tö als einen f cfytDarjen $ubel ; 
(£$ mag bei eud? ttofyt $Iugentäit[cfyung fetyn. 

3Jtir f cfyeint es, bag er magif d? leife ©fingen 
3u fünft'gem 23anb um unfre güße jic^t 

SB a g n e r. 
3* W t^u ungetütg unb furd;tfam unö umbringen, 
2Bei( er, ftettt feinet §errn, stoei UnMannte fiefyt 

8 a u ft. 
3>r ÄreiS tuirb eng, fc^on ifi er ttalj ! 

SB a g n e r. 
5Du ftefyft, ein §unb, unb fein ©efpenft, ift ba ! 
(§r fnurrt unb groetfelt, legt fidj auf ben 23aud> 
(5r toebett — aüeö £>unbebraucfy ! m 

©efelle biefy ju un«! fromm' fyer! 172 

no Whenever we look at a dark objeet moving quickly in tlie 
twilight, the Spaces successivelj left by the body seem brighter 
than the surrounding gloorn ; an optieal delusion which makes us 
believe that dark objeets are followed by a luminous train in the 
night. But here the word geuerftrubel (a whiripool of fire) is tobe 
taken in its literal sense, as an actual attribute of the evil spirit. 

m Wagner sees in the apparition nothing but a dog. £unbe* 
Ibraud)— just like all other dogs in all his ways, The power of the 
German language is espcciallj shovvn in such Compound words, 
which in a few syllables convey the meaning of whole sentences. 

172 The proper word is fyer, and not fyier. We say : fomm fyier* 
fyer or fytefyer, but not f ontm fyier f which is only usecl by a poetical 
license, as it confounds the interrogatives VDofytn, ttofyer (whence 
or whither) with tt?o (where) ; a similar confusion oecurs in such 
English phrases as " come here" (instead of hither), "where 
are von going ? " phrases which in English seem sanetioned by 


5B o g n c r. 
<i8 ift ein pnbclnärrifd? Xfyex. 
£)u ftcfyeft ftitl, er kartet auf ; 
S)u fprid;ft ifyn an, er ftrebt an bir hinauf ; 
Verliere roaö, er tmrb e8 bringen, 
^urci; beinern ©toef tnö SBaffer fpringen. 

SDu Ijaft iüol;l 9ied)t ; id) finbc nid?t bie ©pur 
SSon einem ©eift, unb alleö ift £)reffur. 1M 

2ß a g n e r. 
£>em £unbe, toenn er gut gebogen, 
28irb fctbft ein tueifer SJtonit gebogen. 
3a, beine ©tmft berbient er ganj unb gar 
@r, ber ©tubenten trefflicher <Scolar. 174 

@ie gefyen in baS ©tabttljor. 

@ tu bir 5 immer. 

S a U ft (mit einem $ubel, fyeretntretenb). 
Sßerlaffen t?ab' id; gelb unb Sluen, 
£)ie eine tiefe yiatyt bebeeft, 
Wiit afynungöüoUem, fyeil'gem ©rauen 
3n unö bie beff're ©eete toeett. 
@ntfd)tafen finb nun n>übe triebe, 
ü)ät jebem ungeftümen £fyun ; 
(£8 reget fiefy bie 5Ütafd?entiebe, 
X)te Siebe ©ctteS regt fid) nun. 


173 AYherever we find but a superficial polish \ve may well 
employ these words of Faust : " There is no reality but only an 
outward training ! " 

174 Instead of „@cfyofoV Goethe here uses the Italian form. 

170 Faust seems to have been subdued and calmed by his walk 
thronen the fields. — Love to man, and even love to God now 
moves his heart, though the feeling perhaps is more deeeptive 
than real, as it Springs rnerely from the recollection of happier 


<Sety rutyg, $ubet ! renne nicfyt fyin unb lieber ! 
5ln ber ©cfytoette tr>a8 fdwoberft bu fyier ? ,76 
Sege bicfy hinter ben Ofen nieber ! 
$ftein beßeS Hiffen geV id? bir. 
2öie bu brausen auf bem bergigen Sßege 
£>urcfy kennen unb springen ergebt uns ^aft, 
©o nimm nun aucfy fcon mir bie Pflege, 
«I« ein toiHIommner, fttöer ©aft. m 

Wfyß toenn in unfrer engen &Uc 
£)ie Santpe freunblicty lieber brennt, 
£)ann ttrirb'S in unferm 33ufen fyette, 
3m £erjen, baö ficty fetber lennt. 
Vernunft fängt lieber an ju fyrecfyen, 
Unb Hoffnung lieber an gu blüfyn ; 
9J?an fdjnt ftcfy nacfy beS 8eben8 2>äcfyen, ,?8 
md;! nacfy be$ &ben8 Duelle ^in. 17y 

knurre nicfyt, $ubel ! 3 U ^ en ^eiligen £imen, 

üDte }e&t meine ganje ©eeP umfaffen, 

SBitt ber tfyierifcfye 8aut nicfyt gaffen, 

2Bir finb getoofmt, baß bie 9ftenfcfyen fcerfyMmen, 

SBaS fie nicfyt t-erftefm, 

176 @<$nobern, old form for fd&tioWent, or in modern German 
fc^nn^em. ©djnobern seems to be derived from fönoben or f^naubcn, 
words used rather of horses than of dogs. 

As soon as Faust occupies his mind with ideas of the M Love 
of God " the poodle begins to be restless. 

177 After this invitation to become bis welcome, quiet guest the 
poodle again lies down. 

178 Faust would persuade himself that he is a trusting, hoping 
man ; he longs to drink of the stream of life. 3)e8 SebenS 23ä$e, 
meaning life in its quiet aetive flow. 

179 ( ( The fount of life'* is used for divinity, the real source of 
life ; this allusion to God is the reason of the poodle's again be- 
ginning to growl. 



£afe fic üor bem ©uten unb ©eignen, 
£)a6 i^nett oft bcfc^toerlid; ift, murren ; 
Sßiü eö ber ©unb, tote fic, befnurren ? 

&ber a$ ! fc^ott füfyt' icfy bei bem beften ©Uten, 

53efriebigung nicfyt meln*au8 bem Söufen quillen. 

§lber toarum muß ber «Strom f o batb oerfiegen, 

Unb toir toieber im durfte liegen ? 

£5aoon $aV tefy fo oiel (Srfafyrung ! 

©od? biefer fanget Uißt fid; erfefeen ; 

$Bir lernen ba$ Ueberirbifd?e fd;äßen, 

Xöir fernen uns nad; Offenbarung, 

£)te nirgenbö toürb'ger unb fcfyöner brennt, 

$118 in bem neuen Üeftament. 

s iKid) brängt'8 ben ©runbtert auf$ufd;Iagen, 

SDlit reblid;em ©efüljt einmal 

£)aö fyeilige Original 

3n mein geliebtes 3)eutf<$ $u übertragen. 181 

@r fd^Iägt ein SBolum auf unb fd)idt fid& an. 
©ef<tyrieben ftefyt : ,,3m Anfang toar baS £ö o r t." 

180 In this black poodle Faust' s own rebellious temper is Sym- 
bol ically represented ; he endeavours to paeify his own growling 
and snarling, but in vain ; the more anxious he is to quiet his 
discontent the more unruly does it become. 

191 Faust Stretches his hand towards the Book of books, but he 
does it without faith ; he wishes to translate the holy writ froin 
the original text into his darling German, tbat he may find com- 
fort for his disturbed mind ; but alas ! there is no comfort for one 
who believes not; the Bible affords no consolation to those who 
attempt to criticise what should, and must, be taken as the word of 
God, It is not without design that Faust is made to open the 
Bible at the commencement of St. John's Gospel. It was this 
very portion of Scripture which principally oecupied the learned 
in the Middle Ages, and which was made the subjeet of the most 
contradictory commentaries frora the pens of those who trusted 
too much to the power of their own scrutinizing wisdom. 

182 The spirit of doubting criticism rises in Faust' s mind at the 
very first line. " In the beginning was the word" 




§ter ftocf id? fdjon ! 2öer fyilft mir weiter fort ? 

3d) fann ba8 Si5 o r t f o fyocfy unmöglich fd;ä£en, 

3d? muß e8 anbcrS überfein, 

3Benn id? oom ©etftc recfyt erleuchtet bin. 

©ef trieben ftefyt : „3m Anfang n>ar ber ©in n." le3 

23ebenfe toofyl bie erfte Seile, 

£)aß beine geber ftd; nicfyt übereile ! 

■3fft e$ ber ©inn, ber alle« ttnrft uub fd;afft ? 

@3 feilte ftelm : „3m Anfang toar bte & r a f t" ,H1 

@d;on toarnt miefy toa$, baß id; babei nid;t bleibe. 

aittr tylft ber ©eift I 2Iuf einmal fey id? töaty, 

Unb fd;reib getroft : „3m Anfang war bie X fy a t." 

<SoH id? mit bir ba$ 3i mmer Reiten, 

$ubet, fo laß baö beulen, 

@o laß baö Seilen ! 

©olcty einen ftörenben ©efellen 

SJtocj tefy nicfyt in ber Sftafye leiben. 

©ner bon uns beiben 

3Jtojj bie geße meiben. 

Ungern fyeb' id? ba8 ©aftred;t auf ; 

£)ie £fyür ift offen, fyxft freien &tuf. 

183 The ihought, or rather the meaning or sense ; trying to de- 
monstrate that before there was a word, there must have been a 
meaning to require that word. 

184 He doubts still ; he thinks the power which could supply the 
meaning, or invent and pronounce the word, must have existed be- 
fore either. 

185 Not yet contented, he thinks himself suddenly aided by the 
spirit, and writes : " In the beginning was the deed" Superior 
and previous to the power, the sense, the word, must have 
been the deed, which used the power in order to bring sense 
into the word, and to pronounce it. Thus Faust, instead of gain- 
ing comfort, loses his last support, and entangles himself more 
and more with contradictions tili at last he doubts in revelation it- 
self. At this point the growling of the poodle becomes louder 
than ever. 


s .)lbcr »aö muß idf? fcfycn ! 

Äami baS natürlich gefd;el)cn ? 

3p cö (5d;attcn? ift c3 SBirflityfctt? 

2öte »irb mein ^ubel lang unb breit ! 

@r fycbt fiety mit ©emalt ! 

<£)a$ ift nidjt eine« §unbe3 Oeftalt ! 

mty ein ©eftenft bracht' id? in'S £au$! ,8ß 

@d;on fielet er tote ein ^ttpferb aus, 

Tiit feurigen klugen, fd;recftid;em ©ebiß. 

D ! bu bift mir gewiß ! 

gür fold;c fyatbe Höllenbrut 187 

3ft ©alomomä (Scfytüffel gut. 188 

©Ct per (auf betn ©cmge.) 

©rinnen gefangen ift einer ! 
bleibet fyaußen, folg' ifym feiner ! 
2öie im (Stfen ber gucfyS, 
3agt ein alter £)öllenlud)3. m 

186 He sees before him his own incredulity embodied as an awful 

187 He mistakes the poodle for one of the spirits of the four 

§aI6e §öUenbrut, half-hellish brood. 

188 ©alctmontö @d)lü[fet. In the works of Flavius Josephus (who 
wrote in the first Century of the Christian era), is mentioncd king 
Solomon's power over ghosts, and the sarae power is spoken of in a 
well-known conjuring book ascribed to Origen (A.D. 185.) — 
There appeared at a later period another conjuring book in Hebrew 
which has been attributed to Solomon, and which was translated 
into Latin, French, Italian, German and Spanish. The best 
known German edition has the title : " Glavicula Salomonis et 
Theosophia pneumatica." The book contains different forms of 
conjuring spirits. and it is to these that Goethe alludes. 

189 The old lynx of hell — Mephistopheles — whom the chorus of 
spirits promise, if possible, to set free. 



©cfytoefcet Ijin, fcr/roebet lieber 
2luf unb meber, 
Unb er l?at ficty to6gema$t. 
$önnt ifyr tfym nü£en, 
2ctjst tfyn nictyt fi^en ! 
£)enn er tfyat uns allen 
©cfyon btel ju (gefallen. 
. (Srft ju begegnen bem Spiere, 
33raud? 7 id; ben ©pructy t»er $tere : 
©alamanber f oll glüben, 191 
Unbene ficfy toinben, ,92 

190 £)er ©£ruc§ bcr SSiere — against the different spirits of the four 

191 According to the Cabbala tbere are four classes of spirits, or 
middle beings (i.e. beings of a nature intermediate between God 
and man) residing between heaven and earth, called " Shedims," 
all subject to one cbief, Asmodeus. These spirits were composed of 
fire ; fire and air ; or fire, air and water ; or again of fire, air, water 
and a fine earthly matter. Those of the first two classes, (and 
therefore the Salamandri, spirits exclusively of fire) were in- 
visible and benevolent ; those on the other band, into whose 
composition water or earthy matter entered, were visible andmis- 

Empedocles, the Agrigentine philosopher, accepted four ele- 
ments : fire, air, water and earth, as also two principle faculties 
or powers, concord and discord, or amity and enmity, of which one 
had the power of uniting, the other of dissolving. In reference 
to this hypothesis wefind in Plutarch's "Ethica" the following 
lines personifying (like the Cabbalists,) the several elements : 

" Four seeds and roots of all tliings that you see, 
Now listen, first, and hearken what they be. 
Lord Jupiter with his ignipotence, 
And Lady Junoes vital influence, 
Rieh Pluto, and Dame Nestis weeping ay, 
Who, with her tears our seed-source wets alway." 

This and similar passages may show how great an analogy exists 
between the old Jewish traditions and the heathen philosophy. 

192 Nymphsc or Undensc, the spirits of water, also Naiads, 


©tytyfye betf#tDtnbe&/ m 

ßobolb fid> nützen ! lM 
2öcr ftc nietet fennte, 
£ie (demente, 
3l;re Äraft 
Unb ßtgenfcfyaft, 
&3äre fein Reiftet 
Heber bie ©eifter. 

25erfd;toinb T in gfommen, 

©alamanber ! 

föaufctyenb fliege jufammen, 

Unbene ! 

Seucfyf in SUJeteorenfcfyßne, 

©M>$e ! 

SBring' fyäuftficfye pfiffe, 

3ncubu8! SncitbuS ! 1SÄ 

Xxitt fyer&or unb mad;e ben <5$iufi! 

193 Sylvani, Sylphi, the spirits of air. 

194 Pygmsei, also Gliomes or Cobolds, the spirits of earth. Al- 
bert the Great, Count of ßollstaedt * wrote, under the pseudonym 
4 ' Teutonicus," a very learned treatise on the elementary spirits 
(i.e. spirits of the elements, water, fire, air, <fec.) ; and we have 
also from the pen of Paracelaus another essay, " De Nymphis, 
Sylphis, Pygniseis et Salamandris, et de ceteris spiritibus" ; 
in his " Philosophia Sagax " he investigates the nature of the 
Nyrnphse (water spirits), Gnomi (earth spirits), Vulcanales (fire 
spirits), and Lemures (wood spirits). We find, however, in these 
inquiries nothing but the old traditions of Roman and Greek 
mythology, clothed indeed in a more mystical and more Spiritual 
garb, as they contained a mixture of the then imperfectly under- 
stood doctrines of Christianity. 

195 « I ncu |) US » was the name of the house-cobolds — house- 
spirits — eorresponding to the Eoman " Lares." There were also 

*Boni 1195, or aecording to others 1205, obiit 1280 ; he was one of the most learned 
men of the thirteenth Century, and the first to treat of the various fimetions of the brain ; 
a subjeet which has been advaneed to comparative perfection only in the most recent 


&eme8 ber SBiere 

@tedt in bera £fn'ere : 

(5ö liegt gan^ rufyig, unb grinft mid; an 

3cty I?ab' ifym nocfy nid;t toefy getljan. ,96 

£>u foßft mid> boren 

©ta'rfer befctytoören. 

SBift bu ©efeüe 
©o ftefy bieS 3eid)en, 
£)em fie fid> beugen, 
£)ie fc^tüarjen 3d;aaren ! 

©cfyon fcfyttriüt c8 auf mit borftigen paaren. 

23ertr>orfne3 SBBefen ! 
ft'annft bu ifyn lefen, 
£)en nie entfproßnen, 
£)urd) alle 5pimmel gegoßnen, 
grefcentlid? burebftodmen? 

hinter ben Ofen gebannt, 

©drillt e$ tote ein (Slepfyant ; 

£)en ganzen 9?aum füllt e$ an, 

(5$ toiü jum s J£ebel verfließen. 

©teige md?t ^ur Dcde fyinan ! 

&ge biefy ju be$ ^JteifterS giißen ! 

£)u fietyft, baß tety nid?t »ergeben« brofye. 

3d) uerfenge bid) mit ^eiliger 8ot;e ! 

female house-cobolds, called " Succubse." Faust finding that 
the first conjuring formula is too weak uses a stronger form of 
incantation, and invokes his household-gods. 

196 There is nothing of the four Clements in this animal, there~ 
fore it is neither an carthly being, nor one of the " middle be- 
ino-s " tliat dvvcll between heaven and earth, it must then bc an 
infernal spirit. 


Grrn>avte triebt 

£)aö brcimal cjlüljenbc l'td;t ! 

(Srtoarte nicfyt 

SDte ftärffte oon meinen £ünften ! m 

SÜiepfyift opfyeleg 

tritt, tnbem ber Sicbcl fättt, cjeHeibet wie ein fafyrenber @djoIafttcu8, hinter 

bem Ofen fyertior. 

2Öo|n ber 8ärm ? toaS ftefyt bem §errn 31t 1)tenften ? 


£>a$ alfo toar beS Rubels tot ! 198 

(Sin f aljrcnber ©colaft ? £)er (iafnö lSi) mad;t miety lad/cn. 


3d; falnttre 200 ben gelehrten £>errn! 
3fyr fyabt mtcfy luetbttd; fcfyimfcett machen. 

2Bte nennft bn btcfy ? 


£)ie Srage fcfyetnt mir ftetn 
gür einen, ber baö Söort fo fefyr berad;tet, 201 

197 The infernal spirit as he is conjured by the varions spells 
increases and expands, and when threatened with the u threefold 
glowing light" (the Trinity) takes the form of a wandering 
scholar. (See Preface.) 

198 ( ( This then is the poodle's kernel." Mephistopheles appears 
to Faust in the form of a wandering scholar, representing thus 
his Antitype. This is a deep satire on the whole scholastic, 
spiritless course of study practised in the Middle Ages. In the 
oldest book on Faust (called „ba§ $-cmft*33n$" published 1587, 
by John Spies, at Frankfort), the evil spirit appears to Faust in 
the form of a monJc. In Germany whatever troubles visited the 
people were immediately attributed to the agency of infernal 

199 A technical wordused by scholars forfact, "this fact makes 
me laugh." 

2j0 " I salute you." The Germanized form of the Latin. 

301 Iirallusion to his incredulity (vide notes 182-185). 


'Der, toeit entfernt »on allem ©cfyetn, 
9?ur in ber Sefen Xiefe trautet. 

53et eud?, tljr £>errn, lann man ba$ SSefen 
©etoöfynlicfy aus bem tarnen lefen, 
So eg fid; aü>beuttid? toeift, 

Senn man eud? gliegengott, 202 Sßerberber, m Sügner 204 fyeijjt. 
9hm gut, tt>er bift bu benn ? 

©n £fyeil öon jener ftraft, 
T>ie ftets baö SBöfe toill, unb ftets ba$ (#ute fcfyafft. 206 

2Ba$ ift mit btefem SRätfyfelroort gemeint? 
5Dd e p ^ i ft o p ^ e I e ö. 
3d? bin ber ©eift, ber ftet* verneint ! 206 
Unb baS mit 9?ectyt : benn altes, ttaS entfielt, 
3ft toertfy, baj3 eS ju ©runbe gefyt ; 

202 Beelzebub, or rather Baalzebub, the idol of Ekron. (II. Kings 

203 Abaddon. 

204 Satan. 

205 Part of that power which though willing evtl continually 
produces goed. No evil spirit can succeed in anything against 
God, but rather proraotes, by its very wickedness, the aims of an 
infinitely good power. Milton's Beelzebub raakes the same 
eonfession : 

" for He, be sure 

In height or depth, still first and last will reign 

Sole king — and of his kingdom lose no part 

By our revolt : but over hell extend 

His, and with iron sceptre rule 

Us here." Paradise Lost, Bk. 2. 

206 «j ani the spirit that " denies" (opposes). Having rebelled 
against his Creator, his perverted mind no longer acknowledges 
or values virtue, and consequently his only pleasure consists in 
opposing and thwarting everything that tends to good. 


•Drum bcffer toär'S, baß mdjts entftünbe. 
£o ift beim atteS, tt>a$ tfyr @ünbe, 
^erfttfnmg, furj baö SBöfe nennt, 
-Ottern eigentlich Sternen*. " 7 


Du nennft biet; einen jEIjeü, unb ftefyft bod; ganj bor mir? 208 

33efd?etbne Söaljrfyeit fared?' iety bir. 
SBenn ftdj ber ittenfer/, bie Heine 9?arrentt>ett, 209 
©etoöfynücfy für ein ©anjeS t)ätt : 
3cfy bin ein £fyeil be$ ST^eild, ber anfangs alles toar, 21 ° 
©n £r/eil ber gmfternig, bie fiefy baö Sictyt gebar, 

207 Mephisto finds his real dement, and his sole happiness in 
Opposition and the consequent destruetion of the beautiful har- 
mony that exists throughout all God's works ; he delights in wrong 
as the opposite of right, in sin as the annihilator of virtue, he 
revels in the demolition of everything existing, in one word his 
sphere is evil, as the enemy of everything that can develope the 
glory of the Creator. 

208 @inen Sfyetf , part of that power ! yet thou art standing here 
as a whole, a total, a totality, that is a being " in se et per se." 

209 Älluding to man, who is in fact a world in miniature — a 
microcosraos (vide note 20). 

210 "Iaraa part of that part which first was all " — meaning 
darkness, the universal darkness which in the beginning was upon 
the face of the deep. The old heathen mythology taught that 
Erebus was the offspring of Chaos, and that from the union of 
Erebus and Night was produced Aether, i.e. light or day ; and it 
is in allusion to these wild myths, that Mephistopheles asserts 
that light sprang from darkness ; he speaks of the proud light 
contending against mother night, because cut off from his God, 
he is no longer capable of understanding the universal and har- 
monious sway of the Creator, and that darkness and light are alike 
His creatures, and alike subjeet to His will ; he cannot grasp the 
Psalmist words : " The day is thine and the night is also thine.' , 
(Psalm 74, 16.) 


£)aS ftolje $id)t, baö nun ber Butter Wad)t 

£)en alten SKang, ben föaum tfyr ftreittg mad/t. 

Unb bod; geltnßt'ö iljm nid)t, ba e8, fo biel eö ftrebt, 

SSer^aftet an ben Körpern Hebt ; 2U 

35on Körpern ftrömt'ö, bie Körper mad;t es f$öH, 

(Sin Körper fyemmt'S auf feinem ©ange. 

(So, fyoff icfy, bauert eS ntebt lange, 

Unb mit ben frörpern toirb'3 gu ©runbe gefyn. 


üftun lenn' id? betne toürb'gen ^3f(id;ten ! 
£)u lannft im (Großen mcl;tö ocrnid;ten, 
Unb fängft eö nun im kleinen am 212 


Unb freilid? ift nidjt oiet bamit gctfyam 

2£aö fid? bem 2äd>tS entgegenftetit, 

£aS (Stroaö, biefe plumpe Sfißett, 

@o biet atö id) fcfywt unternommen, 

Scfy tougte nid;t ifyr fceijutommen, 

SJitt 2Mten, ©türmen, (Schütteln, £3ranb ; 

©erufyig bleibt am Gmbe s Ifteer unb i'aub ! 

Unb bem oerbammten geug, ber S^^ier * unb 9Jtafd;eubrut 

£)em ift nun gar nichts angaben. 

2Bie biete fyab' icfy f d;on begraben ! 

Unb immer cirtulirt ein neues, frifd;e# ©tut 

©o get?t es fort, man möd;te rafenb toerben: 

©er 8uft, bem Gaffer, U)ie ber (Srben 

(Sntttunben taufenb fteime fiffy, 

3m £rodnen, geuzten, Carmen, halten ! 

211 "It clings to material bodies (to matter) as if captivated." 

212 Faust laughs at Mcphisto's attempts to destroy, as ho seeß 
at once how vain and impotent are liis efforts to contend on a 
large scale witli Deity ; all lie can do is to destroy little things, 
and boast of having aehioved BOmething great. 


£)ätt' id; mir ntdjt bic (Stamme öorkljalteu, 
3$ ijättc nid;tö s 2tyartö für mid;. * 13 

813 The preceding lincs assure us that tlie negative (destruc- 
tive) power in the universc (herc call cd " darkness " ) is by no 
nieans all-powerful, as it cannot annihilate everything, but is forced 
to act within certain limits and under certain conditions, and even 
then only so far as is generally benefieial to the universe ; dark- 
ness has no power of interfering with the positive (creative) power 
of " light." 

The word „9Hd)t3" does not mean abstract, absolute u nothing," 
but only the original chaotic condition of matter, as opposed to 
its condition after it has been acted upon and arranged by the 
separating influence of light. The prince of darkness complains 
that he has tried in vain to overthrow by waves, storms, enrth- 
quakes, and thunder-bolts the firmly set land and ocean ; that he 
has endeavoured to root out the race of man and beast, with- 
out success, for in all and everything he finds opposed to him an 
overflowing tide of fresh blood that ceaselessly circulates to pre- 
serve and renew the life he would destroy, — Goethe's Mephisto 
closcly resembles Satan as depicted by Milton, though there is 
cvidently the same diüerence between the two coneeptions as there 
is between the poems themselves, one character being epic, the 
other dramatic. Each of them represents the principle of destruc- 
tion. Milton's Satan, however, is a colossal figure, the idea of evil 
in the abstract. Mephistopheles is the elaboiate personification of 
evil in the concreto. Satan is a fallen angel, there is grandeur in 
his very wickedness. Mephistopheles is the modern spirit of evil, 
with all the petty refinements of a eunning world. Satan is 
capable of reasoning soundly aud forcibly. Mephistopheles can 
only argue like a subtle, well-versed sophist with no other aim 
than to confound. Satan is an enterprising spirit, his ideas are 
gigantic, he longs tomeasurehis strength with' an Almighty God. 
Mephistopheles though acknowledging his weakness still tries to 
do evil simply for evil's sake. Satan's greatness lies in the gran- 
deur of his aim. Mephisto is great only in the pettiness which 
allows him to avail himself of any means whatever of doing mis- 
chief. — Satan can still be moved by nobler feelings — He declaims. 
Mephisto scorns every better feeling and throws into his observa- 
tions a sarcastic venom to poison the höhest ideas. Satan is not 
yet the accomplishcd devil. Mephisto h the dry, denying, sarcastic 



©o fe£eft bu ber eu>ig regen, 
Der fyeüfam fctyaffenben ©etoatt 
Die falte £eufel§fauft entgegen, 
Die fid? »ergebend tücfifd; baut ! 2U 
2Baö anberS fud?e ju beginnen, . 
De3 (SljaoS h)uubcrttd;er ©ol?n ! 

9J2 e p Ij t ft o £ 1; e 1 e £„ 
SEötr tootteu toirtTtd; nn$ beftnnen ; 
!£)ie näd;fteumate mefyr baüon! 
Dürft' id; H>ofyl biegmat mid) entfernen ? 

3d; fetye ntd;t, toarum bu fragft. 
3d; fyabe je£t biefy fennen lernen ; 
23efud?e mm mtdj, tüte bu magft. 
§ner ift ba£ genfter, I;ter bie £fn'tre ; 
(Sin 9?aud;fang ift btr and; getoig. *'* 

©eftel)' id;'3 nur, bag id) l;inaugfpa^iere, 
Verbietet mir ein tleineö §inbermß, 
Der Drubenfufc auf eurer @d;n)ei(e. 216 

devil that opposes or destroys everything in a world which ho bc- 
lieves to be going to perdition. 

2U Faust immcdiately fathomed the real depth of bis power, and 
discovered that Mephisto can " only clench bis deviPs fiat iu vaiu " 
against a creative, ever-active power. 

215 It was the general bclief that vvitches and evil spirits flew in 
and out by the window or chimney. 

216 The " wizard's foot." The pentagramma, or pentalpha 
which is formed by producing all the sides of a Pentagon, in 
both directions, tili they meet. 

In German this figure is called ,,2)ntben«8;tt{3,'' from S)ntbe, or 
S)rut, a witch ; also %ty, Stfyenfitfe, 3lfyfreu$. The Pythagoreans 
were acquainted with this sign, and ussd it to signify health. 
The superstition of the Middlc Ages ascribed to it the power of 
preserving from ghosts and witches, and even now we find this 


Dal sßentagramma macfyt btr $etn ? 
(51, faflc mir, t>it ©olni ber jpööc, 
gBettn M3 bid; bannt, u>ie tamft bu benn fycrctn ? 
8Bic toarb ein folget ©eift betrogen ? 

üft e p I) i fi o p 1) e t e ö. 
93efcftaut e8 red;t ! eö ift nidjt gut gesogen ; 
Der eine Sßmfet, ber nad; außen ju, 
3ft, wie bu fiefyft, ein wenig offen. 


3>a$ fyat ber 3ufaU gut getroffen ; 
Uno mein (befangner warft benn m ? 
Ta& ift con ungefähr gelungen ! 

SUi e p () i ft o p fy e ( e 6. 
©er ^itbel merfte nid;t$, als er fyereingefprungeu : 
£)te 5ad)c'fie()t jefct anberö a\\$ ; 
Ter £eufe( tarnt nid;t au8 bem §au& 

§ a u ft. 
£od? warum getyft bu uia)t burcl;3 genfter ? 

^ ift ein ©efefc ber Teufel unb ©efpenfter : 
2B© fie fyercingefdjlüpft, ba muffen fie tyinauS. 
£)a3 erfte ftet)t uns frei, beim feiten finb wir ftnedjte. 2X7 

sign in many parts of Germany painted on cradles to protect 
children against the influenae of bad spirits. 

217 We must observe an allegorical sense in the devil's words, 
though when taken literally they are in perfect aecordance with 
the superstitious belief of the Middle Ages vvhich taught, that 
evil spirits and phantoms were obliged to go out the sauie way 
as they harl entered. But Goethe wishes also to imply that 
when an evil spirit has found an entrance to the heart of a man 
througli an opening afforded by any passion, he wül not leave tili 
he has destroyed him by means of that very passion. This 
allusion raises in Faust's miud the idea, that as there are laws 
even in heil, it is therefore possible to enter safely into an agree- 
ment with one of its inhabitants. 



£)ie £ölle fetbft $at ifyre töeityte? 
£)a8 finb' tcfy gut ! ba liege fid^ ein *ßact, 
Unb fieser toofyt, mit eud;, ifyr Sperren, fcfylte&en? 

9ft e p 1) i ft o p 1; e l e 6. 
2öaö man oerfyrid^t, ba« foHft bu rein genießen, 
5Dir Vüirb baoon nid;ts abgejtt>a<ft. 
$5ocfy baö ift nicfyt fo furj ju faffen, 
Unb tt>ir befbrecfyen ba« juttä cfyft ; 
£)ocfy jefeo bitt' id?, fyod? unb fyöd;ft, 
gür biefeSmal mi$ ju entlaff en 219 

<&$ bleibe bod) noefy einen 5lugenblicf, 
Um mir erft gute üttetyr au fagen. 

3e£t (aß miefy lo$ ! id; fomme balb jurüd; 
£)ann magft bu nad; belieben fragen. 

3d) I)abe bir nicfyt nad;a,eftetlt, 
SBift bu boefy feibft in« ®arn gegangen. 
£ten Teufel r>alte, tt)er ifyn fyätt ! 
Czr toirb ifm mcfyt fo balb jum jtüettenmale fangen. 

SBenn bir'« beliebt, fo bin td) and) bereit, 
£)tr jur ($efel(fd?aft Ijier gu bleiben ; 

218 " Pactum " a Latin word of common use as a Law-term in 

29 Mephisto, too well acquainted with the frailties of tho hu- 
man heart, knows that suspense is a sure way of increasing Faust's 
desire of satisfying himself as to the possibility of entering into 
an agreement with the powers of hell ; he therefore refuses to say 
more, but hints that all may be done, taough not quite so quickly 
as Faust desires. 




ro;b mit SBcbtnönig/ bir bie 3eit 

Tiivd; meine fünfte toürfctg ju vertreibe«. 2 

3d? fety' c$ gern, ba8 ftefyt btr frei ; 
9fotr ba§ bie ftunft gef&ütö fei! 221 

Du wirft, mein greunb, für beine ©innen 
3n biefer @tunbe mefyr gewinnen, 
3U6 in beS SafyreS (Einerlei. 
5ß3a0 bir bie garten ©eifter fingen, 
Die fctyßnen Silber, bie fie bringen, 
@inb uid;t ein leeret ^auberfpicl. * ! 
Slucfy beut ©crud? wirb fiel; ergeben, 
'Dann wirft bu beuten ©aumen leisen, 
Unb bann entlieft fidj beut ©efüfyl. 
Bereitung braucht e$ nid;t boran ; 
33eifammen finb wir, fandet an ! 

©elfter. 224 
©cfywinbet, ifyr bunfetn 
Wölbungen broben ! 

220 Ke created diffieulties, to induce Faust to ask him to re- 
main ; and now that he has gained his objeet, will only con- 
sent to stay on the condition of being allowed to beguile Faust's 
leisure with bis skill. 

221 " But let it be something gay." Tbis is tbe only condition 
Faust asks, and on such terms does he surrender Ins doubting, 
weary soul to the influenae of the devil. 

222 u Tjjg beautiful images are not a mere magic play." 

223 Seijen, to delight — " Smell, taste and touch shall be en- 
chanted, i.e. every sense shall be gratified. 

521 The spirits in the Service of the devil. The song which 
these spirits sing is in its versification, no less than in the sub- 
limity of its ideas, a perfect masterpiece : there is a richness and 
melody in these short verses, and pure rhymes, in which the ming- 
ling of Dactyls with Trochees, is beautifully varied by the oc- 


SRcijenber fd;cme 
greunblid; ber blaue 
51 etiler herein ! 
Söären bie bunfeln 
SBotfcn verronnen ! 
@temelein funfetu, 
9Mbere Tonnen 
©feinen barein K5 
§)inimüfci;er ©öfync 
detftige @d)öne, 
©cfytoanfenbe 33euguna 
©d^toebet vorüber ; 
©efynenbe Neigung 
gofget hinüber. 
Unb ber ©etoänber 
glatternbe 23änber 
Werfen bie öänber, 
£)ec!en bie £aube, 
28o fid? furo geben, 
STtef in ©ebanfen, 
£iebenbe geben. 2W 
V'aube bei &mfce ! 
(Sproffenbe Ütonf en ! 
Stafteube Traube 

casional introduetion of the lively Choriambic at tlie rhyth- 
mical conclusion of a sentence ; the whole is the more pleasing 
as the regulär flow of ideas is never for one moment disturbed by 
any difficulty or harshness of the construetion. Tlirough the in- 
tricate web of metapbor we can trace five prineipal images in- 
tended to gratify Faust's five senses. 

225 rpj ie ( j ar |, vau ]|- f ^he g]oomy study disappears, and is re- 
placed by the clcar blue sky with its myriads of glittering stars, 
and its beaming suns. Tre expression bitnfle SBotfen, is used here 
for the vapours which cause the blue appearance of the sky. 

226 p rom t n i s p Ure s ky angehe forms descend to unite the happy 


©türjt inö £3et;ciltcr 
Drcingenbcr Kelter, 
©türjett in S3äc^en 

(2d;ättmcnbc SBeintv 
Riefeln burd; reine, 
<Sb(e ©efteine, 
Saffen bie $M;en 
hinter ftd; liegen, 
Bretten jn (Seen 
<Sid; nm§ ©enügen 
<$rünenber §>ügel. m 
Unb ba$ ©eflüget 
<Sd;lürfet ftd; SBomie, 
Stieget ber (Bonne, 
Stieget ben gelten 
Snfetn entgegen, 
SDtc fiefy auf Letten 
©aufetnb belegen ; 
2ßo ttnr m Stören 
Saud^enbe fyören, 
lieber ben 3Inen 
STan^enbe fd;auen, 
SDie fic^> im freien 
SXtXe jerftrenen. m 
Einige flimmen 
Heber bie ©ößett, 

227 What a ricli description of nature's sweet and busy life is 
given in tliis fantastic picture of a heaven on earth. „©enügen 
grünenbe §ügel" — " to the pleasure er satisfaction of blooming 
hüls." A similar use of the abstract for the concrete oecurred 
above in the lines. 

@d)ttanfenbe ^Beugung 

©efynenbe Neigung, 

228 From this life the spirits are to fly with the swiftness of 
birds, to some bright isle where they shall see enraptured dancers 
and hear enchantiug songs. 


5lnbere fc^tütnxmen 
Heber bie (Seen ; 
Slnbere fd;tt>eben, 
Me gum £eben, 
TOe jur gerne 
Siebenter ©lerne, 
(Seliger $ulb. m 


£r fetyläft! (So recfyt, it>r tuft'gen, javten 3ungen ! 

31)r fyabt ifyn treultd) eingefungen ! 

gür bieg Soncert bin tcl> in enrer (Sdmlb, 

£)n bift nod; nid;t ber SJJann, ben geufel fcft^ul;alten ! 

Umgaufelt ilm mit fügen £raumgeftalten, 

Sßerfenft tt;n in ein iUteer be6 Söafynö ! 23 ° 

£)od; biefer <Sd;tt>elle $auber 51t 3 erf palten, 

33ebarf icfy eines föattenjafynS. 

Sfttcfyt lange brattd;' tefy $1 befd;toören ; 

@d;on raffelt eine fyter, nnb rotrb foglcid; mid; fyören 


©er §err ber hatten nnb ber SMäufe, 

©er Sitegen, gröfcfye, Sffian^cn, öäufe, 

23eftel;lt bir, bid? ^eröorjutoagen, 

llnb biefe ©teile &u -benagen, 

(So n>ie er fie mit £)el betupft. — 

$)a fommft bn fd;on fycroorgefyupft ! 

9to frifefy an'£ Sßerf ! üDie <Spi£e, bie miety bannte, 

229 All press on with a perpetual longing towards the far distant 
joy and happiness. 

230 " Sink him in an ocean of deeeption." The füll meaning 
of SBa&n cannot be rendered by any one English word, it unites 
in itself the notions of error, delusion, deeeption, fancy ; the ex- 
pression here means, in a sca of imagined realities, a flood of 
fancied, unreal pleasnres, either spiritual or physical. 

231 Conjuring a rat ; to show emblematically how Mephisto 
delights in anything loathsome, especially if it has at the samc 
tirae the power or the inclination to destroy. 


Sie fifct ganj dornen an ber «stallte. 
Wcü) einen SBtfr fo tff S gefcfcefyt I — 
9ton, ganfte, ™ tränmc fort, bis h)ir im« iotcbcrfclm ' 231 
Sauft (erwadjenb) 

SBtn tety beim abermals betrogen ? 

^erfdrtoinbet fo ber adftcrreid;e ©rang, 

£ta($ mir ein SEraum ben Teufel oorgelogen, 

Unb bajj ein ^nbel mir entfprang? 

© t it b i r 3 1 m m e r. 234 
Sauft. ^epljtfto^eleS. 
(5$ tlopft ? ©cretn ! 2öer rottt mid; lieber plagen ? 235 

1U e p fy t ft o p l) e 1 e 3, 
34 bin'«. 

herein ! 

£>u mußt eS breimal fagen. 23G 

23 ' The Latin vocativo of Faustus. 

233 This exclamation of tbe evil spirit has a deep meaning. 
The " dream on " with which he addresses Faust, indicates that 
his victim has been lulled into a dreamlike Stupor, in which he 
has lost the real and true eomprehension of his relation to God. 
Faust is now all but in the power of the demon of doubt and de- 
nial. All his coneeptions of a divine power are completely 
deadened, if not for ever destroyed, and he gives himself up, a 
prey to the delusions of a merely sensual excitement. 

2rtt This is the famous „SSertragfcene," the scene in which Faust 
enters into an agreement with the devil. After leaving Faust to 
brood in solitude over his griefs, and the deeeptions practised upon 
bim, Mephisto intrudes upon him as an old acquaintance. 

2,5 This linc shows the continual dissatisfaction under which 
Faust labours; he finds himself again tormented — „trieber plagen." 

235 Mephisto induces his victim to invite him. He does not 
wish forsooth to encroach upon anybody, and therefore asks to be 
called three separate times ! 


fjerein benn ! 

(So gefällft tut mir. 
2Bir toerben, f/off tcfy, uns ö ertragen ! 
£>emt bir bie (drillen 31t »erjagen, 
33m icfy, olö ebler 3unfer fyier, 237 
3n rotfyem, geteerbrämten ftteibe, 
£)aS 9Jtöntetd;en öön ftarrer <2eibe, 
£)te §)almenfeber auf beut gmt, 
9Jiit einem (äugen, fpifcen £)egeu, 
Unb ratfye nun btr, furj uub gut, 
dergleichen gleichfalls anzulegen, 
Tamit bu, loSgebunben, frei, 
(Srfafyreft, »>a« baS geben fety. ?3S 

3n jebem ftleibe toerb' tcb ivofyl bic *ßein 
£)eS engen (Srbetebenö füllen. 
3d.) bin ju alt, um nur ^u fptelcn, 
Qu jung, um otme SBunfdj ju fefyn. 
2öa3 fann bie Seit mir U)c^( genxi Ijren ? 
Grntbefyren fotlft bu ! f oflft entbehren ! 
£)aS ift ber etoige ©efang, 
£)er iebem an bie Dfyren flingt, 


237 German superstition made the devil appear frequently as a 
fine dashing young man, a fop (Runter — corresponding to the slang 
word '■' Swel) " ) — we find him therefore familiarly spoken of as 
— „@d&BitI)art8," " fine Johnny, the gent." 

233 Mephisto intends to seduce Faust by a lifo of lieentiousness, 
and he therefore entreats him to dress in a manner more suited 
to his intended character. Fashion and its follies are here dis- 
tinctly intioduecd as snarcs employed by the evil one. 

239 What good advice ! " Thou slialt renounce," impressing 
the duty of self-denial. It is because so many mcn like Faust, 
know neither how to renounce nor how to bc happy in self-deuial, 
that the devil makes such an easy prey of mankind. 


Ton, unior gonjeS Veben lang, 

Untf Reifer (efce Stunbe fingt, !l 

Sfcnr mit (Sntfefcen rndf tdt* Borgens auf, 

od) motte bittre £t)räucu weinen, 

Ten Za$ gu febn, bei* mir in feinem Vauf 

Oiicbt litnen 2$unfd* erfüllen wirb, ntcfyt (ginen, 

$)er fclbft bic xUlmung jeber 8nft 

3Rtt eigenfinnigem drittel miubert, 

£)ie ©djöpfung meiner regen Söruft 

2Jtft taufenb ßcbcnöfrafccn r/iubert **' 

Sluc^ muß id;, wenn bie ^acfyt fiel; meberfenft, 

Sfjtfd; ängftttd; auf ba$ Sager ftreefen ; 

fluty ba totrb feine 9?aft gefdjenft, 

3Ät$ werben wtlbe Xräume fd;recfen. 

£)er ©ott, bermir im Hilfen wormt, 

Renn tief mein 3nnerfte$ erregen ; Ui 

SDet über alten meinen Gräften thront, 

(Sr tann nad; äugen ntdjts bewegen. tu 

240 Compare the following passagc in Gocthe's „SSafyrfyeit imb 

— „Unfcr ^fifd&es fon?ot)f, als gefeßigeS Men, (Sitten, ©e* 

roolmfyetien, Söeitfhigbett, Wlofojjljte, ÜMigion, ja fo mandjes anfällige 
(greignift, atteS ruft im« 311, baß mir en t f a g en fotten." 

In the last lineof ourtext, Reifer" does not mean „M§ jur Reifer* 
feit/' but designates the disagreeable impression made 011 those 
who are obliged to hear this song. 

241 Faust complains of being bafflod in all his wishes and en- 
deavours by a thousand set forms and dull realities, wliich he calls 
Lebensfragen, the defö'rmities oi human lifo. 

843 The inborn active principle within us is here spoken of as a 
divine power — a God ! 

213 Although this God, this power of imagination is able to 
create wild wishes and desires in the heart, it cannot create the 
corresponding externa! objeets, it cannot render real, or give a 
form to any one of its imaginär y ereatiotis. 


Unb f o ift mir ba$ £)afein eine &ift, 

&er £ob ertt>ünfd;t, bag Seben mir ^er^aßt. 244 

Unb bod) ift nie ber £ob ein ganj tmüfommner ©aft. 21S 

D fetig ber, bem er im ©iegeöglange 
33te bütt'gen Sorbeern nm bie ©cfyläfe ttinber, 
£)en er, naefy rafd? burebraftem Sanje, 
3n eineö 9Wä'bd;en8 Innen ftnbet. 
O toär' id> bor beS fjofyen @eifte§ itraft 24 * 
(Sntjücft, entfeelt bain'n gefunden ! 

Unb beefy fyat jemanb einen braunen (Saft 
3n jener Sfotcfyt nid;t auSgetruufen. 217 

Ü)a8 ©piontren, fcfyeiut'3, ift beine &tft. 248 

244 At the beginning of our play we saw Faust tormented only 
by an insatiable thirst for knowledge, but novv since the evil spjrit 
has kindled Ins imagination, we find him longing after wordly 
pleasures, the absence of which makes bis life no less burdensonie 
tlian before. Faust advances one step farther on the path uf per- 
dition. Not contented with bis wicked resolution of freeing liis 
soul by suieide from its bodily poison, that mingling with the 
clouds, it may become a part of the ever-thrilling Bpirit of the 
universe, and thus learn the essence of things, he wishes to ob- 
tain as much sensual enjoyraent as possible to gratify his animal 
passions, now that he has failed to find the satisfaction, which bis 
reason longed for. Mephisto having dragged his prey thus far 
mto his net enjoys his victim's struggles with a devilish delight. 

215 Alluding to Faust's having contemplated suieide on Easter 

246 "VVhen the spirit of carth appeared to him and spoke the 
word of thunder (see note 71). " Thou art equal only to the spirit, 

247 A second and more palpable allusion to the poison which 
Faust had all but swallowcd. 

248 (t r£\, G deyil delights in playing the spy." Faust's answer 


Vllhinffcnb bin id; nidjt; bod) niel ift mir betrugt. 2, ° 

SSBenn auö bem fd;t*cctüd;cn ®eu}ül;te 
(iin |üjj bekannter San mid; 30g, 
SDen Oieft üont t'inbtid;cu ©efütyte 
SHit Änttang froher $eit betrog : 
'2o flud/t' id; allem, waö bie (Seele 
s lKtt ^oa* unb ©aufeltoerf umfüannt, 
Unb fie in biefe £rauerfyöl;le 250 
2Hit Sötenb« unb ©d;meid)etfrä'ften bannt ! 
SBerfluctyt DorauS bie l;ol;e Meinung, 
SEBomit ber ©eift fid; felbft umfängt ! 
5BcrfIud;t ba$ 23Ieubeu ber <2rfd)eiuung, 
£ie fid; an unfre (Sinne brängt! 
33erflud;t, loaö miß in träumen fyeucfyelt, 
£c$ 9iuimt3, ber 9'temen8bauer £rug ! 
^erflud;t, toa$ als 3?efi£ unö fdmieid;ett, 
3HS 2£eib unb trab, als Äne$t unb <Pflug ! ■' 
33erflud;t fei) Mammon, 252 toeim mit ©cfyä'tjen 
@r unö 31t ! ülmen £l;aten regt,. 

expresses (hat the whole System cf political aud social spying is 
nothing but an invention of the devil, 

249 Here he again acknowledges his inferiority to the all-know- 
ing power, but boasts like a minister of the secret police, of his 
deep knowledge of everything corrupt and depraved. 

250 £rauerl)öftle— here means life, to which Faust feels himself 
" condemned." 

851 Faust curses every better and purer feeling, he laments that 
hc is still a prisoner on earth, and deplores that I113 hand was ever 
staid by the recollection of his early innocent days, ealled up by 
the long-forgotten song of his childhood. 

252 Mammon — a hebrew word meaning " money." He calls 
for a curse 011 this infernal power whenever it may incite to action 
(i.e. to deeds of restless speculation), or again whenever it may 
serve to procure a couch for indolent delights. 


Sßenn er ju müßigem Grrge^en 
£)ie ^olfter unö jurecfyte legt ! 
glucfy fety bem 35alfamfaft ber Zxauhtn I 

g-lucty jener fyödjften WebeSfyulb ! 

glud; fety ber Hoffnung V gtud) bem (Glauben, 

Unb giud; cor allem ber ©ebutb ! 2bZ 

(3 e i ft e r d; o r (unfid;tbar). 
m$\ lue!)! 
£)u l;aft fie jerftßrt, 

£)te fd)öne Söelt, 

9Jtit mad/ttger Sauft ; 

©ie ftürjt, fie verfällt ! 

®n Halbgott fyat fie ^erfd/lagen ! '" 

2Blr tragen 

SDtc Krümmern 255 tnö s J£td;t3 fyinüber, 

Unb Hagen 

lieber bie berlorne Bd;inte, 


£)er (Srbenföfyne, 


SBaue fie rcieber, 

253 Patience, enduranee, love, hope, faith are one and all ac- 
enrsed by this despairiug spirit, and by this feaiful curse is des- 
troyed bis whole moral and intellectual world ; by it too he gives 
himself up completely to Mephisto. 

264 This chorus of invisible spirits is throughout tbe voiee of 
sarcasm ; the expression of " demi-god " is but an ironieal sneer. 
These infernal spirits mockingly pretend tolamentover thatbeau- 
teous world which Faust has destroyed. The chorus shows us 
how the devil not only throvvs the most baneful thoughts, hke fiery 
darts into our rninds, but sneeis and laughs to see our happiness 
blighted, and our hopes ruined by his false pretences, and revels 
in the knowledge that he can make no adequate return for any- 
thing we have lost by his means. 

255 Goethe here uses Si'ünimern for krümmer/ which would b*- 
morc correct. 


3n bcincm 33ufen baue fic auf ! 

leiten Lebenslauf 


äftit feuern @inne, 

Uub neue Lieber 

2#nen bavauf ! 266 

Wl c p l) x \t o |) fy c t c 8. 
£)iefc fiub bie Heuten 
S3on beu Petiten. 2)7 
$>öre, U)ie 51t Suft uub STfyatcn 
ältfütg fie vatfyeu ! 
3u bie SBelt teeit, 
SUtS ber Gnnfamfeü, 
2öo (Sinnen uub (Säfte ftoefeu, 
SBotlen fie btety lodeu. 

£)ör' auf mit beiuem ©vam 31t fpielen, 
rev, u)ie ctu ©eier, bir am Selben frigt ! 


25i ^ ow t j iat ] ie } iaS) j n consequence of his indomitable pride 
annihilated as it were his past existence, the spirits advise him to 
begin a fresh life, to build up a new existence in his own breast, 
promising that it shall be one of enjoyment and boundless plea- 

257 Mephisto in drawing Faust's attention to this song, speaks 
of the invisible spirits as his " Iittle ones," alluding to the little 
house-spirits, cobolds, "Heinzelmen," &c. ; but there is an allusion 
also to those bad passions bj which Faust's heart is entangled and 
drawn within the vortex of sensuality. Neither Mephisto nor his 
"familiär spirits," distrusting as thejdo the nobler side of man's 
nature, can coneeive that Faust, once made acquainted with 
" the world 1 ' can ever rise again to purity or virtue. 

858 The expression „tntt bem ©ram jptelen," refers to the delight 
that evil spirits take in looking on grief — the pleasure they de- 
rive frora seeking out whatever may occasiou pain. 

259 Drawing a comparison between Faust and Prometheus. By 
the " vulture " is to be unclerstood the restlessness and dissatis- 
faction which gnäws at Faust's soul. 


£te fd?ted;tefte ©efeöf $aft lägt bid; fügten, 

£)ag bit ein 3Renf$ mit SWenfäen bift. 26ü 

£>od? fo ift'8 mcfyt gemeint, 

£)id) unter ba3 ^)3act $u flogen ! 

3d? Bin fetner bon beu ©rojsen ; 2(U 

£)od? totÜft bu, mit mir vereint, 

©eine ©dritte burctyö £ebeu nehmen, 

<5o tt>itl \d) mid) gern bequemen, 

©ein ju fem auf ber Steile, 

3d; bin bebt ©efeüe, 262 

Unb mad? td) btrö red;t, 

S3m id; bein Wiener, bin bein 5lned;t ! 26-t 


Unb toa8 fott id; bagegen btr erfüllen ? 


£a^u fyaft bu nod) eine lange grift 


üftetn, nein! ber Teufel ift ein Grgoift, 
Unb tfjut nid;t leidet um ©otte3 willen, 

260 Seek society ! Be not alone ! Even the worst Company will 
remind you that you are a man, and amongst rnankind. 

261 Mephisto here, with well-affected bashfulness, offers Faust 
his Services. In the words " I am not one of the great," he 
again confesses his inferiority, but in such a way as to mislead 
Faust, for he immediately afterwards proposes to aid him, and 
promises to be of great use to him. 

r62 „©efelle" — fellow, companion, mate, in the sense of afellow- 
worlcman. He is also willing, if Faust requires it, to be his ser- 
vant and to work for him, 

263 The evil spirit in order to entice his victim, offers to serve 
him as a slave, and to stay at the pleasure of his future master. 
We thus see how the devil tries to seduce our Faith, withouc 
making any attempt on our Free-will. 


8£a8 einem Zubern ttüfcltd? ift. m 
©pric^ bte SBebtngung bentlicfy aitö ! 
Gin folget ©fetter bringt (^cfal>r in£ £>au$. 

vul; toftt aüd) fy t er git beinern SMcttft serfchtben, 
Slnf betnett ©in! tttcfyt raften nnb ntd;t rulm ; 
SÖemt tmr uns brüben nneberfinben, 
<2o foltft bn mir ba$ ©teicfye tbnn. 2 " 

£)aö Grüben famt midj wenig ütmmern : 
©ebtagft bn erft biefe 28e(t in Krümmern, 
£)te anbre mag barnaefy entftelm. 268 
$ta$ biefer Grrbe quitten meine g-renfeen, 
Unb biefe dornte fcfyemet meinen Reiben ; 2J7 
Aiann lty m miefy erft Don ttmett [Reiben, 
£)ann mag, tvaö Unit nnb famt, gefd;et;n. 

264 One of the most striking characteristics of the evil spirit is 
selfishness, a feature in direct Opposition to the teaching of our 
Saviour: as selfishness does nothing for God's sake to benefit 

235 Mephisto is for once quite straightforward and explicit. I 
will serve thee here ! Thou shalt serveme there. All who sur- 
render themselves during this life to the evil spirit, will have to 
pay for the pleasures of earth with eternal servitude in another 

26i To the devil's great delight, Faust already begins to speak 
as an unbeliever, as one who cares only for the present world, 
without a thought or fear for the future. 

2li7 We are reniinded here of Shelley's lines : 

"This world is the nurse of all we know; 
This world is the mother of all we feel ! " 

268 „können" has here no suitable meaning, as it cannot 
imply either a doubt as to the natural necessity of death, or any 
intention on Faust's part of conmiitting suieide, for he can do this, 
whenever he chooses ; it must be either a slip of the pen, or a 
misprint for f off, imtfj or wevb ! 


:6 r < 


Dason n>i(( id? md;t3 weiter fyören, 
DB man and) fünfttg fyafjt nnb liebt, 
Unb ob e$ auety in jenen ©paaren 
(Sin Oben ober Unten gibt. 

3n biefem Sinne fannft bu'$ tragen. 
SBcrbtnbc biefy ! bu f oüft in biefen £agen 
W\t greuten meine fünfte febn. 
3d; gebe bir, roa$ noefy lein Iftenfd? gefelm. 

San ft. 
2öa3 ttrittft bn armer £eufet geben ? 
2öarb eines Steffen ©eifr, in feinem fyoben Streben, 
S5on fcetoe« ©leiten je gefaßt? 270 
Docfy fyaft bu Steife, bie nic^t fättigt, fyaft 
•Du rotfyeS ©otb, baS ofnte $ttft, 
OuedfUber gleid;, bir inber £anb gerrinnt ~ n 
(Sin Spiet, bei bem man nie gewinnt, 
(Sin 9Jiäbcben, baS an meiner ©ruft 
üDtft dengeln 572 fd;on bem <ftacpar fid? »crbtnbct, 
Der (Sfyre fc^öne ©öttertuft, 
Die, tüie ein Meteor, »erfcfylmnbet — 
3eig' mir bie gruebt, bie fault, el)' man fie briebt, 
Unb SBäimte, bie fiefy tägiieb neu begrünen ! 2 ' 3 

269 He is liow boasting in a spirit quite opposed to his previous 
tone. (Vide Note 261.) 

270 Faust openlj declares that every human being Stands far 
above the reach of the evil one ; it is in our power to Crash Satan 
whenever he attempts to shake our faith, or our trust in God. 

271 In aecordance with the old adage : „2Bte gen)omten,fo5erromten;" 
everything gained by bad means is the devil's gold, and always 
changes into dross : for it can never protit us, but tends only to 
our hurt. 

272 A derivative from angeln — to leer. 

273 " Tre'es that bloom anew each Coming day." 


3R e p i) t ft o \> l; e l c s. 
Gin folget Auftrag greift mid; utd;t, 
SNift folgen ©el;%u tarnt id; bleuen ; m 
£)o$, guter g-reuub, bic 3eit fommt aud; l;erau, 
®c atr »ad ®ut8 in s J?ut;e fd;maufen mögen. 

SBcrfc' id; beruhigt je mid; auf ein gaulbett legen, 
©o fei e$ glcid; um mid; getfyan ! 
jfannft tu mid; fd;inetd;elnb je belügen, 
Taj3 td) mir jelbft gefallen mag, 
tf amift bu mid; mit Öenufe betrügen : 
£a$ fei für mid; ber lefete Sag ! 275 
SDie ^cttcbtetMd;! 

s )Jiepf;iftopl;eleS. 
£op ! 273 

271 The devil proinises to gratify Faust in his wish for continual 
change and excitement. It is one of tlie most striking features 
in the life of a man under the influence of the evil spirit, that he 
enjoys no rest, no quiet, no satisfaction. Ncver conteuted with 
his present State, he is ever wishing for change, which in the end, 
renders him only the more dissatisfied. Im such a man body 
and soul are alike restless and uneasy. Mephisto well knowing 
this, makes no objeetion to undertaking vvhatFaust desires. 

275 Faust freely confesses his firm conviction, that Mephisto 
possesses nothing that can satisfy his glowiug desires, and engages 
that, if ever he enjoy a day, nay a moment of real contentment, 
that moment shall be his last. Thus does this insatiable spirit, 
blinded and carried away by pride, abandon himself more and 
more to the aecursed one. 

276 General ly written £opp, from the Italian slang '-• Topo, ,: 
Spanish "toppo." In lower Saxon the form used is „Stty})." It 
means „@djlag ein ! " Your hand, done, agreed ; and is derived from 
the Italian 'toppare" (to throw a die). Adelung defines theword 
Xopp as an exclaniation used in common life, to intimate the con- 
clusion of a wager or of any agreement made merely by a shake 
of the hand. Grimm in his „Seutföe 2ütertr/ümer" has the follow- 
ing remark on this word: *9ioti) l;eute rotrb bei feierlichen Verträgen 
mit» ©ciübben §anb in £cmb gefcfyfofleit. grüner öefd)afy aud) bie germ 



Unb ©d;lag auf ©c^lag ! m 
Sßerb' tcty jum Slugenbticte fagen : 
SBerwetle bocfy! bit bift fo fd)cu! — 
Datm magft bu mtcfy tu geffeln fd)(agen, 
£)ann roiü tcfy gern 31t ©runbe gefnt ! 
£)amt mag bie £obtettg(otfe f chatten, 
£)amt bift btt betneS üDienfteö frei, 
£)te Ufyr mag fte^n, ber 3^ger fallen, 
(§8 fei bie £tit für micf) borbet ! 27tJ 


33ebenF e$ roofyt ! tt)tr reerben'S md;t bergeffen. 

SDaju ^aft bu ein toolteö Stecht. 
3d; l)abe mid; ntcfyt frebentltd? fcetmeffen ; 
<Bie id; befyarre, bin tcfy ftntfyt, 
Ob bellt, roaS frag' id?? ober Neffen. 279 

3ft e fc fy i ft o p fy e 1 e g. 
3cfy werbe fyettte gleid;, beim £)octnrfcfymau3, 18 ° 

burd) Söerütyren ober tünftoßen mit ben Ringern (fttnflerfptfcen), ober bem 
bloßen Daumen, baS fytefc : ftit^fen, fiüpfen, ftipfen, (ober tupfen, tupfen, 
tiefen), whence the interjeetions : topp, top, ttp, are derived." 

277 The compact with Mephisto is now actually signed ; it has 
beeil concluded morally ever since Faust' s fiery spirit aliowed 
doubt tu have iho mastery in Ins mind. 

i78 Eaust, standing as a human being between his Creator and 
the Evil one, still trusts in that Spirit which made him aspire to 
the infinite, and still believes himself supeiior to the destruetive 
power of the devil, whom he thinks at last to bo able to subdue. 

2 ' 9 To be a slave, to be deprived of freedom, to yield ablind 
obedience to any being whatever, seems to him as bad as the paina 
of hell or eternal death. He scorns to serve an Almighty power 
quite as much as to be subjeet to the original author of sin. 

The expression „tüte id; beharre" does not mean u as long as I 
keep my promise," but " in whatever way I live." 

280 2)o>.torfd)ntan?— the dinner given to celebrate the admission 


9M6 ©iener, meine $flt$t erfüllen. 

Wur einG ! — Um 8eben$ ober Sterben« Witten 

©itt' id; mir ein paar feilen au«. 

}lud; loa« t^efcfyriebne« forberft bu gebaut? 
$cft tu noefy feinen üfltotm, nid;t s JUtannc8n>ort gefannt? " 81 
Sft'8 uid;t genug, baß mein gefprodme« 3öort 
Sluf etmg fett mit ineinen Sagenhaften? 
9taft nid>t bie Seit in allen Strömen fort, 
llnb mid; fo(l ein Jßerfprectyen galten ? 282 
£)octy biefer Söa^n ift im« in« §e*| gelegt; 
©er mag fiel; gern baoon befreien ? 
SBcfllütft, toer Sreue rein im 33ufen trägt, 
Äein Opfer wirb il;n je gereuen ! 28J 
allein ein Pergament, betrieben unb beprägt, 
3ft ein ©efpenft, bor bem fidj alle fd&enen. 
*£)a« Sort erftirbt fd;on in ber geber, 
£>ie iperrfcfyaft führen ©ad;« unb Seber. 284 
2öa« toillft bu böfer ®eift oon mir? 
(*rj, SDiarmor, Pergament, Rapier ? 
Soll tcb mit ©rtffei, Geißel, geber fd;retben ? 
3d) gebe jebe 2£al;l bir frei. 

of a candidate to the doctor's degree. Why Mephisto should 
propose to show his powers at the doctor's-dinner cannot be ex- 
plained ; the proposal is in direct Opposition to the advice he gave 
to Faust at the beginning of the scene, viz. to lay aside the doctor's 

281 Is it not enough to have my word. 

i82 Does not the world rush onward free in all its streams, and 
shall I be bound by a promise ? 

283 By him no :?acrifice need be made in order to keep his 

284 Common wax (Bee's-wax) was used for sealing documents 
previous to the introduetion of sealing wax ( " Cire d'Espagne," 
or „fpanijd?eg $£aü)8" as the French and Germans call it) which 



2ßte magft bu beine ^ebneret 

v Jhir gleich fo fyi^ig übertreiben ? 

3ft bocfy ein jebeS 231ättctyen g itt. 

£)n unterjeictyneft bicfy mit einem £töpf<$en SBlat 

Söenn bie$ bir böftig ©'trüge tfynt, 
(So mag e$ bei ber grage bleiben. 28 * 

SWepfyift opfyeleS, 
231nt ift ein ganj befonbrer Saft. 

9te feine gurcfyt, baß id) bieS SBünbmjj brecfye ! 
£>a$ (Streben meiner gangen Straft 
3ft grabe ba3, t»a$ icfy oerfprecfye. 
3cfy fyabe mtefy in Ijoä) gebläßt ; 
3n beinen 9fang gefyör' tcb nnr : 
©er große ©eift ^at mtcfy öerfdjmä'fyt, 288 

did not take place, tili the middle of the sixteenth Century. 
" Leather," meaning " Parchmcnt." Compare Hamlet, Act. V 
Sc, 1. 

"Harn. Is not parchment made of sheep-skins? 

" Horat. Ay, my Lord, and of calve-skins too. 

" Ham. They are sheep and calves which seek out assurance 
in that." 

In Austria doctors' diplomas are still sealed with common wax 
attacbed to the document in a wooden case. 

295 This was the usual way of signing a compact with the evil 
spirit, aecording to the superstitious belief of the Middle Ages. 

28<? Faust sneers ironically at the proposal, calls it " a farce," 
an " absurd whim," and submits to it as a mere matter of form. 

287 As Faust is determined to give himself up exclusively to 
the sensual, after having been deceived and disappointed in the 
pursuit of the spiritual, he can assert with truth that what he now 
promises is all that his struggling soul can wish for, viz. " to enter 
into an agreement with the evil spirit." 

288 ]£ ver s ince he heard those overwheiming words : " Thou art 
equal only to the spirit thou canst conceive." 


Sßcx mir berfcfylicfet ficfy tic ftatut, 
3>e$ SXmfenö gaben ift griffen j 
ÜÄtr cfctt lange &or altem SCßiffcu, "■ 
Vaß in ben liefen ber ©tntittctyfeit 
Ituö gtü^enbe i'cibcnfdiafteu füllen ! 
3it nuburcfyDruitgncn 3<»nberljüflen 
©et jetcö Söunbcr gleich bereit ! 
Stürzen wir nnS in ba$ SRaitfdjen ber 3^ 
3n« Collen ber Gegebenheit ! 290 
Da mag benn ©djmerj unb ©emtg, 
Gelingen nno SSerbrufc 
9Äit einanber wed;feln, wie e8 fann ; 
9Jitr rafttoö betätigt ftd> ber Stfann« 

<5ud) ift fein TOag nnb 3^1 gefefet. 
Geliebt' $ enefy überalt 31t nafd;en, 
3m gliefyen etwas gn erfyafd^en, 
SBefomm' enefy wcfyt, toaü euefy ergebt. 
3ta greift mir jn, nnb feib nidjt blöbe ! 2!H 


£>n Ijöreft ja, bon greub' ift nid)t bte 9?ebe. 

£)em Xamnel weil;' icfy mtcfy, bem fdmter^ücfyften ©ernig, 

2W Must not be takea literally: u I have long been disgusted 
with all knowledge ;" here " long " only means the time that 
has elapsed since he was so deeply humiliated by the spirit of 

290 His restless spirit, ever eager for action, wishes to rush free 
from restraint into the depths of worldly enjoyment, and in the 
aeconiplishment of this desire Mephisto is willing to help him 
with all his infernal power. 

291 In strief aecordance with his general character, Mephisto- 
pheles loves to excite the wild passions of his victim still farther 
by throwing in sarcastic and fiippant observations, which from 
their very coarseness form the strongest contrast to the gigantic 
coneeptions of Faust. 


Verliebtem £aj}, erquicTenbcm Verbrufe. m 
2fiein Vufen, ber bom StffenSbrang geseilt ift, 
Soll leinen Sdmiergcn fünftig fid> Betfd&liejjen, 
Unb toa$ ber- gangen 5D'tenfd^eit 3it^etl?etU \% 
SBtil id? in meinem innern Setbft genießen, 293 
DJtit meinem ©etft bag £)M;ft> unb 3Tteffte greifen, 
3fyr 2Bofyt nnb 2öefy auf meinen 53ufen Raufen, 
Unb fo mein eigen ©elbft ju ifyrem @etbft erweitern, 
Unb, tote fie felbft, am @nb' aud? icfy gerfd)eiterm 

9Ji x epfytfiofcfyetee. 
£) glaube mir, ber manche taufeub 3afyre 
%\\ tiefer garten Steife laut, 
£)a& oon ber 2öiege bis jur Vafyre 
Äeut SFienfd; ben alten Sauerteig oerbaut! 
©taub' unfer einem, biefe£ ©anje 
Oft nur für einen @ott gemad;t 
@r ftnbet fiel; in einem eto'gen ©lange, 
Un$ fyat er in bie ginfternijj gebracht, 
Unb euefy tau^t einzig £ag unb tftoctyt 29i 

292 This most painful of enjoyments — this " enamoured hate" 
that we feel when our deepest love is disappointed by any ob- 
stacles from without. 

293 Repulsed on the path of knowledge, his expeetations from 
a whirl of enjoyment exhibit the same sanguine temperament 
as before. " And what was given," he exclaims, " to all mankind 
to share, that will I feel within my inmost heart." 

294 As the Satan of Milton often looking back upon the happy 
moments he enjoyed in the sight of the Almighty humbly ac- 
knowledges his own inferiority : so the Satan of modern times, 
Mephisto, though speaking in coarse mockery, gives expres- 
sion to a similar sentiment. The Universe, he means to say, as 
a whole is only to be understood by God as a being of absolute 
virtue and omniscience, for the word light, glory, (©fanj) is used 
here figuratively. Satan on the contra ry is condemned to eternal 
darkness (allegorically ; absolute evil). Man again, who is ex- 
posed to the continual change of day and night, light and dark- 
ness (thai is, good and evil) must be considered as a middle-being 


Sau ft. 

SUfeto hft »iK ! 29> 

&a$ läfjt fid; fyöreu ! 
Tod) nur bor drittem ift mir bang ; 
Tic 3cit ift furj, bie ttunft ift lang. 10; 
3$ bäd;t% ifyr ließet euer; beleihen. 
Slffocürt euefy mit einem ^oeten, * 297 
tfajjt bell §errn in ©ebanfen fd;\octfcn, 
Unb alle eblen Dualitäten 
5luf euren ©Ijrenfdjeitel Raufen, 
£>c« 8ötoen 9Jta% 
3>S £>irfd;e3 Sd;nettigfeit, 
3>8 Gtaliänerö feurig SBfot, 
X)e6 Hertens Taurbarfeit ! 2Ü8 
%a$t ü;n eud; fcaS ©eljcimniß finbeu, 
©rofemittfy unb UrgÜfi gu berbinbeu, 
Unb eud?, mit irarmen Sugenbtrieben, 
ÜJtod; einem ^tane gu beriieben ! 

Standing between God and Demon, striving after ligbt with his 
spiritual faculties, but eontinually dragged down to daikness by his 
material Organization. In the „93efenntmffe einer fdjßtien @eele" we 
find a similar idea: „0 umrnm muffen n?ir, um ton feieren (divine) 
2)tnqen 31t reben 25i(ber qebraneben, bie nur äußere gnfiäube anseigen ! 
SBo ift für 3^nt (God) etwas §ofye3 unb SiefeS, etttaS 2>unfle6 ober 
^efleS? SSir nur fyaben ein Oben unb Unten, einen £a,q unb eine s Jcad;t.' J 
2 " 5 But I am deeided. " It is my will." SBoßen expresses 
here the moral determination or resolution to do anything. 

298 " Time is short, but art is long." (Vide Note 46.) To 
whatever pursuit our spirit turns, we have but little time to ex- 
haust all that may be known of even one single branch. 

897 With voluble impertinence he recommends Faust to get some 
poet to fit him up with all the qualities befitting a hero of 

298 2>auerbcu1eit — durability, foititude, fiom bauern to endurc, 
to last. 


^öd)te fetbft folcfy einen Ferren t'ennen ; 
SBürb' tijn §errn 2Wifrolo$mu8 nennen. * w 

San ft. 
2Ba§ Bin icfy benn, ioenn e$ nicfyt meglid; ift, 
3)er 2Lftenfcfyl;eit frone ju erringen, 
yiaty ber fid? alle Sinne 30 ° bringen ? 301 

£>u btft am (Snbe — toaS bu bift. 
Se£' bir ^ßerrücfen auf Don Millionen Soden, 
<3efc' bei neu guj} auf ellenfyofye «Soden, 302 
£)u bleibft boefy immer — toaS bu btft. 

3d) füfyl'3, bergeben« ^ab' icb alle ©cfyäfce 
£>e$ s l^en|d?engetft« auf miefy gerbet gerafft, 
ilnb toenn ity mid) am (5nbe nieberfe^e, 
Quillt innerlich boefy feine neue fitaft ; 
3cb bin nid)t um ein §aac breit Ijöfyer, 
33in bem Unenbltc^en ntcfyt näfyer. 303 

299 Tn the last two lines Mephisto laughs at the presumption of 
man in thinking that he unites in his own little seif all the won- 
ders of the vvorld at large, in other words " that he is a micro- 
cosmos." (See Note 20.) 

300 ©inne using here the modern form of the plural. 

301 This should be brätigen, as bringen is no longer used in its 
simple form as a reflective verb. 

3i2 Disguise yourself as you will ; " stand on boots an eil high," 
referring to the Greek and Roman tragedians, who wore " high 
heeled" boots when they appeared in public. (Vide Latin, 
Cothurnus, Soccus.) 

303 Faust now expresses a real hearty disgust at human know- 
ledge. In his researches he has weighed every variety of opinion, 
he has studied every metaphysical problem, devoured each empty 
theory of " word-hunters," thinking that " the truth " was thus 
to be reached — and now he gives himself up to despair; finding 
how much he has overrated the powers of man's limited reason, he 
would cast aside his intellectual powers as useless and burdensome ; 


SWetn guter £)crr, ifyr fcl>t bie ©ct$en, 

ffitc man bie 3ad,)cn eben fiefyt ; 
©tr ntitf|en baö gefcfyeibter machen, 
Wf unö bcö fetal* greube fliegt. 3,M 
5öaö genfer ! frciltd; $)äub' unb güfje 

Unb Kopf unb § bie finb bein ! 

T)od> alieö, n>aö id) frifefy genieße, 

3ft ba3 brum weniger mein ? 

SBenn id) fecfyS §engfte jaulen fann, 

©inb ityre Strafte nid;t bie meine ? 

3d) renne ju, unb bin ein rechter SUiann, 

2U$ fyätt' id) bierunbjtt>cm$ig 33eine. 3ü5 

£)rum frifefy ! £aß atteö ©innen fetyn, 

Unb g'rab' mit in bie 2Bett hinein ! 

3cty fag' eö btr : ein Kerl, ber fpecultrt, 306 

3)t tüte ein £fyier, auf bürrer §eibe 

2>on einem böfen ©eift im teiS fyerum geführt, 

Unb rings umfyer liegt fd;öne, grüne 2Beibe. 

he determines, because unable to attain the "highest," atleast 
to reach the " lowest " secrets of nature, and resolves therefore to 
plunge into the depths of sensuality. 

304 The evil spirit seeks to keep him in this mood. 

315 Do not expect everything from yourself — make others work 
for you, the real principle of the selfish. Why, forsooth ! the 
coneeptions of God, Nature, World, if not to serve one's owu 
whims ! 

303 A man who loses hiraself in intellectual speculation, in 
fantastic dreams, is like a brüte driven round in a circle by some 
evil spirit, or „(guV' who could, aecording to German superstitious 
belief, bewitch cattle by a look or a touch. The devil is exces- 
3ively practical in expressing his contempt for those who enjoy 
mental oecupations when all around them are " fresh green pas- 
tures" (i.e. bodily enjoyments), and assumes the character of a 
mere materialist, in order thus to form the greatest possible 
eontrast to Faust" s misguided idealism. 




2Bie fangen ü)ir ba$ an ? 

Sötr gefyen eben fort. 
2öa8 Ift baS für ein 3Jtorterort ? 
2ÖaS fyeifjt ba3 für ein geben fiteren, 
©td? nnb bie SungeuS ennufyiren? 307 
8aß bn ba$ bem £errn s Jhd;bar Sßanft ! 
SßaS nnttft bn bid;, baS (Strofc ju treffen, plagen ? 
£)a$ Söefte, toa8 bn totffen fannft, 
SDarfft bu ben Gliben bod? nicfyt fagem 309 
©leid; l)ör' td; einen auf bem ©ange ! 

Wlix ift'8 ntd)t möglich, tfyn $u fe^n. 


©er arme ftnabe kartet lange ; 
©er barf nid;t ungetreftet gelm. 
ßomm', gib mir beinen 9?ocf nnb füfüfce! 
£)ie SUtoSfe muß mir föftlid? ftefyn. 

(§r fteibet ftdj um. 
9hm übertag e8 meinem 2£i£e ! 
3cfy brauche nur ein SBtertelftünfcdjen 3 e ^' 
Snbeffen mad;e bid; $ur fd;önen gafyrt bereit ! 310 

gauft ab. 

307 3ungen§, school-boys — an expression füll of contempt ; ob- 
serve the vulgär plural formed by the addition of ,,g.'' 

308 He now ridicules ** teacliing " as " straw-thrashing." 

309 The devil here derides one of the uoblest of God's gifts, 
the impulse of knowledge that is so deeply implanted in every 
bosom ; he sneers at the learned universities and their Systems, 
in order to make Faust the more disgusted with his academical 

310 Faust goes to change his academical dress for that of a 
nobleman, to be ready for his intended trip. 


SftcpfM ftoptjclcS. 
(in ganfl'6 langem JMetbe.) 

93era$te nur Vernunft unb ©iffenfd?aft, 
De« itaftyen atlevfyöd/ftc Ätaft ! 
8ag nur tu 93tenb* uub äartbertoerfen 
Tub &on tem Sftgengeift beftärfen, 
(So l)ab' td) bid; jd;ou rtltfcebntgt. — 3U 

311 One of the prineipal peculiarities in Goethe's Mephisto is 
that he never draws a metaphor from any high or lofty objeet, 
bnt on the contrary from common every-day life ; he speaks 
generally in a drastic and graphic style, though sometimes his 
remarks are vidgar or coarse. Having taken every pains to in- 
crease Faust's disgust at knowledge and science, the devil now 
sneers at his contempt for man's highest power — reason. De- 
lusions, charms, everything that can snbject the soul to the spirit 
of untruth, he now proclaims as a sure means of making us irre- 
vocably his own. and implies that it is because Faust so overrate3 
his intellectual faculties, and dares to put himself on a level with 
the Creating Power, that he becomes so easy a prey to the Evil 

We must ohserve that it is not without meaning that Mephisto 
now assumes the blaek gown of the professor. University teaching 
in Germany at one time (principally towards the end of the last 
Century) took a dry, abstruse, " word-hunting " turn, and some 
German metaphysicians carried this spirit so far as to criticise 
God's all-wise creations, and dared to attempt to show as creatures 
(a posteriori, i.e. by induetion) how God ought (a priori) to have 
done his work. Goethe was one of the chief antagonists of this 
class, and indeed the prineipal objeet of his "Faust" was to 
overthrow with sarcasm this school of blasphemy, and by showing 
how his unhappy hero was lost through daring beyond his depth 
in metaphysical speculation, he dealt a deadly blow on the dream- 
ing idealist as well as those who, in rushing to the opposite ex- 
treme of despising the knowledge that is permitted to us, give 
themselves up to mere worldly enjoyments. 

In this monologue Mephisto developes his real character ; his 
intention he teils us, is, to drag Faust through all the sordid plea- 
sures of sensuality, and tlris to stifle in him any fire for higher 
and purer intentions that may be still smouldering in his breast. 


3fym bat ba$ Sdncffal einen (Steift gegeben, 

Ter uugebäntigt immer vorwärts bringt, 

Unb beffen übereiltet 2treben 

Ter Crrte freuten überbringt. 

Ten fcblepp' ich turci) baä teilte s .'eben, 

Xurcb fia&c Unbereulenbeit, 3 ' 2 

@r feil mir gar^ein, 3 ' 3 jtarren, 3U rieben, 316 

Unb feiner Üuerjärtitebfeit 

Soll Steif unt Xranf bor gierten kippen jdntcbcn ; 

Crr teilt (rrquiefung fieb umjcnfi crflclm — 

Unt Kitt' er fieb aucr) nid>t bem Xeufel übergeben, 

©r müßte bod> |u ©rnnbe getm ! 3 ' 7 

312 He intends to lead Faust through a whirlpool of u empty 
vanities " (Filmore translates M vapidities") ; that is, iu ordei to 
humiliate tlns enthusiastic drearner, he will drag liiiu through a 
course of life's most hollow and unsubstautial frivolities. 

313 To struggle, meaning here, to rnake vain attempts to get 
rid of a mean and unworthy passion. 

3U To be " spell-bound," fascinated, i.e. without power or wish 
to extricate himself from the hold of that passion. 

315 To adhere, to cling, expressing the tightness of the deviFs 

316 Like the Tantalus of heathen ruythology, every enjoyinent 
stall vanish in the moment he intends to grasp it. Mephisto 
is especially the spirit that delights in tantalising mankind only 
for the sake of toimenting. (Vide Note 213.) 

317 Beeause Faust s restlessness and overbearing pride are in 
ihemselves Buffieient to lead to his dainnation. There is an ap- 
parent contradiction in this soliloquy — for the devil's most natural 
course would be to do the veiy upposite of what he now proposes, as 
by his preseDt plan of never satisfyingFaust's restless natuie. Le 
will never have arightto his soul (acrording to their agreement) ; 
br.t the evil spirit is sly, he thinks that Faust hurried along \\\\* 
road to ruin, will soon be weary and disgusted with life's moie 
Benaual pleasurcs, and will then be glad to ask for a moment's 
rest, a request whi.h will make him at once and for ever Satan's 

KIHE'S :.■'>. 96 

Sil Bdjiltz tritt «af. 
g Ct.** 

f | rechen trat jn femten, 

5 * ~ "...? 5;-f _f - .•:." :n z?>:i:.\: i.:- Mi ..?:: ": .■::.? :;-r:i 
ts the änest part of the fragment as it was »lillrn in 17 " 

: T"-.r S-.'..: 'ir 5 :: :.- :::.:-:f:: f.».?- :.«-•:>.: ;-. x"::;^ 
•v : . ;•.-;•_•.-.:;:; >.-} f.-: :i — ..«.r ;if :- .in: "■''•'•—■=?. izi :•:- -.1. _ 
peasaats mtrodoed on the Easfeer-daj's walk — as a eontrast to 
Faust 's amkappy nature. These lös gifted eharaeters max 

*• Mephistopfeeks in the professor s long gawn, wii satire on 
bis Kp, seorn in ins eye, sarcasm in bis smüe. bembasäe ioi|iha in 

:r_ ji.s ::-g-_r. :? i '-"• ~z :ir;- j : V:. f:-. ; :r^.__::_ ü : :_;- 
-..— .". :i G-:::^i.-v :: -„lj.: v.zif : — - i~i ; r? ;•■;_..:; -_; «.:...: .-.:>=: 
to words and forma, and no one asked &r the sense, the spirit, 
■;r :lr nirü-.: _ . A.i.:e~':..i -iL :;• i" : " rJ.ilr. i\-j " -7-.--:; :t . 
. f: .:~z:: -;.f: :::: -^.i::- r_: !'--: lizüsc.:.- _. in 

■ - ■ •.'•. '.'■:: '.'.-:_ ".:--." -r.."i -if :lf :...:".:::' = ;: t.:. ■:: :. 
: L.-'-c :;:i; ~_: -f:-: 7_.— -_ V: . rrf'.".-? "_i e ■"-:;• :f:^: .: 
what they were intended and oaght to he. ~Knowfedge," ? 
Bacon s beiher h deseends from «firme insränska, or 

■ *- :.::_- ::~ ':. ..zur. s-:zh=.~:^i - : .r. :-. '.i: i~i _:-.-'_ :: :':- 

ion, if h were not preserred in books, tradirions, and plarfi 
-ponued, as Universities, Colieges and Sehook.'* 1 :.:i 
Preliminarr. Sees. IV.) -Ba Bacon ilid not meaa ander the ward 

*:z :'. uz. :■•-::■!- :n~ZL.: z." — 
: - - 
;..::_ii :■??.!" . :". .:•:-: :--.~L'zl'.: ': ;.:• ■ r. :'. '_:;:ji ~i..l -:~z:j- 
:;.::; -■::' :: ".-■. -..:'■..'. :« :f: : :•:_;•£ .: :~ :_: zi:~i ^ i :-.z.:-iy. .- 


S d; ü 1 e r. 
3cfy bitt' eucty, nefymt eud; metner cm ! 
3d? foutme mit allem guten SUcittl), 
geteiltem ©elb unb frt[cl;em Sölut ; 321 
SDteine SJtutter tooltte mid; !aum entfernen ; 
2jiöd;te gern toa$ 9ied)t3 fyieraufjen lernen. 

2Jt e p I) i ft o to I) e 1 e $. 
£)a feib tl)r eben recfyt am Ort. 

<& d) ix 1 e r. 
Wufricfytig, möchte fd&ort mieber fort; 
3« biefen Stauern, tiefen Ratten, 
SßUl e8 mir fcineSioegS gefallen. 
@S ift ein gar befcfyränfter 9\aum, 
9Jian fielet nicfytö ©rüneS, feinen Saunt, 
Unb m bcn Sälen, auf ben hänfen, 
S3ergel)t mir Jjörett, Sefy'n unb Renten. 

9Ji e pfy i ft :o p l) e t e 3. 
£)a$ fommt nur auf ©etoofynfyett au. 
©o nimmt ein ftinb ber Butter SBritft 
yixtyt gteid; im Anfang toillig an, 
^od; batb ernährt e$ fid) mit £uft. 
So ftirb'S eud) an ber Setöfyett Prüften 
SUiit jebem Sage mefyr gelüfteu. r22 

2> d) ü 1 e r. 

5In ibrem £al$ toM *$ mit Si'euben fangen ; 
£>od; fagt mir nur, lote famt id? hingelangen? 

humanity on this path to truth — is knowledge ; the abstract 
doctiine again of the mode of forming realities into ideas (that 
is, things comprehended only by our mental faculty) is philosophy 
in its purest meaning. 

321 2Rit frifdjem 93l'ut, very young. Seibttc^em ©elbe. money onough, 
not " little money." 

322 This comparison may seem rather too graphic for the style 
of the prcsent day. 


9W c p ty i ft o p lj c l e S. 
Örftärt cud;, efy' tfyr weiter gcfyt, 
^öaä mäfytt Hjr für eine gacultät? 333 

£5 d? ü I e r. 
34 tt>ün[d)tc red;t geteert 51t luerbcn, 
Unb möchte gern, roaS auf bor (Srbcn 
Uitb in beut .V)imntet ift, erf äffen, 
£)te $3tffenf$aft unb bie <ftatur. M4 

9Jt x e p 1) t ft p fy e 1 e 3. 
£)a feib tt>r auf ber redeten (Spur ; 
X>ocfy müßt ifyr euefy ntd;t jerftreueu taffen. ■" 

© cfy ü 1 C V. 
3cfy bin babet mit @ecl' unb Vetb ; 
Tod; freiließ nnirbe mir besagen 
i*tu toenia, greifyeit unb 3etto ertreib 
ÄH frönen eommerfeiertaa,eu. 

@ebraud;t ber 3 e ^' l* e Ö e ^ f° fd;ue(l Den binnen ; 
&od? Orbnung lefyrt eud; 3eit gemimten. 
9J2em teurer greitnb, td; ratfy' eud; bvum 
3nerft Collegium logicura ! 326 

323 Referring to the four faculties from whicli tho Scholar has 
to choose. (Vide Note 3.) 

324 This innocent youth has scarcely stopped within the gloomy 
wallsof the University, before he too begins to indulge in dreams 
of at once comprehending science and nature, heaven and earth. 

3i!5 Referring to the midsumraer term in which this scene is 
supposed to take place. "Do not distract yourself by the 
beauties of blooming nature." 

326 Collegium Logicum. The inteution of logic, as the science 
of thinking, or of thoughts, is to reduce inethods of reasoning 
to certain laws: in this consists the formal part of logic; at one 
time the German Universities were exclusively oecupied with the 
formal branch, tili at last Kant, Fichte and Krug broke the 
clouds of scholastic mysticism, and shed a light over a gloom 
that was a mere iinitation of the old Sophists, whose system 



£>a toirb ber ©etft eucty toofyt brefftrt, 
3n fpanifcfye Stiefeln 327 eingefclniürt, 
£)a6 er bedächtiger fo fortan 
ipinfctyleni/e tie (^ebanfenbafyn, 
Unb ntcr/t etwa, bte Äreuj unb Cliier, 
3r(icfytettre r/in unb r/er. 3 - 8 
£)ann lehret man eud; manchen Zag,, 
£)ap, toaS ifyr fonft auf Cnnen <Sd?iag 
betrieben, rote ©ffen unb £xinfen, frei,, 
(5tnS ! gtoet ! bret ! baju nctfyig fei. : " 9 
3»?ar ift'3 mit ber ©ebaufenfabrif, 33 '* 
2Bte mit einem ^Bebermeifterftücf, 

served to confound every clcar perception in its attempts 1o analyse 
that which should have been assumed as a simple and primary fact 
of consciousness, to personify and overrate ihe faeulties of the mind 7 
to adopt as facts the mere productions of fiction, in order to Sup- 
port some arbitrary theory, directed often against truth and faith. 
Well may Goethe condemn this false, pernicious seience, so pro- 
ductive of scepticism and infidelity, as the work of an evil spirit. 

127 Spanish boots, an instrument of torture used by the Spanish 
Inquisition (described in Sir W. Scott's " Old Morfaüty," Chap. 
28) ; the meaning here is : " they will narrow and cramp your 

328 ^vrüc^teitre/ used as a verb only by comic writers, deiived frcm 
irvticfytein. Hans Sachs uses fafcatfytftren in the san.e form. Many 
Latinisms were introduced into the German language, which in- 
deed still retains a number of verbs in tren, which are one and all 
of foreign origin, and never take the augment ,,^e" in the past 

329 Describing the effccts of the old and "dead" logic which 
destroycd the power of thought, while it analysed the faculty of 

« Q ne — two — thrce," the conjurer's cxclamation before pcr- 
foiming a trick. 

330 .Swar— though — referring to ihe antiihesis contained in the 
sarcasm "that no scholar, in spite of all his knowledge, cver yct 
became a weaver." 


2Bo (Sin £vttt tanfeub gäbe» regt 

1)tc Sd;tff(ein herüber hinüber fdjtejjen, 

Die gäben angefefyen fliegen, 

(vin ©ctyfag taitfcub 33crbtnbungeu fd^lägt« 331 

T)cr s ßfyüofo^;, ber tritt herein, 

Hub betoeift end}, es mü§t' fo fetm : 

Da« (Srff toäY fo, ba$ 3ir>eite fo, 

Unb brum ba8 Dritt' unb Sterte fo ; 

ttnb toemt baö Crrft' unb 3weif nicfyt n>är\ 

S)a$ Dritt' unb 5Mert' u)är nimmermehr. "■ 

Da3 greifen bie ©dritter alter Drten, 

<5inb aber feine 2öe6cr geworben. 

Sßcr h>itt toaS SebenbigS 333 erfennen unb betreiben, 

(Sucbt erft ben ©eift fyeranSjutreiben ; 

Tann fyat er bie Steile in fetner £>anb, 

$el;lt leiber ! nur ba3 geiftige 33anb. 

Encheircsin naturae nennt'S bie (Sfycmie, 


331 Every rrader must admire the beautiful description these 
lines contain of the wondei ful weaving of thoughts ; by a Single 
movement a thousand meshes (of ideas) are Struck off. 

332 Alluding to the syllogism ; ,,@rft' unb 3u>ett' unb Drittes/' ter- 
niinus major, minor and medius ; $ierte8 — conclusion ; there is 
a reference also to the four kinds of conclusions : "general, 
particular, affirmative and negative.' I 

r33 A dialectic elision of (he e freqnently met with in Goethe's 
earlier writings— thus we find gut '8, itttfcfyulbtß'8 fiub, ärger§,fceffer8 2C. 
similar elisions oeeur also in „<£atti)ro§" or „fetter SBrety" and other 
poems written bufore 1775. 

334 Goethe himself has explained these lines in a letter to the 
celebrated ehemist Waekenrode ; 

" Although we willingly aecord to nature her secret ivx^ip-nens 
" (lit. handling, treatment — here obviously * her producing power,') 
"by whieh she brings forth and matures life, and though no 
""mystics, we must in the end recognize an incomprehensible 
"something— still man, if in earnest, cannot forego the attempt 
"to press this something, tili at last he finds himself obliged to 
"put up with it as it is, and confess himself completely beaten." 


(Spottet tfyrer felfcft, 335 unb toeiß nid)t, tote. 336 

Chemistry, even, howcver advanced in analytical experiments, 
must at last be driven to the conclusion, tbat there is a secret, in- 
scrntable working of nature, and tbat it can as little discover this 
principle in stones as in fluids, in plants as in animals. 

355 Falk* asserts tbat Goethe originally wrote bobrt ftdj ©eiber 
(gfet (makes himself an ass). The word bohren, fielen (to pierce, 
to bore) means here " to mock at;" the two ideas being con- 
nected by the school-boy's pantomimic expression of donkey, by 
placing the thumb in the ear, and waving the flat hand, a move- 
ment that suggests the idea of boring, as well as of long ears. 

3M According to Falk, Goethe gave the following explan ation 
of these words: " Of what use are the elements or their names. 
" I wish to know what inspires so strongly every single part of 
" the Universe to seek every other, in order to serve or govern, 
"according as some inborn law of reason compels it to perform 
"the one or the other duty: but on this very point we find 
" everywhere the deepest silence." 

We cannot ibrbear to quote here the analogous words of the 
great philosopher and moralist, John Feltham, on the limited 
power of hunian knowledge : 

"Learning is like a river, whose head being far in the land is 
at first rising little and easily viewed : but still as you go it 
gapeth with a wider bank, not without pleasant and delightful 
winding, while it is on both sides set with trees, and the beauties 
of vnrious flowers. But still the farther you follow it, the deeper 
and die bioader it is, tili at last it inwaves itself in the im- 
fathomed ocean ; there you see more water, but no shore, no 
end of that liquid vastness. In many things we may sound 
nature in the shallows of her revelations, we may trace her to 
her second causes, but beyond them we meet with nothing but 
the puzzle of the soul, and ihe dazzle of the mind's dim eyes.' , 

* John Daniel Falk, the celebrated Philanthropfet and Author, (born 1770 at Dant/ip) 
was the son of a poor hair-dresser. He founded in 1813 at Weimar a "Society oi 
Friends in need," for the benebt of poor fatherless children, and subsequently a school 
known as "Falk's Institution." The third jubüee of the Reformation was celebrated by 
him in two beautiful poems entitled "Falk's love, lue, and trust in God." > 
famcrns is his work : "The Lord's prayer in connection with the Gospel and old Chris- 
tian morals." 

The work from whieh we qviote above was publishod 1S32, under the *iile : „©cetbe 

aus näherem pcrfönlicpen Umgang bargeftcflt." 


<$ d) ü l e r. 
ftann em$ nid>t eben ganj serftetycn. 

SM c p fy i ft o b fy e t e ö. 
3Da8 tütrb näcfyftcnS fcfyon beffer gefyen, 
5&mt ifyr lernt alles rebuciren 
Unb gehörig claffifictren. w 

<S d? ii l e r. 
SJJtr nnrb bon alle bem fo bnmm, 
s 2ltö ging' mir ein 3flü fylrab im ft'opf fyerum. 33C 

ÜJi e $ | i ft'«M> | e U *. 
9tad$er, bor allen anbern (Sachen, 
SÄüjjt tfyr enefy an bie Sttetapfytyfif machen ! 339 
£)a fefyt, bag tyr tieffinnig faßt, 

337 Rebuetren, claffifictren, these words in their latinized form are 
introduced here to enliven the satire. 

839 A German adage. 

339 Goethe' s bitter scorn is here aimed against the philosophers 
of Wolf 's school. Christian Wolf was born at Breslau, A.D. 
1679, and was the son of a poor artisan, who sacrificed every- 
thing to the educatien of his son ; though he studied theology at 
the University of Jena, A.D. 1699, he turned his attention prin- 
cipally to philosophy and mathmatics, in which he distinguished 
hirnseif in 1705 by a disputation entitled : " De philosophia prac- 
tica universali methodo mathematicä conscripta." From this 
title we may easily understand the whole of Wolfs System of 
Philosophy and Metaphysics, in which he endeavoured to reduce 
thoughts as well as the secrets of nature to mathematical axioms. 
Wolf died in 1754. The philosophical school, of which he is 
looked lipon as the founder, sank year by year deeper into dog- 
matism and a mere System of technical names, tili Kant put an 
end to its influence. Goethe had seen, even when a Student at 
Leipsic, the absurdity of metaphysical study ; for the attempt to 
obtain knowledge on matters " which are far beyond the short 
reach of man's wisdom," seemed to him unreasonable ; of 
" nature's intuition of herseif by herseif" — " of the world" — 
and of " an Almighty Power," he feit he kriew at least as much 
as his teacher, Professor Winkler. 


JlBaS in be$ 9Jienfd?cu $uru mctyt £a£t ; 
gür \va& brein gefyt unb nicfyt brein gefyt, 
ein prächtig 2Bcrt ju SMenften ftct)t. 3l ° 
T)oä) bcrerft btefeö fyalbe 3al)r 
s Jtefymt ja ter beften Orbnung n>atyr ! 
günf ©tunben fyabt ifyr jeben £ag ; 
©eib brtnnen mit bem ©loctenfd;lag ! 
£>abt eud? fcorfyer tt>ofy( präparirt, 
ftaragrapfyoS rcofyt einftitbirt, 
£)amtt ifyr nacfyfyer beffer fefyt, 
<£)a6 er nictytS jagt, aU tt>a$ im 25ucfye ftefyt 
£)octy eudj be§ ©cfyreibenS ja befleißt, 
511« bictirt' euty ber £eilig' @eift ! *' 

@ d; ü i e r. 
£)a$ follt ik mir nid;t ^eimal Jagen ! 
3d; benfe mir, roie biet e$ uü£t j 
£)enn, ma$ man f^toarj auf tüctp beftt3t, 
£ann man getroft nacty §>aufe tragen. 

£)od; toä'fylt mir eine gacultät ! 

3ur $Ked;>t$gekfyrfamfeit !ann id; mid; nid;t bequemen. 

3cfy lann eg eud; fo fc^r nietyt übet nehmen ; 
3ty toeiß, roie es um biefe £efyre ftefyt. 
@3 erben ftd? ©efefc' unb 9?ed?te 

340 Truth, revelation, faith — all and everything consists in niere 
words, aecording to the devil ; and though words are often under- 
stood in asense entirely opposite totheir real mcaning, Mephisto 
advises the young student to stick to words. 

341 Mephistopheles here ridieules those coneeited, specious pro- 
fessors who merely reiail to their pupils what is contained in 
their books. Paragraphos, the Latin aecusative, is used to give 
a learned appearance to Ins words. 

342 9te$t3gele&rfamteit. Law. 


©ie eine eto'ge 5hranf^eit fort ; 
Sie föteppen oon ©efcfylcd;t fid) sunt @efd;led;tc, 
Uno rüden fad>t oon Ort 311 Ort. 
Vernunft toirb Unfütu, 8öo$tl>ai ^tagc ; 
SB3el> fctr, bajj bu cht Gmfel bift ! 
Ühmh s Jie . te, ba$ mit uns geboren ift, 
93en bem ift leiber! nie bic 3frage. :u:< 

© d? ü l e r. 
SÄetn 5lbfd;en toirb burdj cudj oermefyrt. 
O glücfüd? ber, bett tfyr belehrt ! 
gaft raüd?t' iäj nun Geologie ftubiren. 

3d? toüttfcfyte ntd)t cuety irre 31t führen. 
38a£ tiefe Siffenfcfyaft betrifft 
Q& tft fo ferner ben falfdjcn Seg ju raetben; 
US liegt in ifyr fo btel verborgnes ©ift, 
llnb oon ber Slrgnei iftf* faum 31t untcrfd?etben. 3U 
$lm befielt i|T3 and; fyier, toenn tfyr nur ßtuen fyört, 
Unb auf be$ s 3Wetfter$ $£orte fctytoört. 

341 'I he Poet condemns the study of Law in gener al, as if the 
knowledge of right and wrong could be a curse to humanity ; yet 
the words express these senti nents only as regards the dead 
Roman Law, which, as it was allowed to supersede the once free 
Saxon institutions of Germany, did in reality, by its forms and 
ambiguities, prove a curse to that country. Mephisto goes on to 
speak of Laws, which though no longer suitable, nay, peihaps 
even in contradiction to the wants and spirit of the age, are 
nevertheless binding. He means to say that definitions, positions, 
interpretations, commentaries, and the like, must be waded through, 
although when learnt they canonly show howill adaptedor unjust 
the whole is, and yet on such matters the scholar has to waste his 
xuost precious years. This is especially the case in a country 
ruled by despotic laws, which ever remain longer in force than 
those which are made, as in England by the people, to meet the 
wants and requirements of the day. 

344 ßeferring to the controversial theology, practised for a long 
time in German Universities. 



3m ganjen — galtet eucfy an 2öorte ! 3to 
Dann gefyt tfyr fcurcfy bie ftc^re Pforte 
3um £envpel ber ©emtgbeit ein. 

@ d; ü l e r. 
Dod; ein SBegrtff mug bti fcem SBorte fein, 
Scfyon gut ! ^ur mn§ man fid; ntd;t altjuängftltd^ quälen : 
Denn eben roo begriffe fetten, 
Da ftellt ein 2öort gur regten ,3eit ftd^ ein. 
Witt SBorten lägt fid; trefft ftreiten, 
9Jfit Herten ein (£r/ftem bereiten, 
5ln 2Borte lägt fid; treffücfy glauben, 
5ßon einem 2Bort lägt fid; lein 3ota rauben. 34e 

@ d; ü l e r. 
$er$eir;t ! id; fyatt' euety auf mit fielen gragen, 

345 Advising his pupil to take refuge in words, not in faith or 
piety — in fact to follow the old maxim " Jurarc in verba 
magistri." Goethe alludes here to the Roman Catholic Theology, 
which allowing no scrutiny, requires a blind obedienee to mere 
words, while it overlooks any deeper meaning, and is often in 
Opposition to the spirit of the Bible. 

34<J We must bear in mind that Goethe in criticising the different 
branches of study, objeets not to the studies themselves, but to 
that superficial, coneeited method of teaching, which stifled 
erery nobler sentiment, and ehanged the healthy, hoping youtb 
into a pale, despairing dreamer; which created doubts in 
his mind by grand empty woids, destroyed his faith, and raised 
in him hopes that were never to be fulfilled ; which, by its indul- 
gence of an empty phraseology that bore down every nobler and 
better feeling, produced reasoners, grumblers, infidels, but rarely 
a free, healthy, happy man. — To appreciate good and sound 
University education we have but to read Goethe's sarcasms 
aimed at those profitless studies, that vague and unhealthysy stein, 
by which so many sophists were oecupied in gathering ** philoso- 
phical cockle shells and metaphysical pebbles " on the sbores of 
the infinite, only to be engulphed at last in the rising tide of in- 
fidelity. Goethe with all his poetry, knew too well the result of 
a misguidcd thirst after unbounded knowledge. 


Mein iä) muß cud? uocfy bemüfyn. 
©ottt iljr mir öon ber äJtebicin 

Wid;t and; ein fräftig Sttörtdjcn fagen 
Drei 3aljr ift eine fitrje 3eit, 
Unb, ©Ott ! baö gelb ift gar $u tr-ei 
SBemi man einen gingerjeig mit fyat, 
g&jjt ficfy'S fd&on cljer weiter füllen. 

ÄUepfytftopfyeleS (fürftd)). 
3d; bin beö troefnen £on$ mm fatt, 
5Dcuß lieber red;t ben £eufel fpicten. 3 ' 7 

33er (Steift ber bebtet« ift leidet jn faffen ; 
3&r bnriftubirt bie groß' unb Keine Söelt, 318 
Um eö amÜnbe ger)n su laffen, 
Sie'8 ©ott gefällt. 

Vergebens, baß ifyr ringsum toiffcnfdjaftltdj fd;>oeifr, 
(Sin jeber lernt nur — toaS er lernen fann ; 
£>o$ ber ben Slugenbticf ergreift, 
Ta& ift ber redete Sftatra. ' 6ii 
3§r feib nod? jiemlid; toofyl gebaut, 
$ln tiüfmfyeit mirb'g euefy auety nicfyt fefylen, 
Unb trenn ifyr euefy nur felbft oertraut, 
Vertrauen euefy bie anbern @eelen. 
23efonber$ lernt bie Sßeiter führen ! 
(SS ift i^r en>ig Sei) unb 2ld;, 
@o taufenbfad;, 
$lu$ Grinem fünfte )it curiren. 
Unb toenn ifyr fyalbtoeg ehrbar tfyut, 

847 Up to this point Mephisto has adapted his satire to his as- 
sumed character of Professor, but finding himself not quite un- 
derstood, he assumes at once a tone more natural to him, as he 
enters on the subjeet of the Collegium Medicum. 

348 „3)ie große Sßeit" meaning Astronomy, Botany, Chemistry. 
„IDte f leine 2öett" Anatomy, Physiology, &c. 

349 Into this remark the evil spirit infuses all his venom, in 
order to corrupt the pure and inuocent scholar. 


Dann fyabt tb/r fie all' unterm §ut. 3W) 

(Sin £itel mug fie evft vertraulich mad;en, 

Daß eure fünft viel fünfte überfteigt ; 

3nm SBtllfomm tappt ifyr bann nad; allen Siebenfachen, 

Um bie ein anbrer viele 3atjre ftreict/t, 

23erftefyt ba$ ^ütSlein ttotyl jn brücfen, 

Unb faffet fie, mit feurig fctytauen ^tiefen, 

2ßol?l um tie fd;lanfe £üfte ftti> 

3n fefm, tt)ie feft gefdmürt fie fety. 

© d? ü l e r. 
Da$ fielet f cfyon beffer aus ! Solan ftefyt bod;, n?o unb toie ? 

©rau, teurer greunb, ift alle £fyeorie, 
Unb grün be$ SebenS golbner 25aum. 3jl 

<B ä) ü l e r. 
3cty fdjtobY eud; $u, mir iff 3 als tüte ein £raum. 
Dürft' icty eud; roob/t ein anbermat befd}rceren, 
S3on eurer 2£ei$r/eit auf ben ©runb ju fyören ? 

2Ba$ td; vermag, foll gern gefcfyebn. 

<S d) ü l e r. 
3cfy !ann unmöglich lieber gefyn, 
3er; mug eud? nod? mein Stammbud? überreichen, 
©ihm' eure ©unft mir blefeS &tid)Qii • 

350 Mephisto amidst all his ßippancy, shows his profound 
knowledo-e of the rotten State of society. — Satan of old wished 
to produce universal, wholesale evil, but experience had not ac- 
quainted hira with all the details of sin. Mephistopheles on the 
contrary, grown old in experience, unites with his desire of mis- 
chief — a minute knowledge of the details of evil. A combination 
that makes his character still more repulsive. 

351 The devil ignoring every spiritual delight, praises only the 
sensual enjoyments of jife. ©olben, golden means here sweet, 
delicious, and must not be taken literally. (Tide Kote 164.) 

3,2 It was an old custom among German students to keep an 
album, in which teachers as well as intimate friends were asked 




(Sv [treibt uufc gibt'S- 
© d; ü 1 e r (lieft.) 
Eritis sicut Deus, scientes bonum et malum. ™ 

2Jhd>t'3 e^rerbtetifl git unb empfiehlt fidb. 


golg' nur beut alten ©pruty unb meiner 9Jtufyme,ber ©dränge ; 
S)ft U)irb gerüift einmal bei beiner ©ottätynlicr/feit bange 3r " 

gauft tritt auf. 355 
Söotym f oll eö nun gelm ? 


Söolnn eö bir gefällt. 
2öir fe^n bte fleine, bann bie große 2Mt. 356 
Wit tpelc^er greube, toelcfyem Sftufeen 
2Birft bu ben (Eurfum bur^fd^maru^en ! ^ 

to insert some composition, or at least their naraes. The only 
peculiarity in the scholar before us is that he produces his album 
at the beginning of the term. 

353 It is characteristic of Mephisto that he writes in the scholar's 
album the very words by which the serpent seduced Eve. 

The words are misquoted from the Vulgata in which Dii, not 
Deus, is found. 

3j4 In this sneer Mephisto utters a sad and deep truth, and 
predicts the merited fate of those who deem themselves equal to 
God, and refuse to recognize a higher Almighty Power. 

355 This scene is known as the " Departure." Paust now ap- 
pears in the splendid dress of a nobleman. 

350 Mephisto promises to show Faust first the little world, i.e. 
the world of the lower Orders, and then to take him into the 
higher cireles of State and court life. The first part of the 
tra^edy contains the fulfilment of only the former part of this 

357 Cursum, the Latin word is here used by Mephisto, in order 
to compare their future exploits to an academical course of study. 


allein bei meinem langen 23art 
gefytt mir bie leid;te ebengart. 
@$ tötrt» mir ber $erfud; nicfyt gtücten : 
3<$) wußte nie mi$ in bie Söelt 31t fdn'tfen; 
23or anbern fübr icfy mity fo Rein, 
3d? werbe ftets »erlegen fein. SM 

Sfiein guter greunb, baö wirb fid; MeS geben ; 
©obalb bu bir bertrauft, fobalb weißt bu 3U leben. "• 

SBie fommen Wir benn aus bem £aug ? 
£ßo fyift bu Ererbe, ftnecfyt unb SBagen ? 

SBir breiten nur ben Hantel au$; 360 
£>er foü uns burcfy bie i*üfte tragen. 
S)u nimmft bei biefem füllten ©cfyritt 
9ta feinen großen 23ünbel mit. 
(Sin bißchen geuerfoft, 3il bie id? bereiten werbe, 
Qcbt unö befyenb bon biefer (Srbe ; 

£)urdjf$marutjen, is a provincialism for " to taste, to enjoy, to 
revel in" 

358 Though haughty and aspiring in his thoughts, and about to 
play the nobleman, Faust is ckildish and bashful in the presence 
of others. 

359 Have confidence in yourself and all will go well. 

860 It was the general belief of the lower classes in the Middle 
Ages that bad spirits rode through the air on their mantles, while 
witches patronized the less poetical broomstick. 

361 ^euertuft, undoubtedly an allusion to Mongolfier's aerostatic 
experiments. The extreme specific lightness of burning gases was 
discovered by Cavendish as early as 1766, and on this discovery 
depend all later experiments in this science. Kiemer (Fred. 
*Wil.) late librarian at "Weimar, quotes in his „2ftittt)eilutt0en über 
®oeü)e," the following words from a letter written by Goethe to 


Unb finb totr leicht, fo gct;t cö fcfyneü Ijincmf, 
3$ ^ratittirc bir jum neuen ^eicnölauf. 3,i2 

the famous Knebel, which will prove that our author's attention 
had been drawn to these experiments. 

"söudj^olj (the chemist of Weimar) torraents the air in vain, 
" his baüs do not rise. One of them, as if by malice, rose as 
" high as the ceiling, and no higher, but he is determined to 
'* persevere, and hopes to raise like Mongolfier an immense ball 
" into the air. Still there are many possible aeeidents, and of tho 
" three experiments of Mongolfier none sueeeeded perfectly." 

302 We have already drawn a contrast botween Milton's Satan 
and Goethe's Mephisto, and compared Milton's epic coneeption 
with Goethe's dramatic representation of the devil, it may not 
be nninteresting to give a third not less impressive theohgical 
picture of the enemy of mankind, as drawn by the great German 
Reformer, Martin Luther. Luther's devil, like the others, is the 
gigantic enemy of man, with whom he is engaged in a perpetual 
struggle — he is not only the abstract idea of evil, but also fre- 
quently is described as a meteorological agent ; he is prince of the 
power of the air, and as such haunts woods, water, and dark, dismal 
fens ; at other times he appears as a dense black cloud, shooting 
forth hail and thunder, storra and tempest, poisoning the air, and 
blasting fields and pastures ; he is the author of all diseases ; 
troubles, disquieting dreams, melancholy, disasters, famines, 
pestilences, and the like are all his handiwork. 

Luther in general saw the agency of the devil in everything 
luutful to humanity, in whatever shape it comes ; the depravity 
of the monks, the immorality or weakness of princes are alike 
attributeJ by him to the devil. " Whoso would see," be writes, 
" the true picture, shape, or image of the devil, and know how 
" he is qualified and disposed, let him mark well all the com- 
" mandments of God, one after another, and then let him place 
"before his eyes an offensive, shameless, despairing, ungodly, 
" insolent and blasphemous man or woman, whose mind andeon- 
" eeptions are directed in every way against God, and who takes 
" deliüht in doing people hurt and mischief : there thou seest the 
" right devil, carnal and corporal." (Luther's Table Talk.) 

Luther saw this enemy everywhere ; on one occasion taking up 
a caterpillar, he remarked " 'Tis an emblem of the devil in its 
crawling walk, and bears its colours in its changing hue." In 
another place he says the devil looks upwards, being more in- 


2luerbad)8 Heller in fi e i p 3 i cj. 3W 
3ec^e luftiger ©efetten. 
2Bilt feiner trtnfen? feiner lachen? 
3d) tütü end; lehren ©eficfyter machen ! 
3fyr fetyb ja t^ei t tote naffes <2trof», 
Unb brennt fonft immer ttcfytertofy. 

terested in that which is high and porapous, proud and ambitious, 
rieh and powerful : (Vide Matthew,) he Hkes to work on a 
great scaie to influence the minds of those who manage the 
world's affairs, opposing wherever he can, the Divine Grace. 

In spite of all the difference in the colouring of these pietures, 
we can see incarnate in Mephisto the being " to whom all evil 
" is owing ; who leavens the human mind everywhere, as if the 
" atmosphere round the globe were impregnated with the veuom 
'* of his spirit/' 

363 We are now introduced to the Company of some wild, 
licentious German students. German University life has for 
young men its attractive as well as its repulsive peculiarities. 
Whcn a youth has been carefully trained under the severe disci- 
pline of a Gymnasium, i.e. a preparatory school for the Univer- 
sity, (corresponding to the Grammar Schcols in England,) he is 
allowed to matriculate and inscribe his name on the books of the 
University, and then begins for him alife of unbounded freedom : 
not that the student now enjoys any political liberty, his froedom 
is mere^ social ; he can now do what he likes, study what he 
likes, attend the school s when he likes, he can pass his examina- 
tion in whatever subjeets, and at whatever time he chooses ; the 
world of knowledge, sciences and arts is opened to him, he may 
wander on any path, in any directum, and with any aim to which 
he may be led by a thirst for improvement. From its earliest 
founrlation each University formed akind of literary republic, the 
students had their own laws, their own jursidiction, their own as- 
sociations or clubs, (33nrföend)aften* .) 

* 93 UrfdjeU fünften, from the Latin, " Bursa," a purse. In ancient times, both in 
France and Germany, foundatious for poor students were ealled Bursa», white those who 
shared their advantages were named "Bursarii" (Sßltrfdjcn). The name "Bursa " 
was also applied to houses, founded and kept by benevolent contributions, for the board 
and lodging of students, and in processof time the name ^ltrfcfyenfd)aften,wasgiven 
to any ass^ciation, confederation of students who chose to unite themselves nnder 
certain laws, whother referring to Spiritual eulture, honour, or even their convivial 


33 r a n b e r. 
£)aö liegt au birj bu bringft ja nityu fyerbet, 
W\d)t eine Dummheit, feine ©auerci. 

(gießt ttnn ein ©la3 ©ein über ben $o}>f.) 
X)a §aft bu bcibeS ! 

In all the holy air of freedom was considered indispensable for 
the satisfactory and healthy development of knowledge, though, 
in point of faefc, unlimited freedom was granted only on the sterile 
fields of philosophical speculation, or metaphysical research. The 
general licence, however, al owed to German students, led in 
many instances to the grossest abuses, extravagances, and even 
dangerons conspiracies, as was the case at the Universities of 
Halle and Jena, long notorious as the most unruly in Germany. 
At Leipsic, where Goethe introduces us to bis student revellers, 
the students were generally of more polished and refined manners, 
as they were brought more in contact with the wealthier Citizens 
of that flourishinsr commercial town. 

The eellar in which this seene is laid, formed part of a large 
building in Leipsic, erected by Dr. and Professor Auerbach. 
Auerbach was- born in 1482 at a village of the same name in 
Bavaria ; he was invited to Leipsic by George the Beardcd, Duke 
of Saxony, in honour of his profound learning. At the time of 
the renowned disputation between Eck and Luther (A.D. 1519) 
he had the courage to invite the latter to his table, though at the 
time he was a Senator of the town of Leipsic. 

Auerbachs eellar was for centuries a noted place of resort for 
the wealthy and the learned, though in the time represented in 
our play, its prineipal supporters were the students. Connected 
with it and long credited by populär superstition was the tradition 
that Dr. Faustus rode through the ceiling on a cask, a feat which 
has been immortalized in two oil-paintings on wood, bearing the 
date A.D. 1552. 

The scene before us is füll of low language, varied now and 
then with indifferent jokes, and numerous " Beer-libations " : the 
whole must be regarded as a farther satire on academical life in 
days of old. In the scene with the scholar Goethe condemned 
the antiquated System of teaching in Universities ; Tiere he shows 
us the student's rough, reckless and vulgär revelry. In each in- 
stance he aims with Shakesperian humour, to ridicule the baek- 
wardness and absurd formalitics of L T niversity-life. 


23 r a n b e r. 
doppelt ©djtoem ! 
S r o f d). 
31jr toollt e$ ja, man feil e$ fein ! 

© i e 6 e 1. 
3ur £fyür tytnanS, »er \icfy entjroeit ! 
mit offner «ruft fingt töunba, 3t5t fanft nnb fdjrett ! 
«uf! £otla! 5o ! 

2öefy mir, tcl; bin oerloren ! 
Söaumtootte ^er, ber fterl fprengt mir bie Ofyren. 

SSenn ba$ ©etotflbe toieberfebattt, 
güfylt man erft recfyt be$ 23affe$ ©runbgetoalt 

<Bo rec^t ! fyinauö mit bem, ber etmaS übel nimmt 

1 ! tara lara ba ! 

51 1 1 in a ö e r. 

$1 ! tara lara ba ! 


£)ie fielen finb gefttmmt. 

£>a$ liebe, fyeil'ge röm'fd;e 9ieid;, 
2Bie fyält'S nnr nod; jufammen? 
93 r a n b e r. 
ein garftig Sieb ! $fui ! ein politifdj Sieb ! ™ 

364 A glee, or round was called Runda, from the word rnnb, 
round, a contraction of the Latin " rotundum." Some etymolo- 
gists, however, derive the word from the middle high German, 
rundate, rundat, Italian : " ronda." Frisch states that from the 
word „Ühitibtafel" (round-table) was derived the refrain " Runda- 
dinel-lula/ , used at the end of every strophe when glees were 
sung at a drinking party. 

365 Goethe abhorred any allusion to politics in poetry, assigning 
to it a higher and niore general vocation than to serve as a 


(Sin tcibtg Sieb ! £)anft ©ott mit jebem borgen 
1)a§ il)r triebt braud;t für'S röm'fd?c 9fcei$ ju forgen ; 
3d; fyatt' c$ treui^ftenö für reictylid;en ©eunnu, 
«Dafj ify ttityt Äaifer ober Manier bin. 
£)od; muß aud; un$ ein Oberhaupt nid;t fehlen ; 
Sßtr tDoUen einen ^apft erroätylen. 
3fyr ttifft toeld; etne Dualität 
tVn ^Xuöfc^tag gibt, beu Mann erfyöfyt. 

grofd; (fingt.) 
<Sd)hMng' bid; auf, grau s 3?ad)tigalt, 3C>6 
©rüj3' mir mein l*iebd?en $efyntaufenbmat ! 
£>em Siebten feinen ©rüg ! 3cfy will baüon nic^tö fyören ! 

5 r o f d;. 

£)em Siebten ©mg unb Äug ! bn wirft mir'S nid;t »crmefyren ! 


Siegel anf ! in ftider iflatyl 

bieget auf ! ber £tebfte macfyt. 

Siegel ju ! beö borgen« früfy. 
3a, finge, finge nur, unb tob' unb rüfyme fie ! 
3d? totll ju meiner &\t fcfyon (ad;en. 
(Sie fyai mid; angeführt, bir wirb fie'8 aud? fo maetycn. 
,3um ^iebfteu fei ein $obolb t^r bef cfyeert ! 3<57 
1)er mag mit ifyr auf einem Ifreujmeg fcfyät'ern ; 

medium for expressing our discontent with transitory state-ia- 
stitutions. The only exception he ever made was in favour of 
Beranger's political songs. 

366 An old populär song published on a loose sheet, in ] 639. 
grau ^adjtigaÜ' (Dame Nightingale) is frequentlj introduced by 
the SJitiutefän.qerö (love-singers) : the nightingale, being the bird 
of love, was generally intrusted in poetry, with messages to the 

337 ilobolbg, or house-spirits were ugly, little, and deceitful. 
" May he jest with her on the cross-way". 


(*tn alter 23oct, trenn er com 33loct8berg fefyrt, 
^Dtag im ©alopp tiod) gute 9tadjt il?r mecfern ! 
(Sin trauet' fterl fcon entern gtetfd; unb SBlut 
Oft für bie £)irne biet 31t gut. 
3d? und bon feinem ©ruße uriffetr, 
$U3 ifyr bie genfter eingef djrmffen ! 

53 X a n b e r (auf ben £if$ f$Iacjent>.) 
^ßagt auf ! paßt auf ! ©efyorcfyet mir ! 
3fyr §errn, geftefyt, idb tüeiß £u leben; 
Verliebte tfeute filmen l;ter, 
Unb tiefen mufc, nacfy (£tanb#gebüfyr, 

368 On the eve of the first of May the evil spirit of love was 
supposed to assurae the form of a goat, and to assemble on the 
Blocksberg. The Blocksberg, or Brocken, is entirely granite, and 
forms the highest point of the Hartz mountains in North Ger- 
many. It is nearly 3500 feet in height, and appears even higher 
from having on the northern side a most abrupt declivity of great 
depth 3 thus affording a more majestic view than any of the 
neighbouring mountains : its sides, from the summit to the Valleys, 
are covered with innumerable blocks of granite, which are scat- 
tered about like the ruins of a gigantic mountain — it is therefore 
supposed that the peak at one time was much higher. At the 
summit is a bare flat surface of about 2\ Square miles, which is 
furrounded by a thick, gloomy belt of fiis ; at an elevation of 
3170 feet the trees are gradually replaced by low and stunted 
shrubs, tili at last the only herbage consists of moss (principally 
Islandicum), a few scattered mountain herbs, and an occasional 
" Brocken pass-rose ; " on this bare piain are two prominent rocks, 
popularly known as the witch's altar and the devil's pulpit ; there 
is too a very cold, clear spring, called the witch's well, which 
never dries. The view from the summit is most extensive, 
commanding a surface of nearly 1000 English miles : in the misty 
distance can be discerned the towns of Magdeburg, Brunswick 
and Hanover, while the noble Elbe bounds the horizon as a 
thread of ßiiver ; to the south are seen hundreds of mountain- 
tops and dark pine forests, dottcd here and there with light 
sparkling meadows ; while along the ränge of the Hartz chain 
the eye can detect the splendid Castle of Gotha and the huge 
Hercules near Cassel. 


>$ur fluten SRatyt iet; tt>«fi 311111 heften geben. 

©ebt ^U1)t! ein Sieb öora ueufien <£dmitt! 

Hut: fingt ben Oiunbreim träftig mit! 

(<Sr fingt.) 
(g« »uar eine 9iatt' int iceücrncft, ^ 
Sebte nur tton gett unb Butter, 
£>atte fieb ein Wandern augemäft't, 
SU« töte ber Dector ßutljer. 
©ic fötytn t/att' ifyr ©ift geftcUt ; 
Ta n>arb'$ fo eng ifyr in ber 2£clt, 
311« fyätte fie Sieb' im &ibe. 

GfyomS (jaiufoenb.) 
«I« fcatte fie Siel)' im Seite. 

58 r a n b e r. 
<Sie fufyr fyerum, fie fufyr fyerau«, 
Unb foff aus allen ^ßfüfcen, 
3ernagt', &erfrafct' baS gattje £>auo, 
Söollte uid;tö tfyr 2Sütl;en lutfcen ; 
2k Üjät gar mannen 3Iengftefpruug ; 
33alb fyatte baS arme £tyier geuung, 
m$ l;ätt' eS ZW im geibe. " 

(S fy r u g. 
311« fyätt' e3 ^teb' im Mte. 

33 r a u b e r. 
@ie fam cor 2Ingft am gellen £ag 
©er $üct;e angelaufen, 
giel an ben §erb, unb jueft' unb tag, 

369 A satirical song on lovers. Brander attacks Dr. Luther 
witli the same ridicule which he just now directed against the 
Pope. This song, as well as that of Mephisto in the latter part 
of this scene. seems to be an original produetion of Goethe's, 
written in an hour of great mental excitement. 

sro From the words 2tngft and (gfyrung. In forming this Com- 
pound, Goethe, contrary to the usual custom, uses the first word 
in the plural. 



Unb tfyät erbärmlicfy fcfynaufen. 371 
Da tad;te bie 33ergiftertn nod; : 
£a ! fie pfeift auf bem lefeten Socfy, W2 
$11« l)ätte fie &eb' im Seibe. 
Sit« fyätte fie «eb» im &ihe. 
SBie ficfy bie platten SBurfcfye freuen ! 
(§« ift mir eine redete Äunft, 
Den armen hatten ©ift ju [treuen - f 

33 r a n b e r. 
©ie ftefyn roofyl fetyr in beiner ©unft ? 

51 1 1 m a fy e r. 
Der Sdnnerbaud? 373 mit ber fallen platte ! 
Da« Unglücf macfyt ilm safym unb miib ; 
(Sr [iet)t in ber gefcfytoottnen 9fatte 
Sein gan^ natürlich (Sbenbilb. 

gauft unb 2ÄeMtfiep&eie& 
3d; muß btd; nun bor allen Dingen 
3n luftige ©efellfd;aft bringen, 
Damit bu fieljft, toie leid)t fid)'« leben lögt 
Dem SBolfe fyier roivb jeber £ag ein geft : 
s 3Jiit heilig ££tfc unb biet 33el)agen 
Dret/t [eber fid; im engen gtrteltanj, 
Sie junge fafeen mit bem Sd^an^ ; 
äßenn fie nid;t über Äopftt>e^ flögen, 
So lang ber Sirtb nur weiter borgt, 

371 " Panting nriserably." 

3 * @ie pfeift auf bem testen Sod) — an idiomatic expression for 
" breathing one's last," it is literally " to whistle on tho last 


@c$:neerbau<$, paunch — a word onlyjised in a low style. 


©tnb fie bergnügt unb unbeforgt. m 

SB r a n b e r. 
£>te fcmmcn eben Don ber Weife, 
Sföan ficfyt'8 an tl^rer hmnberlid;en Sßetfcj 
©ie finb nicfyt eine @tunbe fyier. 

SBafyrfyaftig, bn fyaft Wecfyt ! Wein &tyjig tob' iety mir ! 
(§S ift ein ftein 'jparis, nnb bilbet feine &ute. 

gür toaS fiefyft bn bie gremben an ? 

tfajjt mieb nur gelm ! 23et einem botlen ®tafe 
$iefy tefy, tüie einen ftinberjafm, 
£)en 33urfd)en lcid;t bie Türmer au$ ber 9Jafe. 375 
©ie fcfydnen mir anß einem ebten §au$ ; 
Sie fefyen ftc-l^ nnb unjufrieben au& 

58 r a n b e r. 
3Jtarftfd;reier finb'« getmg, icfy roette ! 

21 1t m a ty e r- 

©ib^t,i*fd;ranbefie! 376 

374 It is in the spirit of irony that Mephisto brings the lofty 
active mind of Faust into contact with the low, thoughtless levity 
of these vulgär students. His objeet is to show Faust by this 
contrast how little wit a man requires to enjoy himself, how we 
are but " Kittens with their tails at play ! " The aim of the devil 
eyer is to allure us away from every higher and better feeling, and 
to drag us into mental Degradation, under the pretext of affordiDg 
us pleasure and amusement. 

375 An idiomatic expression for " to find out artfully all about a 

376 A phrase equivalent to the English vulgarism " to pump," 
aa used by Butler : 

" The one's a learned knight — seek out 

"And pump him what he came about." — Hudriba$. 


£)en STeufet fpürt ba$ 53i5lfd^en nie, 
Unb wenn er fte beim fragen fyätte ! 377 

©eib mi$ gegrüßt, t^r §err'n ! 


33iel £>anf jum ®egengritß! 

(Eetfe, 3fte£f)ijlctyt)efe8 ttott ber @eite attfefyenb.) 
2Ba6 ! tytnft ber Äcrl auf Einern gug? :i78 

3ft e$ erlaubt, un$ aucfy ju eud; ju fefcen ? 
©tatt eines guten £runf$, ben man ntcl>t fyaben fann, 
@ot( bie @efe((fd?aft uns ergeben. 

3fyr fcfyeint ein fefyr bertoöfmter 5Mann. 


3fyr feib roofyt fpät bon ^Rtypad; aufgebrochen? 

§abt ifyr mit §erren £)an3 nocfy erft ju s Jtacfyt gereift ? 379 

£)eut finb nur ifm borbeigereift ! 

2Btr fyaben ifm ba$ le^temal gefprod;em 

377 The devil laughs at these men, who, after having placed 
themselves entirely in the hands of the spirit of drunkenness and 
licentiousness, still dare to joke with hira. 

378 Mepbistopheles appears to halt likethe " diable-boiteux " — 
an attribute which expresses symbolically that the devil does not 
go direet to his purpose, but chooses some crooked and round- 
about path. 

379 Rippach, a little village on the stream of the same name, 
between Weissenfeis and Leipsie. Hans, an abbreviation of 
Johannes, John. To ask anyone if he came fi'om Rippach and 
if he had dined there with Hans was a piece of banter, as much 
as to say : you are a stupid country-man. 


^on feinen Vettern ten^t' er biet 51t fagen, 
SMel ©rüge fyat er uns an jeben aufgetragen. MU 
(£r neigt fief? gegen ^rofd). 
% 1 1 m a \) e r (feife.) 
Da l;aft bu'3 ! bet öerfte^fS ! 


Crtn pfiffiger Patron ! :!8 ' 
:)htn, warte mir, icfy Weg' ilm fcfyon ! 

3£cnn tefy utd;t irrte, työrten h)ir 
Geübte Stimmen £fyorn3 fingen ? 
©ctoig, ©efang mujj treffltd; l)ter 
SBon biefer Wölbung loieberflingen ! 

Seib ibrtrel)! gar ein 33irtitü$? 

D nein! bte ftraft ift fctytoacfy, allein bte &ift ift grog. 

%l t m a r; e r. 
©ebt nn$ ein Sieb ! 

2Benn tfyr begehrt, bie 9Jtenge. 
yiux auefy ein nagelneues @tücf ! 

Sir fommnn erft au% Spanien jurüd, 

£>em fd^önen £anb beS SöeittS nnb ber ($efänge* 

(§3 tr>ar einmal ein .fönig, 
£>er fyatt' einen großen glol) — 

380 Mephistopheles quickly returns this banter, and shows that 
he is a niatch for them in this style of wit. 

381 A eunning fellow. 


£>ord)t ! einen glolj ! Qabt ifyr baö ttofyl gefaßt ? 
Äin glofy ift mir ein faub'rer ©aft. 

3ttep&iftoi>$ele« (ftagt.) 882 
(50 toar einmal ein ftönig, 
£)er ^att' einen großen glolj, 
£)en liebt' er gar nicfyt toenig^ 
$11« mie feinen eignen <8oIm. 

£>a rief er feinen ©dmeiber, 
£)er ©dmeiber lam fyeran : 
£)a, miß bem Snnfer Kleiber, 
Unb mi| ifym §ofen an ! 

23 r a n b e r. 
33ergcBt nur nicfyt, bem <2dmeiber einaufcfyarfen, 
£)a6 er mir auf 8 genaufte mißt 
Unb bafe, fo lieb fein topf tfym ift, 
£)ie £ofen feine galten toerfen! 


3n lammet unb in ©eibe 
S53ar er nun angetan, 
£atte 23änber auf bem bleibe, 
£atf aucfy ein &reu$ baran, 
Unb toar fogleicfy üDiinifter, 

3C2 Goethe has written here a very sarcastic jpolitical song, not- 
with standing his general dislike to such compositions — (Vide 
Note 365). The "flea-song" is very witty and humorous 
throughout. The restless, jumping, blood-sucking animal is here 
the emblem of an experienced courtier, who knows well"how to 
avoid the continual attacks of his enemies, though preying on 
them the whole time. It is not in the employment of the noxious 
flea as the Chief Secretary of State that the point of the satire 
lies, but in the fact that all the vulgär relations of the powerful 
parvenu make so rapid a progress in court-favour, and are al- 
lowed to do as they like, to teaze and to torment everybody with 


Unb I?att" einen großen 8tcrn, 
ÜDa untrben feine ©efdjtütftet 

ißei $of and; grojse Jperrn. 

Unb ^err'n unb ftrau'n am §ofe, 
ÜDte tüaren fcfyr geplagt, 
Xie.Uöuigin nnb bie 3ofe 
©efiottyen nnb genagt; 
Unb burften fie ntd;t fnitfen, 
Unb tüeg fie juefen nid;t 383 
2Bir hiiden^unb erftiefen 
©od? gleicfy, tüenn einer ftid;t. 

Storno (jaudfeenb.) 
2£ir fnitfen unb erftiefen 
£)od? gleid?, tt)enn einer ftid?t. 

SBrafco! 23rabo! ba$ toar fcfyön! 

<£o fofl e$ jebent gtofy ergelm! 

53 r a n b e r. 
©pt&t bte ginger unb paeft fie fein ! 

%i t in a ty e r. 
(50 lebe bte gretfcit ! e* lebe ber 2öein ! 384 

383 sScgjucfeti — M to Scratch them away." 

384 Mephisto has inflamed the political passions of the already 
excited students. Frosch expresses delight with the literal obvious 
sentiment of the song. Siebel exhorts to a special resistance to 
every such interloper. Biander contents himself with pointing 
out the most masterly method of exterminating the race; — while 
Altmayer openly reveals the political tenor of the song by pro- 
posing the toast of freedom, which, however, he couples (like 
Mozart's Don Juan) with wine ! Goethe aims thus a well de- 
served blow at that drunken liberalism, once so prevalent among 
the German students. 


s D?eptftopf;ele& 
3cfy tränfe gern ein ©las, bie greüjeit fyod? m efyren, 
Söenn eure Seine nur ein bt^c^en 385 beffer toä'ren. 

Wir mögen baS nid;t toieber fyören ! 

3cfy fürchte nur, ber Sßtrtfy befc^toeret fiel; ; 
@onft gab' ity biefen toertfyen ©äften 
2lu3 un[erm Heller toaS jum 23eften. 

© i e b e 1. 
Wur immer Ijer! idj nefym'ö auf nuefy. 

(Schafft ifyr ein gutes ©ta$, fo toolfen toir eud? (oben. 
Wux gebt nicfyt gar gu Heine groben ! 
SDemt toerot tefy jubteiren ** foll, 
Verlang' \d> aud) ba$ 9D?aui recfyt ooli. 

$lttmafyer cleife). 
@ie finb oom $fl)eine, toie id; jpüre. 

©cfyafft einen 23ofyrer an ! 

23 r a n b e r. 

2öa$ foli mit bem gef d?ebn ? 
3I)r fyabt boefy nicfyt bie ga'ffer bor ber £fyüre ? 

51 1 1 m a ty e r. 
£)afyinten fyat ber 2ßirtfy ein ftörbcfyen Söerfseug ftefyt. 

3ftepfyiftOpele$ (nimmt ben 23ol>rer.) 
9^un fagt, toaö toünfd;et tfyr ^u fcfymecfen ? 3B7 

385 Derived from beißen, 33ifj, bißchen (or bissen) — " a little bit." 

386 ^ubiciren from the Latin. This and all other Germanized 
Latin worda must be carefully avoided, as thej are only used in 
a free, loose style, or in comic writing. 

£87 Tho fact of making a variety of wines flow out of the table 


SBte meint iijx baö ? f)a&t il?r fo mancherlei ? 

9Jt c p i) t fl o p fy e l e 8. 
Od; [teil' e$ einem {eben frei. 

s >lttmatyer fottgrefö.) 
9U;a! bu f&ftöfl fcfyon an bie kippen abgleiten. 

©ut ! wenn td; toäfylen fotf, fo tmlt ic^ s Jtycmn)em tyabcn. 
DaS 93aterfotb berietet bie allerbesten ©aben. 

(inbem er an bem s JMafc, wo grofdj fifct, ein %o$ in ben Stföraub bot>ut) 
SBerf cfyafft em tüem 9 ^SacfyS, bie pfropfen gleich ju mad;en ! 

$U t m a ty e r (51t grofä.) 
v 3lcfy, baS ftnb £af d;enfpieterfad?en ! 

1U e p fy i ft p fy e l e 8 (gu Sranber.) 

33 r a n b e r. 
Ocfy toiü §fyampagnerü)eitt, 
Unb reetyt mouffirenb foü er fein ! 

here attributed to Mephisto, is mentioned in tho eldest book 011 
Faust as having been performed by our hero himself. 

„(g>prid)t (gauftuS), ob ftc nidjt mögen and? ein frembben SBein ober 
jween (ä^ei) »erfinden : antworteten fie ja, barauff ; er weiter fragt, ob 
e3 äftaluafter, * <apanifdj ober franjöfifcb äßetn fein f of, giebt einer tacbenb 
im Sinnoort, fte fein atle gut. 23alb forbert gauftuS ein börer (^ßobrer) 
fefynt an (fängt an) auff bie feiten am tifcfybtat toter £öd)er nadjeinanber $u 
boren, ftopfft ^pcflein für, n>ie man bie 3 a M en 0Der £ ane (£ä'bne) fcor 
bie gaffe (Raffer) 51t ftetfen pflegt, Reifst jm (ifyn) ein paar frifdje ©tafer 
bringen, als biefe gegeben, jeua)t (gie^tj er ein $pdtein nad? bem 2ln» 
bem, unb teft ^iäßt, from taffen) ein (einem) jeben aus bürrem £ifd)blatt, 
gleid; als aus üier gaffen wag for (für) äöein er forbert, unter runter) 
ben obernannten (obengenannten)." 

The story may be true, as in our own days a similar trick is 
often performed by wizards of very ordinary ability, and there 
seems to be no doubt that Faust had some acquaintance vvith 
jugglery, and employed it at times to astouish the ignorant. 

* An excellent wine produced at Napoli di Malvasia, in tho Morea, and also in tlie 
islands of Cyprua and Candia, &c. 


(bofyrt; einer fyat inbeffen bie 2Bad)g^fro^fen öemadjt nnb fcerfto^ft,) 

33 r a n b e r . 
Ottern fann utd;t ftetS baS grembe meiben, 
£)aS ©ute liegt un§ oft fo fern. 
(5in ecr/ter beutfcfyer 9Jtomt mag feinen graben 388 leiben, 
£)od) ifyre Steine trinlt er gem. 

©te Bei 
(inbem fi$ äRe^ifto^efeS feinem ^3Ia£e nähert,) 
3d; muß gefterjn, ben fauren mag tety ntd?t. 
©ebt mir ein ®(a$ bom eckten fügen ! 

3ft eptytftopfyeleä (botyrt.) 
(Sud; foll fogletcty £ofaier fliegen. 389 

31 1 1 m a ty c r. 
9?ein, §erren, fefyt mir inö ©eficfyt ! 
3cfy fefy 7 e6 ein, tfyr r/abt uns nur jwm heften. 39n 

@! et! 2JKt folgen eblen ©äffen 
2Bär' e$ ein btöc^en biet gesagt, 
©efer/ftinb ! 9tor grab' 39t f/erau§ gefagt ! 
3ftit toelctyem SBetne fann tefy btenen ! 

388 granjofen, Frenchmen. 

389 Tokay- wine — a rieh, juicy, expensive wine produced in 
the county of Zemplin in Hungary. It takes its name from the 
little town Tokay near which the particular vine grows. The 
grapes are produced on a ränge of hüls, called Begyallya,of the 
Trachyte or Porphyrie formation. The whole surface is not more 
than 25 English Square miles in extent, and its extreme height 
about 700 feet. The vines were imported in the reign of Bela 
(1255 — 1270) by Italian colonists, but the best quality of Tokay 
wine can be obtained only from one small hill called " Mezes- 
Male " (honey-eake), the greatest part of which is in the pos- 
session of the crown. 

890 An idiomatic expression for " to inock, to befool." 

801 ©ewbe. 


51 1 1 m a \) e r. 
3Wit jcbcni ! SRut ntd;t laug gefragt ! 

(ftac^bem bie ^ödjer aüe gcbofyvt unb üevftopft fiub.) 
^D£epfyiftopbcleö (mit fettfamen ©cberbcn.) 
Stauben trägt ber Söeinftotf , 
ferner bor 3iegenbod! ! 
£>er 2Bein tft faftig, £olj bte hieben, 
1)et l)öljerne Xifd; famt $Betn aud; geben. 
(Sin tiefer ©lief in bie Statut ! 
§ter tft ein 2öttnber, glaubet nur! 


9hin jiefyt bte pfropfen unb geniest ! 


(inbem fte bic pfropfen jiefyen, unb jebem bev verlangte 2Bein ins 

©faS läuft.) 

O fd;ener Brunnen, ber un$ fliegt ! 

Itf epfyiftopljeleS. 
9htt Rittet eua), baß ityr mir nid;t3 »ergießt ! 
©ie hinten nneüerfyolt. 
51 Ue (fingen.) 

Unö ift ganj lannibalifd; n)ofyi, 
2113 lote fünf fyunbert (Säuen ! 39J 

£a8 SBolf ift frei ! ©efyt an, tote roofyrg tym gel;t ! 391 

392 This conjuring formula is nothing but an assertion of the 
truth, that a deeper knowledge of nature and her iaws enables us 
to do what to others may appear miraculous. Thus, in a certain 
degree, an astronomer was looked upon as superhuman, because 
he could predict the time of an eclipse, &c u 

393 The students being now overcome bj the effects of the 
devil's strong rieh wine, break out into the refrain of an old 

394 There is a sneer in Mephistopheles' Observation that this is 
the Jcind of freedom which the mob most enjoys. 


3d) fyätte £uft nun ab^ufatyren. 

©ieb nur.erftSld?t! bie Söeftiatität 

SBirb ficfy gar f/errücb offenbare«. 


(tritt! t uttfeorfidjtia,, ber SBettt fließt auf bie (Srbe unb rotvb jttr gtantme.) 

§etft! geuer! fyelft! £>ie 5pöüe brennt ! 

Wi e p 1} t ft p l) e l e 6 (bie flamme beftredjenb.) 
(Set rufyig, freunbtid; Clement ! 395 

(3u bett ©efeüett.) 
gür bieSmal ftar eö nur ein tropfen gegefeuer. 3S6 

2öa$ foü ta$ fein ? 2£art' ! 3t;r be^lt eö treuer ! 
(5$ fd;einet, baji tl?r un3 niebt femtt. 

^ag (Sr un8 ba8 jum jtceitenmale bleiben ! 

51 It mar; er. 
3d? bäd?t', n)tr biegen ifyn ganj fachte fettloärtS gcfyn. 

2öaS, £>err? (Sr toifl fid; unterftefyn, 
Unb t/ier fein £ofu$pofu« treiben? 397 

@tttt, atteö Weinfaß ! 

33 - Conjuring tlie fire. Firc was usually considered as a higher 
order of hostile being, and therefore the devil calls it Ins friend. 
336 p ur g a tory. 

397 Goethe uses the word "Hokuspokus" intheneutcr, though 
it is usually of the rnasculine gender. The word, wliich is found 
also in the English and Swedish languages, is probabiy a corrup- 
tion of " hoc est corpus meum," the words used by the Roman 
Catholic priest in the celebration of the Eucharist. The raeta- 
thesis in pocus (corpus) is evidently for the sake of rhyme. 


©efenftiel ! :,,JH 
£)u totÜft uns gar nod) grob begegnen ? 

Traube r. 
©atf nur! cö follcn ©d/täge regnen ! 3 " 

% 1 1 m a ty e r. 
'(Steht einen pfropf ans bem £tf$ ; e8 ftmngt ifym gener entgegen.) 
3d; brenn' ! t<# brenne ! 


3cinberet ! 

6tojjt 51t ! ber Jterl ift öogelfret ! m 

(®ie stehen bte Keffer unb gelten auf 2fte>pljifto:pljeleS I08.) 
äft e p fy i ft O p l) e t e 3 (mit ernft&after ©eberbe.) 
gaifdj ©ebilb unb 2£ort 
SBeränbera Sinn unb Ort ! 
©eib fyier unb bort ! l ° l 

©ie fielen erftannt unb fefyeu etnanber au. 
s 2l 1 1 in a fy e r. 
S83o bin id; ? Söettye« fd?ötte 8anb ! 

2Bcinberge ! ^efy* tefy red;t ? 

© t e b e 1. 

Unb Trauben gleid; jur £>anb. 

3ÜÖ SBefenftiet, for sorcerer. 

399 G-rammaticall y vre should have e8 fott, and not the plural fotten, 
as in this impersonal form the verb should agree wiih the pro- 
noun eS as its subjeet. 

400 SSofletfrei (Ht. as free as a bird) that is : free to be shot, like 
a bird — i.e. outlawed. 

401 They are now so bewildered by Mephisto, that their bodies 
and their imaginations are in very ditferent places, an eft'ect 
which drunkenness is said often to produce. The scene is in- 
tended as a warning against such excess, which by disturbing our 
reason, makes us see things in a very false light. 


33 ran ber. 

£ier unter btefem grünen i ? aube, 

©efyt, toelcfy ein ©tod! @efyt, v»eld;e Xrau6e! 

((Srfoßt©tebe(n Bei berufe; bte anbern tfyun e8 roedrfelfetttß unb l)el>en 

bie SWcffcr.) 

9ft e p fy i ft c- p fy e ( e S Orte oben.) 

3rrtfyum, lag loö ber öligen 2?anb ! 

Unb merft eud;, tote ber Teufel frage ! 10i! 

(Sr fcerfäjwinbet mit gouft; bie ©efeflen fahren auSetnanbcr. 



51 1 1 nt a ty e r. 

2Bar baS beine s Jiafe? 
£ r a n b e r (31t @iet>et.) 
Unb beine t^ab' id; in ber £anb ! 

(5« tvar ein ©cfytag, ber ging burd? alte ©lieber ! 
(Schafft einen ©tutjl! td) finfe nieber. 

s J?ein, faßt mir nur, tt>a« ift gefd^etm ? 

2öo ift ber ftert? ©am id? tyn fpüre, 
(*r fott mir ntcfyt tebenbig gefyt ! 

%\ 1 1 m a ty e r. 
3$ fab' itm fetbft tyinauS jur fteüertfyüre 

402 « jj ow th e devil jokes." — This exploit is mentioned by Philip 
Camerarius (Kämmerer) — (son of Melanchton's learned friend 
Johannes Cammerarius,) in a work published in 1602 under the 
title : " Operse horarum subcisivarum centuria prima." The 
exploit there, however, is ascribed to " Praestigiator Faustus." 
Goethe here again has an object in making the evil spirit per- 
form the tricks which were commonly ascribed to Faust ; Mephisto 
ein tr throughout the " Alter Ego " of Faust, and the embodi- 
ment of his evil nature. 


Sfaf einem Raffe reiten fcfyn. — 403 
(5$ liegt mit bteifcfyn>cr In ben gfigen. 

&\ä) nad) bem j£ifdje roenbenb. 
SNeln! 404 ©ofltc tooty ber Stein nod; fCiegeit? 

©ic bei. 
betrug toat alles, ?ug «nb Scfyein. 

9Ätr bäumte boefy, als trän!' icfy Sein. 

33 r a n b e r. 
31 ber n>te toar e$ mit ben Xrauben ? 

4 ' )S ßeferring to the old tradition mentioned above (Note 363). 
which nffirmed that Faust rode with Mephisto on a füll wine-cask 
through the ceiling of Auerbach's cellar. The two oil-paintings 
spoken of in that note, representing Faust in the performance of 
this feat, are still preserved in Leipsic in Auerbach's cellar. One 
of thera bears the following quaint inscription : 

„3)octor gaufiuS 31t btefer f^rtft 

2lu8 2luerbac&'8 Äetter geritten ift- 

2luf einem ftafe mit Söein gefdjroinb, 

SSefdjeS gefeiert ötel Mutier Ätnb, 

@ofdje§ bureb feine fitbtitne (fubtife) Äraft fyat getfyan, 

Unb be§ Teufel« Sofyn empfangen babon." 

The other painting, which represents the doctor drinking with 
some students from the very cask on which he took this extra- 
ordinary flight, has the following Latin couplet : 

Vive, bibe, obgregare, memor 

Fausti hujus et hujus 
Poense. Aderat clauda hsec 

Ast erat amplo gradu. 

(Live, drink, be sociable, ever mindful of 

Faust and his punishment ; 
It came with slow pace (limping) but it came 

with avengeance.) 

404 Sttein! is an exclamation used only by German Jews, but 
not found in pure German. It is equivalent to the Swedish 
" men ! " It reminds us also of the lower German and Danish 
man, men (but, aber). 



21 1 1 m a ty e r. 
tfton faa/ mir etn3, man foll fein Sömtfcer glauben! 406 

# e £ e n ! ü dj e. m 
2Utf einem niebrigen £erbe ftefyt ein großer Äeffel über bem Reiter. $n 
bem 3)am}>fe, ber baöon in bie §öfye fteigt, geigen fid) toerfdjiebene @e* 
[teilten. (Sine 9ft e e r ! a £ e fifct bei bem Äcffel nnb fcfyäumt tyn, 
unb forgt, baß er nicü überläuft. 2) e r 9ft e e r f a t e r mitben jungen 
ft£t Daneben nnb wärmt fiaV äöänbe unb £ecfe finb mit bem fettfamften 
§ej:enljan$ratb au$gefd)mücft. m 

4 " 5 This scene with all its coarse humour is intended as a warn- 
ing to all, and particularly to the students. In describing thus 
graphically the low, brutal licence of those who called themselves 
the disciples of Apollo, Goethe wished to improve their morals 
and tastes ; he therefore tries to excite in bis readers the feelings 
of shame and disgust, as well as to open their eyes to the dangers 
and inconsistencies into which atheists are apt to fall, for 
Goethe well knew that the infidel, the seeptie, and the atheist 
are ever the readiest to believe in tbe juggling tricks of witch- 

4t6 The witeh's kitchen. We have seen one essay and its 
failure on the part of the devil to induce Faust's higher nature to 
take any interest in the drunken revelry of the licentious students ; 
we now nieet Mephistopheles and his master in a still lower scene 
— and see symbolically his great inquiring spirit sinking deeper 
in dfgradation. The interview in Auerbach's cellar has prepared 
us for the present scene, and however stränge the place niay be, 
its strangeness is in perfect aecordance with Faust's still stranger 

407 Contrast this scenery with that which Shakespeare employs 
in his Macbeth. Instead of thunder, lightning, and storm, the 
pelting rain and the distant murderous battle — there is burning 
quietly on a low hearth a comfortable fire, over which is hanging a 
large cauldron ; before the fire are two monkeys, a male and female, 
the former is sitting with the young ones and warming himself, 
while the latter is engaged in skimming the cauldron and watch- 
ing that it does not boil over. As in Shakespeare's play " horrors 
are aecumulated on horrors," so in Goethe's scene is lt Satire 
heaped on satire ; " the loathsome animals are introduced to show 
the lowering, brutalizing iniluence of a superstitious belief in 


% a u fi. 2R c ») ^ i ft o ^ t) c 1 e «. 

SRir iiMtevftetyt ba$ tolle 3aufcern>efen ! 
^erfprtd;ft bu mir, td? feil genefen 
3n biefem Sßttft awi Waferet ? 
Verlang' id; Watfy &on einem alten Sßeibe ? 4M 
Unb fc^afft bie eubetföd?eret 
SBoljI breiig 3afyre mir bom Setbe ? 
SBefy mir ! toatn bu nichts 33cfferö weißt ! 
@cfyon ift bte Hoffnung mir berfd;unmbeu. 
§at bie Sfcatur unb t;at ein ebler ®etft 
Wid;t irgenb einen 33alfam auSgefunben? 
äJtetn greimb, mm fbrid;ft bu lieber fing ! 
^jid) ju berjüngen, gibt*3 and; ein natürlid; Mittel; 
Willem e8 ftel;t in einem auberu 53ucfy, 
Unb ift ein munberltd? (SapiteL 

3dj tt>tü e$ Riffen. 


©ut! Hin mittel oljne ©etb 
Unb s 3lr$t unb gauberet 51t fyaben ! 
23egtb bid; gletdj 1/iuauö auf 3 Selb, 
gang' an 31t fyaefen unb $u graben, 

>s On the path of vice the poor professor has lost his wits, and 
has grown so foolish as to come to an old witch for ad vice, 
and the great philosopher whom but now we heard conjuring the 
spirit of the Universe, in his lonjrings to scrutinize Revdation 
and fathom the secret working of Nature, will soon sink so low as 
to believe in the power of an old hag to restore to bim the rigour 
ofjouth. He has passed all his life in fruit less learning. Fait'h 
and regulated knowledge bave never found a place in his heart, 
and accordingly the struggle he makes, before giving himself up 
to the degrading influence of Wiitchcraft, wise and learned doctor 
though he be, is miserably feeble. How deep a moral is there in 
this scene ! 


Grrfyalte bid; mtb beuten Sinn 

3n einem ganj befcfyränften Greife, 

(Swäfyre btd; mit ungemifd;ter Speife, 

£eb' mit beut SBtefy als 23teb, unb ad)t' e3 nttyt für 9iaub, 

£)en $<fer, ben bu ernteft, felbft gu büngen — 

£>a$ ift ba§ bcftc Mittel, glaub', 

2tof achtzig 3aljr btd? ju bevjüngen ! 409 

5 a u ft. 
S)a8 bin id; nid;t getoüfynt ; id) fann mid; nicfyt bequemen 
SDen (Spaten in bie £)anb *u nehmen. 
l Da8 enge Seben ftetyt mir gar nid;t an. 4 '° 

So muß benn bocfy bie §e^e brau ! 

Söarum benn juft baß alte 2öeib ! 
tanft bu ben £ranf md?t felber brauen ? * n 

409 ^q^ ^oil, ] a bour with your hands, and you will sonn be- 
come healthy, lusty and young. The evil spirit in this ironical 
Bpeech gives us really sound advice as to the best means of en- 
suring good old age, yet the advice is given in so uninviting a 
form as to make the doctor's over-educated mind shrink from 
following it. 

4lt) Here lies the hidden secret ! These bookworm philosophers 
never attempt to make themselves socially useful ; they keep 
aloof from every trial or suffering of life ; the very thought of 
earning a practical livelihood is a horror to them, and they there- 
fore pamper and nurse their body in slnggish indolence, tili their 
diseased and restless spirit has undermined all their happiness, 
nay, too often the happiness of some fellow creature as well. 

Many passages in this scene are also directed against the class 
of superficial literary men who plagued Geimany in Goethe's 
time with their paradoxical doubting sophisms; they would have 
done m uch better to take the spade in their band and dig, than to 
waste their time in boilding up their false and unstable Systems. 

4,1 Faust is incapable of understanding why an old woman 
should be selected to prepare for bim the draught of youth — the 
leason of this apparent inconsistency is obvious enough. To the 


SDad n?äY ein fetyöner 3^itöertreib ! 

3d; toottf inbefj ti>ot>t taufenb SBrMew bauen. ' 

9tö$t Äunft unb Sötfjettfctyaft allein, 

®cbulb miß bei beut Söerfe fein. m 

©in ftiüer ©etft ift 3atjre lang gefd&äftig ; 

SDie $eit Nur mad;t bie feine ©äfyrung fräftig. 

Unb alles, n>a8 baju gehört, 

(53 ftnb gar tümtberbare Sachen ! 

•Der Teufel bat fie'8 jtrar gelehrt ; 

Slücin ber Üeufet faun'S nicfyt mad;en. 

2)tc £fyiere crbltcfenb. 
@iefy »etdj ein sierltd;eö ®efcfyled;t ! 
£aS ift bie SNagb ! fca« ift ber Änecfyt! 

pu ben Spieren. 
(Sä f cfyemt, bie grau ift nid;t ju §aufe ? 

request " can you not brew the magic potion yourself," Mephisto's 
refusal is significant, as the devil ever makes others the instru- 
ment of his plans, and seldom acts for others ; crime must be 
coinmitted for him, and by those who have not strength enou«ii to 
resist him. 

412 The power of piling up immense masses of stone has been 
universalis attributed to evil spirits, and seems from the numerous 
traces we have of this belief, to have been a very favourite 
amusement among them. This superstition seems to have beea 
particularly common in Germany during the Dark Age=, and ac- 
cordingly we find all dangerous natural bridges over deep abysses, 
any more irregulär or more massive pile than usual, especially if 
on the summitof some inaceessible height, attributed to the devil's 
handiwork — thus we have the names : SeufelSbrücfe, STenfelefleme, 
£eufelsmauer,£eufef3a,raben, £eufel3tijurm, £eufet3fansel, Seufeföfcfjtoß, 
u, f. rc>. The " devil's stones " are some huge rocks which the 
devil is said to have dropped in erecting one of his buildings, or 
aecording to another legend, were rocks which he once used as 
missiles in an attack on a consecrated church. 

413 " Patience is principally wanted." As patience is a charac- 
teristic feature in aged women, " the witch is a very proper per- 
sonage to brew such a potion." 


•Die £fyiere. 
23eim (Sdmiaufe, 
5lu6 bem §auö, 
$um ©d;ornftein fymauö ! 4H 

$3ie tauge pflegt fic tt>ol)t &u fdmxirmen? 

£)ie £fyiere. 
<Bo lang toir im$ bie Pfoten toärmen. 

9Ji e )> ^ i f t o ^ ^ e t e e (ju ftaufr). 
Sie finbeft bu bie jarten £tn'ere? 

<&o abgefdmtacft, als id; nur jemanb f afy ! 
9?ein, ein £)t§cour$, tote biefer ba, 
3ft grabe ber, ben ity am Uebften fitere I 

3« ben gieren, 
@o fagt mir bod?, t?erflird)te Stoppen ! 415 
2Ba§ quirlt 416 ifyr in bem 25rei fyerum ? 

£ f) i e r e. 

2Btr !od;eu breite SBettelfuwen. 417 

I _ . . . 

414 We see emblematically represented in the inhahitants of the 
witch's kitchen the " muses of nonsense " courted so much bv 
many literary men of Goethe's age. The diphthong au so 
characteristically introduced into the speech of the monkeys is an 
Imitation of the peculiar howl of these anirnals. The witeh her- 
self is supposed to be feasting at present on some cross-road. 

4,5 The word fcerftudjt, must not be taken here in its usual bad 
sense, as cursed, but rather as it is used by the lower Orders in 
reference to anything clever or extraordinary, anything that 
pleases them much ; thus „ein tjcrfiu^ter Äerl" means " a very 
clever fellow." 

^ßu^en, an expression of fondness. Faust afterwards ad- 
dresses Margaret as „liebe *ßnWe" (dear doli ! ) 

416 From quivfen or qnerten, to turn round, to twist, to stir. 

417 To the devil's inquiring as to their ebject in stirring the 
porridge, the monkeys' reply is, " we are cooking beggar's broth ; w 
that is an absurdity which is sure to please the mob. 


Co babt i\)x ctn groß ißnblifmn. 

£>cr Hat er 
(mafyt fiü) tjcrbei unb frf?meid>ctt bcm $te})f)tfto^ete8). 
£> ttürflc nur gteid;, 
Unb ntad;c mtcty reid?, 
Unb taj3 mtd? gemimten ! 
@ar fd;led;t iffS befteüt, 
Unb U\ir' id; bei ©etb, 
@o tt>äY id? bei ©innen. 4l8 

SBie gtiidtid) tmtrbe fid; ber 2Iffe fd^en, 
>UMmt' er nur audj in$ Sotto fe^en! 419 

Snbeffen fyaben bte jungen ^cerfälj^en mit einer großen tilget getieft, 
unb rotten fte fyeröor. 

£)er Haler. 
©ie fteigt unb fällt,. 
Unb redt beftänbig ; 
»Sic Hingt h>ie ©la@ ; 
2öie batb bricht baS ? 
3ft fyofyt intoenbig ; 
§ier glänzt fie febr, 
Unb fyer nod) mebr. 
3cty bin (ebenbig ! 
2#em lieber @obn, 
§att' bid? baöon! 
$)u mitgt fterben ! 

418 An ironical allusion to the power of money, as if it could 
make a man out of a mere brüte, and supply reason and under- 
standing not only to human beings, but even to the lower 

419 lieferring to the lotteries so prejudicial to the lower classes, 
which are still common in many parts of Germany, especially in 
Austria, but which must be considered as affording amusement 
fit only for monkeys, and beings devoid of reason. 


<2te ift bon £fyon, 
<S* giebt (sterben. 42ü 

$c" e p fy i ft o p § e ( e 8. 
SBaSfoü betrieb? 

£)er Ä ater c^oft es ^runter}. 
SBärft bu ein Qkh, 
Söoüt' tcfy biet) gteid; erfennen. 

6r läuft jur fiSfcin «nb fäfjt fie burc§fefyen. 
(Siel) bnrcfy ba$ ©ieb ! 
(hfennft bu ben £>ieb, 
Unb batf ft tfyn md;t nennen ? *" 

3Ji e p fy i ft O p fy e t e 8 (ft$ bem geuer näfjernb)* 
Unb btefer £opf ? 

420 How true a reflection on the deceitful glitter, the hollow- 
ness and unsoundness of this fragile world ! The monkey after 
having himself played with the world, now begins to moralize 
and advises his son not to follow his example, and not to waste 
his years in early youth. 

The words : 

,,©ie Hingt tntc ®ia$ 
2Bie bolb brü?t baö"— 

remind us of the adage : „©tücf unb ©to«, tote balb brt<$i ba$." 

421 Even the heathen of old knew the art of divining by a 
sieve. In the Middle Ages the customs of sieve-turning, sieve- 
hunting, sieve-running and sieve-dancing were very generally 
practised for the purpose of detecting thieves and other offenders. 
The sieve-turning was very similar to the modern " table turn- 
ing," and was performed in the following manner : Two persona 
held a sieve between their middle fingers very lightly, after 
breathing some magic words over it, they proeeeded to pronounce 
one after another the names of the suspected persons, the one at 
whose name the sieve began to turn was considered the eulprit. 
The words "to know the thief," — and "not to be allowed to 
name him" are probably used to imply that the brutes were 
aware tbat Mephisto was doing all he could to rob Faust of his 
Heaven, but were not allowed to speak of it. 


ilater nnb Ääfcirt. 

Der alberne £ropf ! 
St femtt nid;t ben Xopf, 
(St fennt nid;t ben tfeffel ! 

Unhöfliches £fyier! 

Der $ater. 
Den SBebel nimm I)ier, 
Unb fetf btd? in Reffet ! 422 

@r nötigt ben 2Jtepbtftopfyele8 ju filmen. 


(weiter btefe 3*it über öor einem ©Riegel geftanben, fid; ifcm bafb ge* 
näfyert, batb ftd) öon tfym entfernt Ijat). 

2öa$ fcy icfy? SMcfy' ein Inmmttfcfy 23tlb 

>}eigt fid? in biefem ^anberfpieget ! 

£) i'iebe, leifye mir ben fdmellften betner glügel, 

Unb füfyre miefy in tfyr ®efitb ! 

Slcfy, n>enn tefy nicfyt auf biefer (Stelle bleibe, 

2öenn tefy e8 toage nafy jn gelw, 

$ann idj fie nur als wie im 9?ebel felm ! — 

Das fcfyönfte 33ilb bon einem 2öeibe ! 

Off« möglich tft ba$ 2Beib fo föön? 

^Jtojj tefy an biefem fymgeftrecften £etbe 

Den Inbegriff bon allen §imme(n felm? 

<so ettoaS finbet fiefy auf (Srben? 423 

422 Omission of the article. We should have „in ben ©effel'' ; 
similar dialectic faults are of frequent oecurrence in Goethe' s 
earlier writings. 

423 It was a common artifice of necromancers, sorcerers, jug- 
glers, &c. to show different objeets in coneave mirrors, crystals or 
paus of water. This art is here practised by the devil to seduce 
Faust, and at the same time to ridicule his pretended wisdom. — 
In the image that now appears in the mirror different commenta- 
tors have seen the most opposite Symbols : some have taken the 
apparition to be the Greek Helena, and others again, with more 
probability to be the unhappy Margaret (the future heroine of our 


Wl e p fy i f t o p b e l e 8 
Üftatürltcfy, toenn ein ©ott fid; erft fecfyS £age plagt, 
Unb felbft am (Snbe SBrabo faßt, 
SDa mug e$ n>a$ ©efcfyeibteS werben, 
gür bieSmat fiel) bici> immer fatt ! 424 
3d? roetg bir fo ein ©d/ä£d)en auöjufpüren, 
Unb feiig, teer ba$ gute <&ü)\d fal fyat, 
$U$ Bräutigam fie fyeim^ufüfyren ! 

f^auft ftefyt immerfort in ben ©Riegel. 2fte£t)tftofcljeieS, ftdj in bem ©effel 
befynenb nnö mit bem SBebet fpielenb, fäljrt fort ju npredjen. 

§ier fifc' id; tote ber ßönig auf bem £fyvone ; 425 
£)en $epter ^ a ^' *$ W x ? e§ W* nur noc fy fcte Ätonc. 

£)ie £fyiere 
(roel'dje bisher altertet rounberlt$e ^Beilegungen burd? einanber gemalt 
fyabm, bringen bem 9ftcpfytfto:pi)ele§ eine Äcone mit großem ©efd;rei). 
£> fei bocfy fo gut, 
Wit @d)toeiJ3 unb mit SÖIut 
£)ie tone ju leimen ! 426 

play) : it seems however very likely, and quite in accordance with 
the wkole Situation, to consider the image a mere creation of the 
devil's, intended to excite the passions of Faust, who already be- 
wildered by the confused scene of revelry, and the finale in Auer- 
bach^ cellar, is now entirely lost amid the jests, and moralizing 
of the witch's attendants. 

To extol the human form was one of Goethe's favourite themes. 

424 The demon tries to cool Faust's excitement by a blasphe- 
mous jest on the creation of man, but still urges hirn to go on 
contemplating and admiringthe apparition, knowingthat through 
the eye the devil may easily steal into the heart. 

m On witnessing Faust's excitement at the sight of the lovely 
imao'e Mephisto feels himself like a king on his throne, but 
without a crown. The expression „füfytt glei$ 'nein Äönig ! " is 
idiomatically used for " being happy." Mephisto seeing that his 
trick begins to work on Faust feels himself thoroughly happy like 
a king, and as a crown may convey sorrow, the poet wisely says, 
" like a king — but without a crown." 

426 Into these two lines Goethe crowds all the crimes that have 
been committed through whole centurics by despots, whom he 


<2>ic fielen itncjefc^icft mit bcr Ävone um mib jerbrecfycn fic in jwct 
©tttcfe, mit n^clc^en fte fyerumftrinant. 
Sfcutt tft cS gcfcfyetw ! 
SBir reben nnb fcl>n r 
2ötr leeren nnb reimen ! 427 

8 a U ft (.qegen ben (Spießet). 
28el) mir ! td; »erbe fd;ier üevrüctt 

9Ji C p l) i ft p l) e 1 e $ (auf bie £fyiere beutenb). 
Wim fängt mir an faft fetbft ber $öpf gu fcfytoanfen. 428 

£)ie £t)iere. 
Unb roenn c$ nn$ glütft, 
Unb toetm c$ fid? f cfytcft, 
^o finb e8 ©ebanfen ! 

ganft (wie oben). 
38et« 35nfen fangt mir an 31t brennen ! 
CSritferncn toir un$ nnr gefd;roinb ! 

aecuses of " having glued together their crowns with tlic sweat 
and blood of their subjeets." 

427 Despotism once crushed, the people begin to use their 
faculties to educate themselves ; then follows civilisation, and with 
it poetry, fine arts, and the greatest boon of all, the liberty of 
speech and writing. 

428 Mephisto now feels his own head reel as he hears the 
raonkeys talk of freedom : he knows that his is an empire of 
darkness, whilst freedom implies the light of civilisation, and this 
again leads to a raoral improvement of mankind, which narrows 
his dominion and lessens his sway. 

Some coramentators have contended that Goethe wished to in- 
dicate by the monkeys' breaking the crown and jumping about 
with the pieces, that from the overthrow of despotism nothing 
could result but anarchy ; though there is much in Goethe' s 
writings which could justify this explanation (for he was a thorough 
aristoerat, but then an aristoerat in the highest sense of the 
term : viz, one who ardently longed for everything that could en- 
noble or improve mankind) we do not see any sufficient grounds 
for giving such an interpretation to these lines. 


9# e p§ i ft p fy e \ e 8 (in obicjer (Stellung). 
$uu, toenigfleng muß man befennen, 
£)aj3 e$ aufrichtige $oeten finb. 429 

£)er Äeffet, roelc&en tic Ääfcin Bisher außer 2tdjt gelaffen, fängt an üfcer- 
gutaufen ; e8 entfielt eine große flamme, meiere jum »Scfcornftetn ljmau$» 
fd&fä'gt. 2)i e §e j e fommt burd) bie flamme mit entfettetem ©efd&ret 


£)ie §e£e. 
Itt! 5lu! mu! 2ht! 
93erbammte$ £fyier ! berflucfyte (Sau ! 
SScrfäitmft ben fteffet, berfengft bie grau ! 

129 This irony of Mephistopheles justifies our rejeetion of the 
above explanation. He sneers at the rhyming animals, and 
though dissatisfied with their freedom yet praises them as, at 
least, sincere poets ; he at the same time expresses his incredulity 
in the value of freedom, a view which quite aecords with the 
character of a " chainedand fettered demon" — as he is described 
in the following powerful verses of Caedmon (an Anglo-Saxon 
poet and monk of Whitby, who died about the year 680). 

But around me lie 
Iron bonds : 

Me have so hard 
The clasps of hell 
So firmly grasped ! 

My feet are bound, 
My hands manacled. 

Of these hell doors are 
The ways obstrueted 

About me he 
Huge gratings 
Of hard iron, 
Porged with heat. 

Satan fettered to crime by bonds of iron, rules principally in 
lands of oppression, whether political or spiritual, where he can 
find plenty of victims in the daikness of servitude and moral 




^auft unb SWeMiftoipljcIeS crBlitfenb. 

2ßa$ ift ba8 i;icr ? 

S33cr fetb ttyr fyier ? 

2BaS toolU it;r ba? 

2öer |d?ttd; fid; cm ? 

£)ie geuerpein 

(Sud? in$ ©ebein ! 

«Sie fäfyrt mit bem @djamnl3ffet in ben $e(je(, unb ftmijt gfammen na# 
ftauft, 3Jie^ifto^eteS nnb ben Spieren. 2)te Spiere roinfeln. 


(weiter ben SEBebcI, ben er in ber £anb fyält, umfefyrt unb unter bie 

(Slafer unb ^öpfefc^tägt). 

Grnt^uet ! entjtoet ! 

£)a liegt ber 23ret ! 

£)a liegt ba§@fa8! 

(SS ift mtr <$pa% 

£>er Xact, bu $ae, 

3u betner belobet. 4:}1 
Onbent bie £ere tooH ©rimrn unb (Sntfe^en aurücftritt) 
(Srfennft bu mtd; ? @ert?ppe ! ©dbeufal bu ! 
(Srfennft bu keinen $errn unb 9Jtetfter ? 
2öa8 f^ält mtcfy ab, fo fd^lag' id; gu, 
3erfd)mettre biefy unb beine f a^engetfter ! 
£a|t bu bor'm rotten SamniS ntd;tmefyr üfefpect ? 432 

430 The witch herseif now appears in consequence of the 
cauldron having been allowed to boil over by the neglect of the 
she monkey. 

431 SDJetobct, the termination bei is allowed only in comic writing ; 
it should be bie. 

432 Red was commonly considered the devil's favourite colour, 
as being the emblem of fire. WhitaJcer gives an amusing ac- 
count of a piece called " The Creation of the World," as acted in 
the theatre of Lisbon : in this play, as soon as Adam was 
persuaded by Eve to eat of the apple, there arose a most terrible 
storm of thunder and lightnins:, durin£ which a dance of infernal 


ftannft bu bie £>afynenfeber md;t erfcnncn ? iXi 
$üV iä) bieS $tageji#t berftedt? 
(Soll tcfy mid; etwa felber nennen? 

£)ie $£$*. 
D Sperr, bergest ben rofyen ©ruf; ! 
@ey icfy bod; feinen ^ferbefuß. 434 
2Bo finb benn eure betten Waben ? * 35 

spirits was performed with the devil in the midst, dressed in 
black with scarlet stockings and a gold-laced hat on his head. 
^See " Ancient Mysteries," page 181.) 

433 The cock's comb as the emblem of pride, as in the English 
corruption : u coxeomb." 

431 Imagination in the Dark Ages, in its personifications of the 
devil, frequently mixed up the traditions of Greece and Eome 
with scriptural coneeptions. Thus the " horse-foot" (^ferbfuß) of 
the evil one is an idea evidently taken froin the Centaurs of 
Homer, the hairy monsters of Mount Pelion, which were, (ac- 
cording to Voss, the celebrated German commentator and trans- 
lator of Homer,) before the Pindaric age represented as half men 
and half horses, and connected with Baccbanalian revelry ; 
in this character they were identified by the imagination of 
Christian artists with the devil, who is therefore represented with 
a horse-foot. 

435 Eavens too often represent the devil, as blackness, quickness 
and eunnine; seem to be the natural attributos of his servants. 
See Hieronymus' commentaries on the book Job XXXVIII, 
41. explaining that by the raven the devil is alluded to. 

In the northern mythology we find two of these birds constant 
companions of Odin * ; one was called Huginn (the faculty of 
thought), the other Muninn (the faculty of memory), their re- 
spective duty being to inform him of every piesent or past 
oecurence on the earth. We find in the oldest German writings 
frequent exclamations, and warnings against ravens as spirit? 

* Odin, Othiu, Oddin (the German Wodan) was the son of Bor, and the mightiest of 
the Äsen, the name given in the northern mythology to the chief gods, as Odin, 
Thor, Niördr, Freja (Freya), Hein dal, &c. The word Äsen meaning the eklest, the 
forefathers, whence Ata,'Tata, Vata, Vater, father. 


v AV e p i ft o ß \) e 1 c & 
gür biegmal fommft bit fo bai>on ; 
renn fretttd; ift c$ eine SBeife fd;on, 
SDag »ir uns ntebt gefetyen l;aben. 
Äud? bie Sultur, bte alle Sßtelt Mcrft, 
Öat auf ben Teufel fiel; erftredt ; 
$5a$ norbif cfye ^fyantom ift nun ntd;t nteftr 31t fcfyauen ; 
3l^o fiefyft bu ferner, ®d;tt)eif uub ittaucn? 436 

of evil, for instance „geigen tetr md)t bem jc&toarjen SRaBcn." Rol. 
35. 23. Hence we may derive the idiomatic expressions : 
„Stobett&ater, ^Rabenmutter, ^nbenftnb 2C."~designatingan unnatural 
father, mother, child. Schiller thus says in his „3unqfrait öon 
Orleans : " „3a, feine Stabeitmutter fül;rt efl an." Poe in his poem 
the " Raven," calls this bird : " thing of evil, bird of fiend, bird 
of devil." 

The wolf and raven were sacred to Apollo, the latter as his 
messenger made htm acquainted with the faithlessness of Coronis ; 
and on Mithra's cloak (the God of the sun, aecording to the 
Persian niyth,) sits also a raven. 

435 This refers to the populär pictorial representation of the 
devil with horns, tail and claws. He was also frequently de- 
picted in eai ly times as a black goat, a form in which he was 
worshipped by witches. It is probable that this idea arose from 
the symbolical ceremony instituted among the Jews (Levit. 
XVI) of heaping all the sins of the congregation upon the 
" Scape-goat " (©ünbenboef) and then driving it out into the 
wilderness. In the " Ancient Mysteries," devoted especially to 
the English " Miracle plays " (London 1823) we find thefollow- 
ing remarks on the representation of the devil. " It is well 
known that the personality of the devü has been exemplified by 
extraordinary personifications of him, and by relations of his 
appearance under almost every form ; but a personification that 
he is represented to have assumed in Hertfordshire, is aecom- 
panied with circumstances that have never perhaps been pzral- 
lelcd." In John Bagford's collection of title pages at the British 
Museum (Harl. MSS. 5419) we find the following: 

" The devil seen at St. Albans. Being a true relation, how 
" the devil was seen there in a cellar in the likeness of a ram, 
"and how a butcher came and cut his throat, and sold some of 


Unb tt>a$ ben gug betrifft, ben id? nicfyt miffen fann, 
£ier nritrbc mir bei beuten fcfyaben ; 
£)arnm bebien' id; mid?, tote mancher iunge 2ftann, 
(Seit bieten Safyren falfd;er SBaben. 

üDte £ere (tanjenb). 
Sinn unb Sßerftanb berlief id; fester, 
Sefy' icfy ben 3unfer Satan 437 lieber fyier ! 

SR'epit flötete*. 

£5en tarnen, 2Beib, berbitt' id? mir ! 

£)te §e^e. 
SBaritm? tt>a8 fyat er eud? getfyan? 

(£r ift f d>on lang in$ gabetbuety gefd^rieben ; 

allein bie SJienfcfyen finb nid;ts beffer bran : 

£)en 23öfen finb fie (öS, bie SBöfen finb geblieben. 

£)u uennft nueb $ e r r 33 a r o n, f o ift bie Sacfye gut ; 

3cfy bin ein GEatatier, n)ie anbre (datiere. 438 

£>u jtüetfelft nid?t an meinem eblen £Mut ; 

" it, and dressed the rest for him, inviting many to supper who 
"eat of it. Attested by divers letters of men of very good 
" credit in thls town. Printed for confutation of those that believc 
" there are no such things as spirits or devils." (4° 1648.) 

"What is said about the change which the devil has undergone 
refers only to his outward representation. 

437 In Macbeth, the witches when about to perpetrate crime, 
give vent to their antieipated pleasure in a wild dance of joy. 
Goethe's witch exhibits her delight in the same manner at seeing 
gentleman (Runter) Satan, as she may well expect some deed of 

438 Mephistopheles repudiates the name of Satan from a feel- 
ing of inferiority to that grander spirit of evil, but selects the 
title „Jperr 33aron" — an allusion to the depraved French aris- 
toeraey, which by debaucheries and fearful excesses, provoked 
the awful catastrophe of 1792, and all the sanguinary wars 
that followed in its train, destroying throughout Europe npwards 
of 3,000,000 able men. 


Siel) l;cr, baö tft ba$ Wappen, baö id; fül;rc ! 

(5v macfyt eine unanftanbige ©efcerbc 439 
3D i c ©e£e (ta*tumitäftf&): 
Va ! fya ! taö tft ta eurer 5Irt ! 
3fyr feto ein Steint, tote iljr mir immer toar't ! 
5LTt e j> ^ t ft o p l) e l e 8 (ju gauft). 
SRetn greuub, ba$ lerne tuofyl Derftefyn! 
Tteg tft bie 2Irt mit £e£en mnjugefyn. 44a 

£)te §ere. 
9ta fagt, tfyr Ferren, fta3 tfyr fd;afft ! 441 

9Jt e >p fy i ft o p Ij c t c ö. 
<5tn guteß ©la$ bon bem Mannten (Saft! 
3Dod; muß id; eud; umä ält'fte bitten ; 
Tic 3al;re bo^etn feine ftraft. 44 ' 2 

439 The devil here appears in the lowest possible point of view. 
The unseemily gesture is thus described by Dante in bis 
"I/Inferno" (XXV.) 

" AI fine de le sue parole il ladro 

"Le mani alzo con ambedue lefiche 

" Gridando, togli Dio, ch'a te le squadro." 

Deuce in his " Tllustrations of Shakespeare " Vol. I., page 492, 
has the following explanation : " The practice of thrusting out 
the thumb between the first and second fingers to express the 
feelings of insult and contempt has prevailed very generally 
among the nations of Europe, and for many ages has been 
denominated " making a fig," or described at least by some 
equivalent expression. Hence our phrase " I don't care a fig for 

4,0 He attempts to excuse his vulgarity by observing that 
brutes must be treated like brutes; a poor palliation indeed, 
and worthy of the evil spirit. 

41 ' 2öa§ tfyr fd)afft, a dialectic expression for toa« ifyr »önfd^t 
(what do you want), is a phrase in frequent use in Upper (i.e. 
Southern) Germany and throughout Austria, where it is a stereo- 
typed question among servants. 

442 Meaning that the strength of the potion increased with its 


£)te ©e^e. 
©ar gern ! §ier ^ab' id) eine glafcfye, 
$lit« ber icty fetbft jutoeilen nafcfye, 44 '* 
£)ie and; nicht mel)r im minb'ften fttnft ; 
3d? n>ill end) gern ein ©lassen geben. 


£)od) toenn eS biefer üUtonn unvorbereitet trinkt, 
(So !ann er, tmfjt tt)r voofyt, nicfyt eine @tunbe leben. 

50t e p Ij i ft o p I) e 1 e 8. 
(5s tft ein guter greunb, bem e$ gebeten f oll ; 
3cfy gönn' tfym gern baS 33efte beiner 5tüd?e. 
3iel)' beuten Äretö, fprid) beine ©prücfye, 
Unb gib tlnu eine Xaffe ootl ! *" 

£)te §e$e 
(mit fettfamen ©eberben, gte^>t einen ÄretS nnb fietlt rounberbare @a$en 
fytnetn ; inbeffen fangen bte ©läfer an jut Kinnen, bte feffel jn tönen, nnb 
machen SDhtftf. 3 lI l e t*t bringe fie ein großes SBndj, [teür bie 9fteerfat3en 
in ben $rei§, bie ü)r ;mm $nlt bienett nnb bie gadet galten muffen, 
©te roinft ganften, jn ifyr gn treten). ^ 

Sauft (31t 9Kc^iflo^eleS). 
sftein, fage mir, toaä f oll ba$ »erben ? 
£)a$ tofte geug, bie rafenbeu ©eberben, 
5Der abgefctymaätefte betrug, 
(Sinb mir befannt, oerfyajjt genug. 41ß 

4 ' 3 Witb a wrinkled, ugly, old face, tlie old witch recom- 
mends her " potion of youth " bj confessing with naivete that she 
herseif uses this remedy. lieality and superstition are put here 
in striking contrast. 

444 Faust now reeeives a cup filled with the potion, of which 
the demon satirically says, fi that he wishes him the best of the 
witch's kitchen. ' r 

445 A humorous allusion to the many Pagan ceremonies re- 
tained in the Komish Clmrch. 

446 Expressing his disgust at the childish ceremonies which the 
witch perfotms — " as too weil known." 


W e p f) t ft o p i) e l e 3. 
ßi, hoffen ! 5Da$ ift nur gitm 8a$en ; 
@ci nur ntcbt ein fo ftrenger 3Äarot ! 
@te mujj atä xUrjt ein "pofuäpofuS uiad;en, 
Damit ber @aft btr wofyl gcbeityen tarnt. 44/ 

(£r nötigt Rauften in beu $ret8 31t treten. 

£)te §ere 
(mit großer (Sntyfyafe fängt an aitö bem 8ndje jw bet'(ainivcn). 

£)u mußt cerftelm ! 

9lu$ (5m8 mad?' 3efyn, 

Unb 3tt>et lag gelm, 

Unb £)rei mad;' gietd?, 

^0 bift du reid;. 

SBerlier' bte 23ter ! 

5lu£ gürtf unb ©eci#, 

^0 fagt* bie $er/, 

SDtodj* (Sieben unb s Jld}t, 

(go ift'S üoübrad)t : 

Unb Steint ift @tnS, 

Unb 3et)n ift Mn& 

£)a£ ift baö Speren-GtnmaleinS ! m 

447 Mephistopheles now speaks of the witch as a quack, who 
always thinks it necessary to go through some prefatory Jargon 
that her draughts may have the desired eifect. 

448 The cabbalistic doctrines are treated here, as well as in the 
following speecli of Mephisto, with great satire. The name cab- 
bala, lhat is " traditional doctrine," original ly comprehended all 
Holy Books which were not written by Moses. In after times 
(about A.D. 600) the name was applied to a mystic, religious, 
find philosophical System of the Jews, based on Persian and 
Macedonian magical elements. In the writings of Philo (in the 
first Century A.D.) and also in the Talmud, and the Midrashim, 
we lind many obscure theologio-philosophic dissertations, but 
they are all written in a very scattered and unconnected form, 
mixing the tenets of PlatQ, Aristotle and Pythagoras with the 
Mosaic doctrines, and trying to explain the revealed books of the 
Old Testament by the Systems of heathen philosophy. The first 


8 a U ft. 
Tlid) fcünft, btc ^Xlte fpridbt im gieber. 

ffl e p fy t ft o p fy e 1 e $. 
£)ct$ ift noct) lange ntefyt vorüber ; 

systematic work of this class on cosmogony appeared in the 
seventh Century, under the title " Sepher Jezirah " (the book of 
the creation), and soon became a great authoiity with the Cab- 
balists ; its authorship is generally attributed to the Rabbi Akiba 
(died A.D. 138) who, it is said, invented the whole, and passed 
it off as the work of the patriarch Abraham. 

In the latter part of the twelfth Century the word Cabbala had 
extended its signification so as to include any metaphysical 
exegesis, and from this it gradually became a mere sy9tem of 
mystic, religious superstitions. 

In the three following centuries there appeared under the 
same title innumerable works, which professed to explain the' 
Scriptures of the Old Testament, among which we may notice 
the Hagadas, a symbolic interpretation of the Jewish lawa and 
customs ; all, however, are but a confused jumble of unintelligible 
commentaries, miraculous signs and mysterions names. Philoso- 
phers and Talmudists soon stood forward to oppose these ruystico- 
cabbalistic Interpreters, who, it was shown, had actually attributed 
their own spurious writings to the pen of more celebrated and 
influential authors.* 

The Cabbala degenerated gradually into magic, mystic and 
alcbemical obscurities, and at last became nothing but a mass of 
unmeaning words ; its study, however, was revived with fresh 
vio-our towards the close of the sixteenth ccnturv bv the Jews 
of Palestine, and the Roman Catholic theologians of Italy. 

A\\ that the Cabbala ever diel was to give a great impulse to 
all kinds of superstitions, and to create confusion and confusing 
theories on metaphysical subjeets ; the clearest truths were turned 
and twisted in Order to give them a mysterions form, and as this 
mvsticism was beginning to nrevail in some philosophical schools 
in Germany, Goethe thought it right to aim a blow at that st-ct, 
and attempted to destroy their pernicious influence on civilisation. 

*A noted instrnce of this had oecurred iu the thirteenth Century in the case of the 
Sofiar, a hook written in the Aram&ic (i. e. the highland dialecr, in Opposition to that 
commonly spoken in Canaan, which had been attributed to Simon Ben Jochai, 
writings became afterwards the text-book as it were of the vonnger fol'owors of the 


3$ tonn' c$ ttofyl, fo Qjngt taS ganjc 5Midj. 

l\ibe manche ^cit bannt verloren; 
Dam ein oeUfemmuer fötberftmirj? 
©leibt gicidj gefciramjj&oü für .\Hugc mie für Sporen. 

ein greunb, bte >iunft ift alt unb neu : 
io ükw bte ;Hrt 31t allen 3°i ten r 
Durd> Drei uud (5m$, uud Gsütf nur Drei 
•_<rrtt>um ftatt 2Bafy$ett gu verbreiten. 
2c idm>äfct unb lefyrt man ungeftert; 
©et will fiefy ratt ben Warr'n bef äffen ? 
(^erccfmlicfy glaubt ber ÜWenfcfy, wenn er nur 28orte fyört, 
CrS muffe fieb babei bod; aud; maS benfen taffen. 

Die §ere (fä^rt fort). 
Die fyobe £raft 
Ter 28iffenfd?aft, 
Der ganzen Sklt verborgen ! 
Hub toet ntebt benft, 
Dem toirb fie gefcfyenft, 
(fr fyat fie efyue Sorgen. 4i9 

449 These lines fully prove the opinion we expressed in the 
preceding note. Goethe is speaking ngain only of false or rather 
of obscure knowledge, and very sarcastically makes the witch 
say, that those who trouble themselves least with thoughts fre- 
quently sueeeed best in scientific matters. Other commentators 
have seen in the above lines an analoo-y to the famous verses of 
our author: 

„3a ba§ ift ba8 rechte ©Iet8, 

2öenn man nidfyt tneijj, 

2öa$ man beult, 

Sb'enn man benft; 

2ltte8 ift als wie gefäenft." 
But if with these lines we couple Goethe's own confession 
that he never thought about thinking, but practised his power of 
thought as a gift from above, we are the rnore confirmed in our 
view that Goethe is throughout alludino; to the cabbalistic school of 
philosophers, raetaphysicians and alehemists. Goethe was always 
an undisguised Opponent to mysticism ; to teach anybody how 




2Ba3 fagt fie wie für Unfimt »er? 
(53 ttürb mir gfetd? ber fopf jerfcredjen. 
TOd? bünft, id; r,ör'em gattjeS £&or " 
35on fyunberttaufenb Darren fpred^en. 

©emtg, genug, o treffüd;e @ibt)üe ! 451 
©ü> betnen £ranf fyerbet, unb fülle 
£)te (Schale rafcfy, bis an Den föanb fyincm ! 

to think when God had given him the faculty of thought, seemed 
to him an act of presumption, or, to say the least, superfiuous ; he 
wished therefore to change the dreamy metaphysical tendency of 
his countrymen into healthier and more practical pursuits, for he 
saw with pain a great nation squandering their high intellectual 
powers. It was doubtless this feeling of pain which drew forth 
the bitter words 

" Who does for idiots eare ! " 

450 Faust seems to hear "a hundred thousand idiots in fuü 
chorus." Goethe here, as in many other places, uses the word 

Qffyor" when raeaning a chorus of singers as neuter, a sense m 
which other writers make it masculine ; in the neuter it is usually 
a contemptuous expression for any body of people ; thus „ein 
fyübfd)e§ $f>or baS" means a fine set of people ! 

451 Sibyls (literally " inspired " or " consulted by God " ) was 
the name formerly given to prophetesses ; of these only ten are 
mentioned in ancient history ; the most famous being the sibyls 
of Cumae in Italy, (iEneid VI. 10) and Erythrse. 

The name sibyls or sibyllists came to be applied, in the second 
Century of the Christian era, to certain inspired women who pro- 
fessed to be able to predict future events. These predictions 
were generally in verse, a collection of which (known as the 
Sibyllinic ßooks) has been recently published, from different 
MSS. by the celebrated Cardinal JVlay, at Milan, in 1817. In 
process of time any women "who practised witchcraft were called 
sibyls, so that, in fact, the word became simply a synonym of 
witck, and in this sense Mephisto here uses it. 

Charles Ottfried Müller, one of the most celebrated anti- 
miarians that ever lived (born at Brieg, in Silesia in 1797), and 


renn meinem <vrennb totrfc tiefer Strunf nid;t [d;ciben : 
cir ift ein SJtann öon Stelen (Kraben, 152 
'Der niancben guten ©d;lntf gettyan. 

2)ie §eje, mit liefen (Zeremonien, fcfyenft ben £run! *> in eine @<$ale; 
roie fte ganft an ben 2ftunb bringt, entfielt eine leiste gtamme, 

SRur frifty hinunter ! 3mmer 31t ! 
(SS wirb btr gteid; baS $eq erfreuen. 

who oecupied himself exclusively with mythological researches, is 
of opinion that the oracles of the sibjls, and the worship of 
Apollo were transferred to Cumse from the town of Gorgis, ön 
mount Ida, near Troy, and that this was the oldest oracle of the 
sibyls, and also their place of burial ; he also states that the 
old collection of prophecies in Greek verse, presented to Tarqui- 
nius Priscus, and known as the " Sibylline books," were brought 
originally from the same oracle. This great mythologist published 
many elaborate works, of which we may mention "Aegineticorum 
über," Breslavise 1817. — ©efdjicfyte ber fyettenifdjen ©tamme unb 
©täbte. ©reSlau 1820. £)te 2)orier, (translated into English and 
published at Oxford, 1830.) — ^rologomena jit einer tx>tffenfd?aft(td;en 
SDtyt&otoflte. ©öttingen 1825.— £anbbudj ber Archäologie ber Äunfi, 
S3re8iau 1830; a second edition of the sarae work Breslau, 1835. 
This latter work may be considered as the first book of the kind 
worthy of the progress made in this science. 

403 A man of many a grade, that is, of much experience. 

153 By the word „XxmxV 4 potion, is meant ©ne of those soporific 
drugs, or poisonous draughts, which derange the intellectual as 
well as the physical powers. " The waters of Lethe and the 
bevevage of Mnemosyne, from the effect of which Timochares 
died atter he had quaffed it in the cave of Trophonius, afford ex* 
amples of the soporific and stupefying draughts of the ancients. 
The Nepenthes of Homer, the Hyoscyamus Datura, the Solanum, 
the Potomantis, the Gelatophyllis, and the Achamenis of»Piiny, 
the Ophiusia of the Ethiopians, and the Muchamore of Kamt- 
schatka, are one and all Instruments of physical and intellectual 
degradation. Again, in the time of the Crusades, the ' Old man 
of the mountains ' is said to have enchanted bis youthful followers 
by narcoiic and exhilarating draughts. The Hindoo widow is 
said to ascend the funeral pile physically as well as morally 


23tft mit bem £eufel bu unb bu, ^ 

Unb loillft btd? bor ber glctmme 45 ' freuen ? 

2)te §ere töft bcn Äreiä. f$aufl tritt fyerauS. 
2M e p fy i ft o p i) e t e 3. 
Sta frifd; fyinauö! £)u barfft ntdt;t rufjn. 

Wbtf euer; ba3 @cr/Iüctd;en ^ U)of;l besagen ! 

äft e p i) t ft o p fy e l e 8 (jur £>eje). 
Unb fann id? bir toaä $u ©efaKeu tlntn, 
@o barfft bu mir'S nur auf ^Mpitrgte fagen. 457 

£>ie $ere, 
£)ier ift ein Sieb ! toenn t^r'ö juwcilen fingt, 

deadened to pain. The victiras of the Inquisition, similarly pre- 
pared, frequently slept in the raidst of their torments, and M. 
Taboureau assures us that the merciful jailers rnade their prisoners 
swallow soap dissolved in water (the vehicle doubtless of some 
more powerful drug), to enable them to bear the agonies of 
torture." — See North British Review, No. 5. 

The draught prepared for Faust is one of these narcotie " love 
potions," used to excite his physical faculties. 

454 <( You are on the best terms," or " on very intimate terms 
with the devil." To address a person by „3)n" implies the 
closest intimaey, whence thephrase „auf 2)umib2)u fein," raeaning 
to be an intimate. 

455 Flames are mentioned as the peculiar element of the evil 

458 Diminutive of @d?(ucf, a sip, a taste. 

457 When he shall meet her (on the Blocksberg) on Walpurga's 
eve (the night before the first of May.) 

Walpurga, or Walburga, was of English birth, and went over 
to Germany about the middle of the eighth Century to aid in 
preachlng the Gospel in that country. She was the sister of 
Wilibaldus, the first bishop of the little Bavarian town Eichstädt, 
where her remains lie in a vault of the Benedictine cloister. 
The dampness that drips from the walls of the vault is called the 
" oil of Walburga," and possesses (i.t is said ! ) the miraculous 
power of curing any disease, in many parts of Germany it 
is still used as an arcanum for diseases among cattle. The 


©o toctbct il?r befonbre SBirfung [puren. 4Ä * 

SN e p 1) t ft o p 1) e ( c ö (gi ftauft). 
.\Umuiu' nur gefömtnb unfc lag btd; führen 
Du mußt nottyroenbifl traufpirircit, m 
Damit bie ffraft burcfy 3tm* unb ^leujsreS bringt. 

belief in the powers of this oil, which does not burn, and shows 
no specific lightness, (facts not verj remarkable considerinsr that 
it is merely water) gave as late as the year 1857 to the Bishop 
of Brunn (in Austria) an opportunity for exposing the super- 
stitious credulity of Romanism. 

All misfortunes in the crops, cattle, vines, Jcc. were attributed 
by the superstition of the German peasants to the agency of evil 
spirits, and this belief was encouraged by a covetous priesthood 
wlio obtained money by exorcising these evil spirits, or by the 
sale of miraculous draughts, oils, or othercharms. As the first of 
May was always looked upon as the commencement of the 
agricultural year, and as the lower classes firmiy believed that on 
the night preceding this day, (Walpurga's night) witches, cobolds, 
and demons of every description assembled on the Blocksberg, 
(see note 368) and other mountainheightstoconcoctand arrange 
a programme of mischief for the ensuing year ; it was customary 
among the peasants to keep up a constant firing of guns, and to 
run wildly about with blazing torches all night long, in order to 
chase away the witches in confusion from their meeting before 
they had settled on any plan. 

In other parts of Germany the sarae night is still observed, 
but in a different and more rational way, as rural entertainments 
are held to celebrate the commencement of the spring. 

458 A sarcastic allusion to the prayers and hymns printed on 
loose sheets which are distributed by Romish priests, and which 
promise indulgences, or a dispensation in advance for all sins 
committed within thirty days to those, who would say the prayer 
or sing the hymn. Some of these loose sheets bear very curious 
inscriptions, and are believed by some, even in our enlightened 
days, to have been discovered in wells, tombs, and other secret 

459 " To get into a Perspiration." The devil's frequent use of 
these obsolete Germanized Latin words must be regarded as a 


®cn eblen Müßiggang lefyr' icfy Ijernacfy btcfy fd;ä£en, 4W 
Unb balb empfinbeft bu mit innigem (jrgefeen, 
2öie fiel; (£ upibo regt unb fym unb lieber bringt. 


%a§ miety nur fdmell nod; in ben Riegel fd;auen ! 
£)a$ grauenbttb toar gar ju fcfyön ! 

Wl e p t? i ft o £ 1; e t e 6. 
5ftein 7 nein ! £)u follft ba$ dufter aller grauen 
Nun Mb leibhaftig bor bir fefyn. 


£)u fiefyft, mit biefem £ranf im Selbe, 
33alb Helenen in jebem SSeibe. 461 

hit of Goethe's at those pedants, who, without any real knovvledge, 
think they make a display of learning by twisting Latin words 
into a German shape. This custom is happily given up entirely 
in the modern writings of Germany, and both Becker and Heyse 
condemn most strongly the introduetion of foreign words. 

460 The devil's keen knowledge of nature makes him select 
idleness as the surest means of seducing Faust. It is but the 
old German adage : „Mßtggang ift aller Safter Slnfang." 

461 The whole of this scene has been interpreted metaphorically 
by many commentators. The witch and her monkeys were ex- 
plained to be the "Muses of nonsense" the mirrorthat of litera- 
ture; the image seen in it, the ideal of puie poetry; while the 
potion itself was said to represent Goethe's Inspiration for the beau- 
tiful ! The brewing of the enchanted draughi, the nonsensical con- 
versation of the monkeys, the beggar's broth, the hollow world 
" rising and sinking, rolling and ciinking," the cauldron in vvhich 
the youth-imparting potion is prepared, the cutting sarcasm 
a^ainst the metaphysicians and the cabbalists, the witch's multipli- 
cation table, are one and all explained as shafts hurled by Goethe 
against the literary monstrosities of his day. As there is nothing, 
however, in hisown remarksto Eckermann or to Schiller that will 
at all favour such an Interpretation, we are fully justified in rejeet- 
ing it. 


© t r a jj c. *■ 

g a u ft. Margarete foorüberge&enb.) 

Sföefa f$öne8 gräulcin, barf id) toagen, 
Sföetnen Slrm unb ©etctt 3l;r 4 ' 3 anzutragen? 

2ft a r g a r e t c. 
33in toeber gräulein, roeber fcfyön, 4i4 
Äann ungcteitet nad) *paufe gefyn. 

©ie madjt ftrfj loö unb afe. • 

SBetm Fimmel, biefeS $inb ift f d)ön ! 
(So n>a8 l;ab' icfy nocfy nie gefehlt. 
@ie ift f o fitt - unb tugenbretd;, 

452 We turn now to a scene of real life. We leave metaphysics 
and witchcraffc to see Faust " in love " ; yet we can still trace 
the same character ; the gigantic spirit that refused to recognize 
any bounds in science and knowledge, love seizes as a rapturous, 
violent and indomitable passion : in early youth he never learned 
to subdue or to moderate his temper, and now he rushcs with 
headstrong and childish ardour into feelings that inust make 
earth either a heaven or a hell to him : and we shall see how the 
same intemperate recklessness produced in each case the same 
consequences : knowledge became his curse instead of his blessing 
— so love, uncontrolled and unrestrained, becomes his sorrow 
instead of his comfort. Alas ! too, that so lovely, so gentle and 
innooent a ereature as Margaret should be selected as his victim, 
to be ruined by a passion that overleaps all restraints of religion 
and society. 

463 Faust addresses Margaret by the pronoun „3fyr" instead of 
,,©ie" which latter form of address came into general use between 
the years 1730-1740. He afterwards uses the more intimate 

464 The conjunctions " neither, nor" are usually expressed in 
German by „roeber, nod)'' — but we find „rceber, rceber" often used 
by Goethe, and frequently also by Voss. 


Unb ettoaS fdmippifcfy ** bod? augteicty. 
£)er Sippe 9?otfy, ber SBange &$t, 
£)ie Sage ber SBelt berget tcfy'S nicfyt ! 
SBie fie bie klugen nieberfd;lägt, 
Spat tief fid; in mein Sperj geprägt ; 
2Bie fie furj angebnnben mar, 
£)ag ift nun jum (Sntjürfen gar ! 

äftepfjtftoptyeteS tritt auf. 

£ör', fcu mußt mir bie £)irne fcfyaffen ! 

Stirn, toelcfye ? 

©ie ging juft vorbei. 
£)a bie ? (Sie lam bon ifyrem Pfaffen, 45S 
■Der fprad; fie aller Sünben frei ; 
3cfy fd^icfy mid; fyart am ©tufyt borbei, 467 
@$ ift ein gar mtfdfmtbig SDtng, 

465 öcfyntyptfdj, pert, or snappish in answering. 

466 It is highly characteristic that Faust should begin Ins un- 
happy courtship as Margaret is retuming froni church, where she 
has been to confession. In Roman Catholic towns (as Vienna, 
Paris, Rome) it is too often that courtships commence in these 
holy buildings, for the Churches being continually open, are used 
for purposes little in accordance with tbeir sacred character, thus 
in some towns they are actually used as a cool promenade in the 
heat of summer (as in the case of St. Stephen's cathedral in 
Vienna), white nothing is more common than to select churches 
as a place of meeting for secular, if not for worse purposes. 
After the confessional it is customary for gentlemen and ladies 
to enter into conversation, and to discuss sometimes in the most 
frivolous way the quantity of penance received, or the various 
sins confessed. 

467 The devil admits even more openly than before how near 
he Stands to the confessional chair ! 


$)a$ eben für nidjtö jur ^eid;tc ging ; 
lieber bte l)cib' id> feine (Stetoolt ! 

oft über ötcrjcfyn 3al;r bod; alt 

£)n fprtd)ft ja rote §an$ IMeberttd;, 4G8 
©er begehrt jebe liebe 53tum' für fid;, 
Unb bünfelt il)m, eö roär' fein dt}? 
itnb ®imft, bie ntdjt 31t pflücfeu war' ; 
©efyt aber bod) ntd;t immer am 

SJtetn §crr SJtogtfter gobefan, m 
2cl% er mid; mit bem ®efe£ in grteben ! 
Unb ba$ fag ; id; ifym fur^ unb gut, 
28enn nid;t baS füge junge SBtut 
§eut' ^acfyt in meinen Firmen rttfyt, 
@o finb mir um Mitternacht gefd;ieben. 

33ebenft, mag gefyn unb fielen mag ! i7 ° 
3dj brause menigfteug merjeljn Zatf, 
yinx bie Gelegenheit au^ufpüren. 

m §an3 generally used in such expressions as : £><m§ §afenfiM> 
a coward, §cm3 -ftarr, a foolish man, £an§ ofyne ©orgen, a careless 

469 Sobfcm, for löblid), laudable, SDZagifter £obfan worthy, praise- 
worthy magister ; the modern form is fobefam, but following the 
Substantive as in the passage before us, and also in old songs, and 
by Bürger in bis „SSetbern öon 2öetn§berg" we find „tobefan." 

170 These words may be taken as a hint to Faust that he must 
not look upon the devil as all-powerful even for evil, but must 
take into aecount the chance of his not being permitted to per- 
form what he may have undertaken. It is, however, probable that 
these words convey a deeper meaning. Even the evil spirit is 
surprised at the reckless vehemence of Faust's passion ; he now 
feels certain that he can secure his victim by his favourite temp- 
tation " the love of woman," which he has ever found mosteffec- 
tual against the chosen servants of God — a temptation to which 


§ätt' id) nur fiebert ©tunben 9?ufy', 
xßraucfyte ben teufet ntcfyt ba^u, 
©o ein ®efd;öpfcr;en ju »erführen. 

9Jt e p ty t ft o p fy e 1 e 8. 
3t)r [pre^t fd;on faft röte ein grangoS ; 
£>od? bitt' icfy, (a)3t ? 8 euer) ntdt)t öerbnejjen : 
2Ba3 fyilft'S, nur g'rabe ju genießen ? 
S>te greub 7 ijt tauge nicfyt jo groß, 
511$ roenn ifyr erft fyerauf, fyerum, 
£)urcty allerlei Brimborium, m 

Samson and even David yielded, and wliich (aecording to the 
traditions of the Rabbins) made Lucifer forget in his admiration 
of Eve the nobler enjoyments of angels, and the glory and 
happiness of heaven. Unwilling, however,. to gain so easy a vic- 
tory, or preferring to enjoy a little longer the struggles of his 
prey, Mephisto Interrupts Faust in his visions of love with words 
of prudence, nay, of morality ; he throws irapediments in his 
way, points out obstacles to his wishes, that the impetuous 
ardour of his love may be fanned to a still greater heat by a little 
eontradiction and delay. — In no scene does the devil stand out so 
conspicuously in his obstinate pride and sarcastic coolness, in no 
character does he appear so exasperating and revolting as in that 
of a moral and righteous judge, who refuses to permit any man 
unrebuked to set the laws of earth and Heaven at defiance. He 
calls Faust " almost Frenchman " in allusion to the licentious- 
ness in which that people indulged. 

471 ^Brimborium (in French " Brinborions,") meaning anything 
worthless, a trifle, a bauble, may be derived froin the Latin 
" prseparatorium," or from " Brebiarium," or again froin the 
French word " briber " with a comic Latin termination such as 
we find in Basibus and Embrouillamini. Fischait* too uses it in 
the sense of "trifles." 

* Fischa?t, one of the wittiest satirists that Germany, perhaps Europe. has ever pro- 
duced, was born at Mayence, or aecording to others at Strasburg A.D. 1560, and died 
A.D. 1614, at Forbach near Saarbrück. His talent as author is thua described by Jean 
Faul triederich Richter: " Jinanguage, metaphor, and simile, in wit,humonr, and the 
feeauty of his epitbete, he aurpasseß Rabelais, he equals bim in learning, and the Aristo- 
phanic art of word-creating." — He published his works under the most extraordinary 

tities, for instance : Slfferttfyeuerlidpe ©ejducfytflitterung, or ftlobfa^, SBeiber* 
tra£ bitvdt) $ulbretd) (gftopojcerou (1577), ^obaflrammijcfy £reftbüd;(etH 
(1577), ^Uofo^tfd)e ©jeaiu'&tbüdjlein (1578), &t '- 


SDaS ^itopcfycn achtetet unb gugeridjt't, 
aßic'8 lehret maud;c toelftye m ©ef$i$t\ 

§aV Appetit and) ofyne ba3. 


Mht ofyne @dnmpf unb ofyte @pafj ! 
v ub fag' cud;, mit bem fd;önen tfinb 
©efyt'S ein- für aflemal nid;t gefdjtöinb. 
Wit @turm ift ba nid;t$ einzunehmen ; 473 
2Bir muffen uns jur Sift Bequemen. 


(Schaff mir ettoaS com Ghtgelöfdjafc ! 
güfyr' mid; an ifyren ^Hitt?epla^ ! 
©djaff mir ein §al$tucfy fcon ifyrer SBruft, 
(Sin <Strumpf6anb metner ßicbeStuft ! m 

ffl e p fy t ft o p fy e 1 e 8. 

•Damit ifyr fein", baß id; eurer ^etn 
Söttt förbertid? unb btenftlid? fein, 
Söoflen n>ir feinen 5iugenbti<f verlieren, 
Sßill eudj nod) fyeut in tfyr gtmmer führen. 

472 SBetfd)— foreign, here Italian. SBelfd&tanb, land of foreio;ners, 
is applied exclusively to Italy. May not the name " Welsh " 
have been given to the conquered Brilons by the Saxons to dis- 
tinguish them as " foreigners " from other bodies of Saxons, 
settled in different parts of Britain ? 

473 Even the devil seems to respect innocence ; he is quite in 
earnest when he says " that here we can gain nothing by force." 
The devil knows his own power as well as that of the mighty 
will that limits it. 

474 The devil's respect for innocence has rebuked and moderated 
Faust' s wild and passionate desires ; he suddenly assumes a more 
poetical tone, and would be content to breathe the air which she 
breathes, or to possess something which had been hers. ITe 
seems iike Romeo to sigh : 

" 0, that I were a glove upon that hand ! 
That T mgiht touch that cheek! " 


Unb foll fie fclw? fie fyaben? 

9Jt e p fy i ft o p fy e l e 8. 

(Sie u>irb bei einer s Jtacfybarin fetyn. 
3nbeffen fönnt ifyr ganj allein, 
$n aller Hoffnung fünft'ger greuben 
3n ifyrem £)unftfrei6 fatt eucfy treiben. 

können imrln'n? 

@$ ift ncct; ju früfy. 


@ora/ bu mir für ein ©efd;enf für fie. 


©leid) fcbenfen? üDaö ift bras ! £)a toirb er reüfftren. m 
3d? fenne mannen fd;önen %\ql% 

475 Faust Orders Mephisto to prepare a present for Margaret, 
and the devil is overjoyed at the command, as he well knows that 
gold will do his work more quickly, and more surely than any- 
thing eise. It is with good reason that gold is made an all- 
powerful instrument in the hands of the tempter, its power is 
well painted in the following lines of Cowley (A.D. 1618 — 
1667)whicharebut a beautiful amplification of St. PauPs words: 

" Gold alone does passion move, 
" Gold monopolises love ! 

" A curse all curses eise above 
" On him who us'd it first in love ! 
" Gold begets in brethren hate; 
" Gold in families debate ; 
" Gold does friendship seperate ; 
" Gold does evil wars create. 
" These the smallest harms of it ; 
" Gold, alas ! does love beget ! " 


Unb mannen altocrßrabncn ©$a<3 ; 
vui; mug ein btdd^en reDibiren. 


15 i n f f e t n c 8 r e in li d&cö 3 i m m c r. 47ä 

W a r 3 a r e t e 
(ifyre 3öpfc ftedjtenb unb anfbinbenb). 
3cl) gab' tt?aö brum, toettn id; nur »äßf, 
©er fyeut ber £evr cjercefen ift ! 477 
<ir fab getotjj red;t ftaefer au$, 
Hub ift au$ einem cfcfcn £>au$ ; 478 
Ta$ tonnt' iety ifym an ber 2tirne tefen — 
(5t war' aitd; fonft metyt je feit geftefen. 4;9 


*** We are now introduced into Margaret's Chamber. 

477 She is still thinking of the bold strangers who had aecosted 
her so rudely. 

478 Vanity, ever one of the first steps on the road to sin, steala 
into her heart ; and in her vanity she coneludes that they must 
have been noblemen. 

479 u g} se ne cou ]j no t have been so insolent." Far below the 
nobility of England, who are an example to the masses in mag- 
nanimity, love of freedom and generosity, are the nobles of Ger- 
many : these are only distinguished by their iramorality and 
contempt for virtue ; their only influence and weight is f'rom a 
barbarous display of main force, and it is from their depravity 
that the custom sprang up in Gerraany of honouring the evil 
spirit with the title of young nobleman (3nnfer), and of calling 
every kind of insolence, every breach of proper conduet, by the 
name of " nobility." This character of the nobles explains the 
fact that the German middle .classes stand far above the aristo- 
craey in knowledge, morals and character. This unhappy state 
of things is no doubt the result, in a great measure, of a faulty 
law of inheritance, for not being protected by the wise law of 
primogeniture, the nobles have gradually become impoverished, 



aTCefc&ifioMele«. §««#• 
<perein, ganj tetfe, nur fyerein! 

55 a U ft (na$ einigem ©tittföroeigen). 
3cfy bitte bicfy, tag micfy allein! 

SftepfyiftoptyeteS (tyerumfeürenb). 
3ft$t jebeö 2Jtöb$en Salt fo rein. »• 

$ a U ft (rings anffdjanenb). 
SBiltf ommen, füßer £)ämmerfcfyein ! 
©er bu btcö §eiligtfyum burcfyroebft. 
Ergreif' mein 5>crg f bu füge SiebeSpem! 
(Die bu Dom £fyau ber Spoffnung fcfymactytenb lebft. 
2Bie atfymet ringS ©efütyl ber Stille, 
£)er Drbnung, ber 3"f^cben^ett! 
3n biefer 9lrmutfy n>eld;e plle ! 
3n btefem Werfer toeld;e Seligfeit ! m 

(Sr totrft ftd) auf ben tebernen ©effel am Seite. 
D nimm micfy auf ! ber bu bie 33orn>elt fcfyon 
Sei greub' unb @d?mcrj im offnen 2lrm empfangen ! 
2öie oft, ad? ! fyat an btefem 23ätertfyron 
Scfyon eine Scfyaar oon Äinbew ringö gegangen ! 

and, no longer able to keepuptheir rank by corresponding means, 
have sunk into a degraded moral and social position ; on the one 
hand they became the creatures and tools of despots, on the 
other they brought disgrace on their old family name by having 
nothing wherewith to notify their ancient pedigree, save idleness, 
vanity and pride. 

480 rpk e s ig ü t of order and contentment changes Faust's wild 
passions into " a secret longing that feeds on the dew of hope," 
and indeed they even turn a prison into a palace, poverty into 
riches. The great and learned Faust, who once had cursed 
all the nobler feelings of the human heart as he sat within his 
narrow study, can feel happy here, because a modest stillness 
breathes around him ; and his weary mmd is overcome by a holy 
peace inspired by the feeling of contentment ! 


Siettetyt fyat, banfbar für bcn beiden (Sfyrift, l8! 

3Wcin Siebten fyier, mit boüen Jtinbertüangen, 

rein s Jl(?ul;crrn fromm bie weife gemb gefügt. 

3$ ffl#\ o lUäbcben, beinen ©eift 

$)er giüT uub Drbmtn<j um mid; f auf ein, 

Der mütterlid; bid; täglidj unterlüeift, 

£)eu Xepm\t; auf ben £ifd; bid; reinlid; breiten Reifer, 

^egar beu @anb ju betitelt güj3eu träufeln. 

O liebe §anb ! fo gotterajeid; ! 

£)te glitte wirb burd; bid) ein ©tmmetretd;. 

Unb fyier ! 

(Sr fje&t einen SSetttoorljaua, auf. 

2öa3 faßt mid; für ein 2ßoimegrau$ ! 462 
§ier möd;t' td; üolle ©tunben fäumen. 
^atur ! fyier bilbeteft in teilten träumen 
Den etngeboruen (Sngel aus. m 

431 There is nothing that touches a German heart so much as 
anything connected with Christmas, when the people's whole re- 
lijrious feeliu^s are concentrated round the Christmas tree, with 
its many ghttering lights, and tasteful Ornaments, its mementos, 
its prayers, and the good wishes and still dearer blessings it calls 
forth from pareuts' hearts : hardened indeed must be the man 
who has no feeling of joy, no remorse when the happy Christmas 
Eve is mentioned. It is for sucli meetings that the father spares 
his wisest exhortations to his children, the mother her sweetest 
kisses — on this blessed night Christ's commandments of love, 
forbearance and forgiveness hallow the poorest as well as the 
riebest family eircle, and one universal religious feeling seems to 
shed delight and happiness on every heart throughout the land. 

483 Here too we see the power of the German language in its 
Compound words : " what a horror of delight" — how well this 
seeming contradiction expresses that unknown, mysterious Sensa- 
tion of terror which intense delight provokes in us. 

483 In dreams, when the mind is free from external influences, 
the inward faculties are supposed to be able to act in a more füll 
and perfect manner ; thus Faust represents his beloved Margaret 
as formed in nature's dreams, and therefore " perfection." 


<pter lag ba$ Hinb mit toarmem Sek« 
£)en garten Stofen angefüllt, 
Unb fyier mit heilig reinem SSebett 
(Snttotrftc fi$ ba$ ©ötterbilb ! iSi 

Unb bn ! 2öa3 (?at bid? r)ergefüt)rt ? 
2Bie innig füfyr icty micty gerührt ! 
2öaS millft bu fyier? 2öa8 wirb baS §cr§ bir fcfyroer? 
tafel'ger Sauft ! id) fenne bicfy nicfyt mefyr. 485 

Umgibt midj fyier ein 3<*uberbuft ? 
9Jftd? brang'S, fo g'rabe gu genießen, 
Unb f üfyte mid? tu SiebeStraum verfliegen ! 
®inb tr>ir ein «Spiel £on jebem £)rwf ber 8uft? 

Unb träte fie ben ^Utgenblicf herein, 
SßJte tüürbeft bu für beinen greöel büßen ! 
©er große §anS, ad), roie fo Hein ! 4Ö7 
\*äg', fyingefcfymolsen, ifyr ju güjjen. 488 


484 (Sntrctrfen used in the sense of rotrfen, to weave ; ftcfy ent* 
ttrirfen, means to be accomplished by weaving. 

485 Expressing his remorse with charming simplicity. 

486 u ^ re we influenced by every breath of air " — these words 
are to be undei stood in a metaphysical sense — *' does every 
changc of air, or Situation, afFect our moral feelings and senti- 

<?7 ©roßfyanS unb $Ieinl)an§ in ihe sense of high and low people. 
©rof$an3, means u boasting, proud, vain, people/' or as Luther 
calls them : „bte großen Raufen." We find the same expression in 
a note written by Goethe in 1772. £at er nie bebaut, roa8 
(SfyrifhtS ben großen §anfen an'S §eq legt, what Christ impresses 
on the hearts of tlie proud : ( If ye are not as one of these little 
ones, &c.) roenn ifyr nidjt roerbet rote biefe ßinbletn. £>ctn« cannot be 
taken as a Christian haute, for Faust's narae was Henry, as we 
find in a following scene. 

483 -yy e can sca ieely frame a lovelier conception : the proud 
Faust lying prostrate at the feet of a simple, innocent girl — all 


©efdjtmnb ! icfy fei)' fie unten fommen. 

gort ! fort ! 3d; fefyre nimmermehr ! 

£)ter tft ein ftäftcfyen, tciblid; fd;u)er ; 
3cfy ^ab'ö too anberS Ijerflenommeu. m 
<Stelit'$ Iner nur immer in ben ©darein ! 
3^ fcfytoör' eucfy, tfyr ocra,eI;n bie ©innen ; 
3cfy tfyat eud; ©äd)etd?en fyinein, 
Um eine aubre 31t gewinnen. 
3toar Jlinb tft ittnb unb Spiel ift ©piel. 

g a u ft. 
3d? tceig nictyt, f oll td? ? 

his high-flown thoughts put to shanie by one moment of natural 
feeling. The whole of this scene, according to Byron, was taken 
by Goethe from Shakespeare's Cymbeline, but excepting that in 
each passage a man is represented talking in the bed-chamber of 
a lady, there is not the slightest resemblance ; we find no simi- 
larity in the Situation, the ideas, similes, allusions or characters ; — 
the wedded Imogen, and the pure innöcent Margaret — the vile 
calumniator Tachirao and the genial Faust are characters so totally 
different that it really requires a Byron's power of imagination 
to discover any analogy whatever. Goethe has given us a most 
masterly description of the pure and glorious feelings of love, 
and with great consistency raakes his hero share the same fate in 
the realms of love as in his previous attempts to gain the empire 
of knowledge ; and it is because he allows himself to soar after 
ideals without resting on the support of religion that he sinks so 
lamentably into the depths, at one time of vain wisdom and false 
philosophy, at another of passion and vice. 

489 Mephisto seeing Faust's emotion hastens to drag him back 
from the brink of love's heaven to the mazes of crime : he has 
brought with him a casket of jewels, and by letting Faust know 
that he had " taken it from elsewhere," he makes his victim 
partially guilty of the theft he has committed. 


gragt ifyr oiel ? 
5U^eint ifyr biefleid?t ben (Scfya^ gu toafyren ? 
SDann ratfy' icfy eurer i*üfternfyeit 
£)ie liebe fcböne £age$jeit 
Unb mir bie heitre DJiüfy' gu fparen. 
3cty ^off ntd^t, ba& ibr geizig feib ! 
3cty fra£' ben ftopf, reib' an ben £änben 490 — 
(Sr [teilt ba§ $äft$en in cen @$rein, unb brütft bo8 ©^loß nneber 511 
^ur fort ! geftywinb ! 49! — - 
Um eud; ba$ füge junge ftinb 
Sftacfy £enen$ 2öunfcb nnb 2BiiT ju toenben ; 
Unb it?r fefyt brein, 
5116 fülltet i^r in ben §örfaal hinein, 
%l& flünben grau leibhaftig bor eucfy ba 
sßt^fif unb Sttetat^fiia ! m 
>Jtor fort ! a». 

Margarete (mit einer Satnpe). 
@8 ift fo f ctytoül, fo sumpfig fyie ! 

«Sie macfyt baS genfier auf. 
Unb ift bocfy eben fo toarm nicfyt brauß\ 
Q*& roirb mir fo, id; toeifr nicfyt toie ! — 
3d? toollt', bie üJfutter fam' nad? §au$. 
5iJtir läuft ein ©cfyauer über'n ganzen Seib ! — 
23in bod? ein tfyörid;t f urd;tfam 2Beib ! 493 

490 The devil here means to say that he had all the trouble of 
obtaining the beautiful present, and lhat Faust's avarice would 
now keep it for himself. By pretending to think Faust avaricious, 
he urges hirn on to make the present, which becomes Margaret's 

491 An inverted exclamation. 

* 92 Representing sarca^tically Natural Philosophy and Meta- 
physics as two grey spectres standing embodied before the 
frightened Faust. 

493 Margaret on entering her room finds it hot and close ; she 
feels — she knows not how, and laughs at hereelf as a foolish, 


©te fSn^t an $u fingen, tnbem fie ftcfy aitßgie^t. 
(53 »ar ein Äöntg in ST^ule r 494 
©ar treu bis ait ba£ ($rab, 
£>em ftcrbcnb feine ^ufyle 495 
<§inen gotbneu 23ed;er gab. 

(5« ging ünn nichts barttber, 
<5r leert' Um jcben 'ScbmaitS ; 
£)ie klugen gingen ilmt über, 
<2o oft er trän! barauS. 

Hub als er fam jii fterben, 
3ä^t' er fein* ©tSbf im föeid;, 
©önnt' atte£ feinem (Srben, 
3>n 33ed;er nid?t jugletcty. 

(5r faß beim ftonigSmafyte, 
£)te bitter um ifyn fyer, 
%itf fyofyem 2>äterfaate, 
Dort auf bem ©d;loJ3 am 9Jieer. 

timid girl. In tbese simple lines, devoid of figurative word or 
metaphorical Ornament, Goethe has painted the gloomy forebodings 
which so often haunt us in moments of impending calamity. 

494 This bailad appea^ed in the year 1782, and was set to 
music by S. v. Seckendorff. The poet probably selected '* Thule " 
for the sake of the rhyme „^ufyfe." Thule was the farthest 
known island in the north western seas, probably Iceland, and was 
thought to be surrounded with a fabulous light. Virgil mentions 
Thule (Georgiea Lib. I. 30) and Ruaeus, one of his celebrated 
cornmentators, makes the following note to it : Thule, Terrarum- 
ultima quas antiqui noverint, et maxime septemtrionalis versus 
oeeidentem. Ortelius putat esse tractum illum Norvegiae, quem 
incolae Tilemarh (mark meaning frontier, the Tile-frontier) 
appellant. Camdenus Schetlandias insu las oceani Caledonii, 
sub ditione regis Dauiae ; quas nautse dieunt Thylensel (Thyl-or 
Thul-island). Caeteri Islandiam, ejusdem ditionis maxime 
Borealem insulam ; ubi mons est nive perpetua opertus, flammis 

194 Beloved one, his lady love, his mistress. 


£)ort ftanb ber alte $ed;er, 
Zxant tefete l'ebenSgtutfy, 
Unb toarf ben fyeil'gen 33ccfyer 
hinunter in bie gtutty. 

Grr jal? itm ftüqen, trinfen 
Unb fmfen tief in3 9Jteer, 
(Die klugen träten ifym finfen, 
£ranf nie einen tropfen mefyr. in 

©ie eröffnet ben @d?rein, i^re Äfetber einzuräumen, nnb erbltrft 


SSMe f ommt bag f cfyäne Ääftc^en I>ter herein ? 

3$ fct/tog bocfy gan$ getütg ben ©cfyrein. 

@S ift bod? rönnberbar ! SüBa# mag rootyl brinne fein? m 

SßieKeicfyt bracfyt'g jemanb als ein ^fanb, 

Unb meine Butter üefy barauf. 

Uta fyängt ein «Scfylüffetcfyen am 53anb ; 

3cfy benfe rool)!, id? macfy' e$ auf ! 

2öa$ ift ba§? ©ott im §immet ! <Scr/au', 

@o toaö fyab' icfy mein' £age 498 nic^t gefefyn ! 

(Sin ©cfymud ! 9Ptit bem fönnt' eine (£betfrau 

%m ^öc^ften geiertage gelm ! 

Söie foüte mir bie ffette ftetm ? 

2Bem mag bie ^errticfyfeit gehören? 

@ie pufct fi<$ bamit auf, unb tritt toor ben ©Jriegel. 

SBenn nur bie Ohrring' meine roären! 
9Jian fielet bod; gleicfy ganj anberS brein. 
2öa8 Wt eud? ©cr/önr/eit, junges 23Iut? 

498 That Margaret should sing the sweet song of hve, of a 
love which remained faithful to the grave, and which valued love's 
one simple gift above all treasures of the world, is highly charac- 
teristic, and gives us a deep insight into her character. 

497 2)rinne, an obsolete form for brinnen or barinnen. 

498 An idiomatic expression. I never in my life saw such a 
thing ! 


£)ct$ tft wofyt afleö fd;ön unb gut, 

allein man (ägt'd auefy aüe$ fein ! 

3Jton lebt eudj fyalb mit Erbarmen. 

3?ad; ©otbc brängt,- 

51m ©otbe tätigt 

•£)od?aüe$! Slcfy, wir Firmen ! 4!,<J 

8? a it ft (in ©ebanten auf* unb abeje^enb). 3 U i&m 9ft e V b i ft o }> fy e 1 e'S. 


33et aller berfdmiäfyten Siebe ! Söetm fyöüifcfyen ©erneute ! 
3$ tooüY, t$ ö>üj$te toaä Wergcrö, baß td^'ö flucfyen fonnte ! ^ 

8 a « ft 

2öaS tyaft? ftaS fneipt 501 btd? benn fo fe^r ? 
©o lein ©eficfyt fafy id) tn meinem Seben ! 


Od? möd^t' mtd; gleich bem Teufel übergeben, 
Söenn ity nur felbft fein Teufel mär 7 ! m 

*" As in a plant, root, stalk, bud, flower and fruit are all con- 
tained within the seed, so it is with the growth of feelings in the 
human heart, all depends on the first seed ; vanitj and love of 
gold are the seeds now sown in the heart of innocent Margaret, 
and these soon engender a coneeit, a pride and love of ostenta- 
tion, that all exhaust her peace and happiness. 

600 These two lines are of high poetical beauty, Mephisto 
couples together "despised love," and the "elementsof hell," 
and owns he knows nothing more terrible to curse by. The idea 
is the more striking as it convejs at the same time an exaet 
picture of the state of Faust's mind. 

501 Literally " what pinches you ? " meaning " what is the matter 
with you." 

502 In this ironical exclamation is concentrated all the bitterness 
of the devil. "If he were not already devil, he would give 
himself up to the devil." 


£at fid; bir ttaS im ftopf oerf cfyoben? 
üDtcfy fteibet'S, tote ein 9faf enber ^u toben ! ** 

3Jcepift opfyeteS. 
SDenft nur, ben (Samuel, für ©retten angefd?afft, 
£)en fyat ein ^faff Jn'ntoeggerafft ! — 
£)ie Butter friegt ba$ £)ing ju flauen, 
©lei$ fängt'S tyr fyeimtid? an gu grauen : 
£)te grau fyat gar einen feinen ©eruefy, 
(Schnüffelt immer im ©ebetbueb, 
Unb riecfyt'S einem ieben 9Jiöbet an, 
£)b baS £)ing fettig ift ober profan ; 
Unb an bem ©dmtuef, ba fpürf fie'S flar, . 
£)aß babei nicfyt oiet (gegen »ar. 
„TOn ftinb !" rief fie, „ungerechtes ©ut 
23efängt bie ©eele, gebrt auf baS SBlut 
SfiMeu'S ber Butter ©otteS toeifyen, 
2öirb uns mit §immetSmanna erfreuen !" 
üUtorgretlein |og ein fcfyiefeS 9Jcaul; 
Qft fytft, bad?t' fie, ein gefd;enlter ©aul, 504 
Unb toafyrtid; ! gottlos ift triebt ber, 
£)er tyn fo fein ge6rad?t fyierfyer. 
£)ie ÜKutter lieg einen Pfaffen fommen ; 
£>er ^atte !aum ben @fca6 oernommen, 
Sieg fiefy ben Slnblict toofyt besagen. 
(5r ffcrad; : „®o ift man recfyt gefilmt ! 
SBer überünnbet, ber getoiunt. 
£>ie Ätrc^e fyat einen guten 3Jtogen, 
£at ganje Sauber aufgefreffen, 

603 Faust is astonished at seeing the cold, hard, phlegmatic 
devil give way to passion, but uncontrollable passion is to be 
expected in a devil. 

604 Beferring to the German adage : 

„(Sinetn gefebenften ©aul, 
©id&t man ni#t in'8 2Raut." 


Unb bod> nod> nie ficfy übergcffcn ; 
Tic Atird)' atfcin, meine lieben grauen, 
ftamt ungerechtes ©ut »erbauen." m 

TaS ift ein allgemeiner 33raudj ; 
(Sin 3ub' ratfc Äönig farai eö aud). 506 

(gtxid) brauf ein Spange, $ett' unb 9?ing, 
S TO wären'« eben $fifferiüttgf , "* 
Sanft' nid)t weniger imb nid;t mefyr, 
?U« cb'ö ein torb boU Üftüffe War', 
3?erfpradt) ilmen allen fytmmUfd;cn i*ol)n ~ 
Unb fie waren febr erbaut babon. 

Unb ©retten ? 

@i£t nun unrufybott, 
SBctg weber was fie will, noefy f oll, 
£)enft ans ©efcfymeibe Sag unb 9?acfyt, 
Jlcty mefyr an ben, ber'S ifyr gebraut. 

£)e$ SiebdjenS Kummer tlmt mir leib. 

605 It was a conviction not only of Goethe, but of Luther too, 
that Papacy was an invention of the deviPs. Luther indeed 
was firmly convineed that, Papacy once overthrown, Satan would 
lose his stronghold on earth and Mephistopheles is made, with 
great severity, to describe this covetous, grasping Church a3 able 
to d igest any illgotten wealth, so strong a stoniach does she 

505 Faust falling in with the devil's humor, remarks, that 
this wonderful power of digestion is not confined to the Church, 
but that Jews (i.e. usurers) and Kings (meaning despots), are 
gifted with equally strong stomachs. 

507 A trifle, literally rt a mushroom " — here of course used in 
its figurative sense, as if the jewels were mere "nut-shells " 
(bagatelles) not worth a rush. 


Sdjaff bu ifyr gleid; ein neu ©efd)meib ? ! 
$lm erften roar ja fo nicfyt oiel. 

3N e p *i i ft o pfy e l e «. 
O ja, bem £>errn ift alles ftinberfbtel ! 


Unb macV, nnb ricfyt'3 nacfy meinem Stirn 
£>äng' bid? an i^re 9tad?baria ! 
(Sei Teufel bocfy nur nid;t roie 33ret, 50? 
Unb fefyaff' einen neuen Sdmiud fyerbei ! 

$K e t> l^ i ft o p b; e l e S. 
3a, gnäb'ger §err, oon §er$en gerne ! 

gaitft ab. 
@o ein verliebter £tyor verpufft 509 
(Sud? Sonne, 9Jionb unb alle Sterne 
3um gdtbertreib bem ^tebcr;en in bie £uft 


©er 9? a $fr a r t n $ a u 8. 

2ftartfye rattetn). 
©ott ber^ei^'ö meinem lieben 9Jiann, 
(§r fyat an nicfyt roofylgetfyan ! 
©efyt ba ftraäS in bie 2öelt hinein, 
Unb täftt mid? auf bem Stroty allein. 
5t^ät irm bocfy roafyrlid? nidjt betrüben, 
£fyät ityn, roei§ @ott ! rect;t ^er^lid; lieben. 

@te »eint. 
$ielletd?t ift er gar tobt! — O $ein ! 

508 Literally " Do not be so stiff, so thick, Hke porridge," 
i.e " do not stand there as if you could not move, be quick ! M 

609 The whole of this simile is taken from pyrotechny. Verpuffen 
means •• to waste away by exploding," to smoulder ; the same 
expression is used of gunpowder. 

i.oKTHF/S KAI 'ST. 173 

s\itt' id) nur einen £otten|rf>ein ! 5l ° 

Margarete fommt. 

Margaret c. 
grau SUtorfye ! 

010 There is nothinjy in which Goethe excels niore than in the 
power which he shares with Shakespeare of giving a finished 
sketch of a character in a few short lines ; he is peculiarly happy 
in Ins choiee of those minor characteristic features which are of 
such elfect in exhibiting the dctails of the portrait, while every 
expression, every sentiment is so perfectly natural, that we can 
see embodied before us the original from which the poet is paint- 
ing. Such a portrait we have in Martha, who is now introduced 
as a contrast to Margaret ; and what a contrast there is ! the one 
all innocence, feeling, trust and love, the other a personification 
of eunning, hypoerisy, heartlessness and cold envy. Margaret 
is capable of love, and in her love forgets all the laws of society 
and morality, falling a victim to her thoughtlessness as soon as 
passion assaults her. Martha on the contrary plays with the 
höhest feelings merely to gratify a petty vanity, Margaret cares 
little for anything but what concerns her love. Martha inpro- 
fessing sentiments of tenderuess, seeks only to conceal a mean 
selfishness ; she is selfishness embodied, vulgarity iuearnate ; 
what an insight into her real character is given us in the last 
couplet of her hypoeritical speech, 

" Perhaps he is now dead — Oh misery, — 
Had I only a certificate of his death ! " 

What does she care for the husband she pretends to lament ! if 
she only had the certificate of his death all would be right, she 
could marry another to render him as happy, forsooth ! as the 
last one who was seeking in foreign lands a deliverance from the 
heartlessness of his wife. Yet it is to such a woman as this 
that Margaret goes for ad vice ; we see her now standing before 
this She- Mephistopheles holding in her hand another casket 
glittering with still brighter jewels than before ; — how truly 
characteristic is the result — Martha bids her to hide the gems 
from her mother, to deeeive in iact her dearest friend — alas ! the 
advice is taken, and Margaret thus takes the second step on the 
path that leads to her lamentable fall. 



©retelctyen, m toa& foü'S ? 

gaft finlen mir bie Äniee nieber j 
£)a finb' td; fo ein Hafteten toieber 
3n meinem ©darein, bon (Sbenfyolj, 
Unb (Sachen, fyerrlicfy ganj nnb gar, 
Seit reifer, als baS erfte roar. 


£)aS mug «Sie nicfyt ber Butter fagen ! 
£fyät'S lieber gleid; $ur ^eid^te tragen. 

21 ä) fei)' @ie nur! a(^ fcfyau' ©ie nur! 

Sftartlje ftukt fte auf). 
SD bu gtM jel'ge Kreatur ! 512 

£)arf mid?, leiber ! nid;t auf ber ©äffen, 5l3 
yiod) in ber ftird;e mit fefyen laffen. 

Stomm' bu nur oft ju mir herüber, 

Unb leg' ben ©d;mud fyier r/eimlicb an, 

(Sparer 1 ein ©tünbd^en lang bem (Spiegelglas vorüber ! 

SSir fyabeu unfre greube bran. 

Unb bann gibt'S einen Einlaß, gibt'S ein geft, 

28o man'S fo nacfy unb nacfy ben beuten fefyen läßt, 

(Sin ftetttyett erft, bie $erle bann in'S £)t)r ; 

£)ie 9Jtutter fiept'S roofyl nid;t, man macfyt tfyr aucfy loaS bor. 


511 For Margaret. 

512 From the Latin, and only used in a low style. 

513 This properly should be ©äffe ; ©äffen however is used for 
the sake of the rhyme. 

5U This evil counsel severs the trusting child from her only 
true friend, her mother. The habit of confiding in parents is, 
next to a trust in Grod, the strongest bulwark of vir tue against 


2Bcr f onntc nur bie beiben ftßfttyen bringen ? 
$6 getyt nid;t ju mit ied;teu fingen ! 5l5 

<£« Hotft. 

2ld; ©ort! mag ba$ meine Butter fein? 51s 

SSI a r 1 1) e (burdys 23orl)ängel 51 ? guefenb). 
GrS ift ein frember §err. — §erein ! 

SWeMtfioMefe« &«* « u f- 

SBin fo frei, g'rab' r/eretnjutreteu, 
3)htJ3 ^i ben grauen SBerjety'n erbeten. 

£ntt ehrerbietig üor Margareten gurüdf. 

Söoüte nad; grau Sofortige ©cr/roerbtlein fragen! 

3d; bin'3. 2öa§ fyat ber £>err 51t fagen ! 

the many temptations of the world, and the rnoment a girl lends 
herseif to anything she is unwilling to confide to her mother she 
may feel sure that she is treading a wrong and dangerous path. 

MS This line sho-vvs that Margaret is not yet entirely lost, her 
conscience still can warn, and she therefore hesitates to appro- 
priate a treasure acquired in so suspicious a manner, 

616 Another proof that conscience is still at work within her. 
A sense of guilt prodaces in her a nervous dread, and she Starts 
on hearing a knock at the door ! her very exclamation " Heaven ! 
perhaps it is my mother ! " (the very person whose entrance she 
had most cause to dread) implies a consciousness of guilt. 

5 '^ SSorfyänget is a dialectic diminutive of 33orfjang ; not uncom- 
mon in Upper Germany. Among the lower classes in Germany 
the doors of rooms are generally provided with a small window, 
before which a curtain (white or green) can bedravvn atpleasure, 
it is through such a window that Margaret is here supposed to 
he looking. 


äftepfytftopfyefeS Ueifejiityr). 

3d) fenne Sie jefct, mir ift baS genug ; 
(Sie fyat ba gar oornebmen 23efud;. 518 
93er$eil)t bte greiljeit, bie icfy genommen ! 
5BiU nad? Mittage 5 9 toieber fommen. 

50t artfye (taut). 
'Den!', £inb, um alleg in ber 3Be(t ! 
£)er £err bidp für ein gräutein r,2 ° l)ä(r. 

SR arg ax etc. 
3d) bin ein arme# junges 33lut ; 
^ldt> @ott! ber §er ift gar gu gut: 
Scfymud unb ©efdmieibe finb nicfyt mein. 

21cb, e$ ift nid;t ber Sd?mucf allein ; 
<Sie fyat ein 2£efen, einen 33lid fo fd;arf. 
SKMe freut mtcty'S, baß icfy bleiben barf ! 


2öa« bringt« @r benn? Verlange fetyr — 

3$ trollt', id? ptt' eine frol;ere Wltyx' ! 
3d) fyoffe, @ie lägt micb'6 brum nietyt büßen. 
31;r Diann ift tobt, unb lägt «Sie grüben. 


58 Martha has already led the poor girl into one sin bj in- 
ducing her to conceal the casket from her mother. Mephisto 
now goes a little farther, and through flattering her vanity by 
pretending to take her for a lady of rank, dravvs her again one 
stt p ncarer to the blink of the preeipice over which he is seek- 
ing to hurl her. 

619 Adelung prefers 92adj üMttacj, but Mittage is also used. 

620 Kräutern was formerly applied to young noblewomen, thus 
corresponding to the English title Lady, 

521 Mephisto aecosts Martha and Margaret in the third person 
singular, a mode of addres- still common in many parts of Ger- 
many among the middle classes. The cold and heartless manner 
in which Mephistopheles delivtrs his report is well adapted to the 


3ft tobt? ba$ treue $erj ! O roel?! 
aRein Storni ift tobt! 81$, ich Dergeb' ! 

%)l a r g a r e t e. 
Äcfy ! liebe grau, öerjtodfelt nicfyt ! 

9Ji K ept/iftopfye(e$. 
»So ^ört bie traurige ©efd;id>t' ! 

9$ möchte Drum mein' Zatf nldjt lieben; 
SBürbe micty 3?erluft ju ^Tobe betrüben. 5 '" 
grcub' mu§ &ib, £eib muß greube fyaben. 5 * 

i^rjä^tt mir feine« 8eben8 ©djlug ! 

s lNepfyiftopl>eleö. 
dt liegt iu *ßabua begraben 
58etm fycüigeu Antonius, 
9ln einer tt)ot)(geireifyten Stätte, 
3um etoig füllen 9?ufyebette. * 24 

character of Martha ; any one less self-satisfied and seifiah than 
ehe is would have seen through his irony, vvhen he says " your 
husband is dead and begä to send his eompliments." 

428 Iu these feeling words Margaret exhibits a gentle, yielding 
nature, that prepares the reader für the part she is to play in the 
•ad, impending catastrophe. 

M3 In aecordance with the old adages: 

grenb' unb Seib finb nafye ^ac^barn ; 
or: greuD' unb 2eib finb etnauber juv (Sfye cje.qeben ; 
or: $ehie greube ebne Selb; 

or: greub' bringt £vauer mit ; which are but so many 
transcriptions of the old Latin line : 

Vye tibi ridenti ! quia mox post gaudia flebis ! 

524 Antonius of Padua was bom at Lisbon, August 15th, 1195. 
He was a disciple of the famous Francis of Assisi, the founder of 
the order of Franciscan monks. During a vovage to Africa, in 




ipctbt ifyr fonft nictytS an nüdj ju bringen? 

ffi e p § i ft o p $ e I c 8. 

3a, eine Sitte giojj nnb f ct>roer : 

£afj <Sie bccfy ja für ifyn breifyunbert Neffen fingen ! 

3m übrigen finb meine £afctyen leer. 


Sßaö ! iftityt ein <3d;auftüd ! teiti ©efd;meib' ? 

2öa$ jeber ipanbtoerMmrfd; im ©runb beS @ätfel$ fpart, 

3nm ^ngebenfen aufbewahrt, 

Unb lieber fmngert, lieber bettelt ! 525 

9Jcabam, e$ ttmt mir l^er^idj) leib ; 
Mein er fyat fein ©elb ttafyrfyaftig nicfyt »erbettelt. M 
$ucfy er berente feine gebier fefyr, 
3a, nnb bejammerte fein llngtüd nod? biet mefyr. 

M a r g a r e t e. 

9ld? ! baft bte 9Jcenfcfyen f o ungtücflicfy finb ! 

1220, he was driven by a storm to the coast of Italy, where he 
preached with such marvellous effect that, aecording to the Ro- 
mish legend, the very fishes were moved by his exhortations. 
Hediedin 1231, and wascanonized thefollowingyear by Gregory 
IX. — His remains lie in a silver coffin, beneath a very master- 
piece of sculpture within the church called the Chiesa del Santo, 
in Padua, and he is still worshipped principally by the Italians 
and the Portugueso, who considered it one of the greatest possible 
blessings to be buried near so true a saint ! The custorn of bury- 
ino- within the walls of churches is much more general in Roman 
Catholic countries than in ours, and was not abolished in Rome 
and Naples tili the beginning of the present Century (1809). 

625 Martha betrays her mean and greedy selfishness, and loses 
her temper heqause she is left a widow without a coin or trinket 
from her husband, whoshould have starved or begged, she thinks, 
to provide her wiihsoraething to gratify her greediness or vauity ! 

586 To ppend, to squander, to lavish. 


@en>ij$, td; toitt für Um mand; Üieqniem 527 nod; beten. 

3I?v toäret fcertfc gteid) in bie Crlj' 31t treten : 
3tyr feie ein Cte&enStDÜrbig Minb. 


3lefy nein ! baö gefyt jc^t nod) nid)t att. 

üDi e p i ft p fy e t e S. 
3ft'ö triebt ein Warm, fety'8 bermeit ein ©alan. 
'8 ift eine ber größten £>immetögabcn, 
(So ein lieb Ding im tan ju fyaben. i28 

£)a$ ift be£ &tnbe$ tttd;t tcr 23rand;. 5 * 9 

9J£ e p I) i ft p b e 1 e 3. 
53rancb ober nid^t ! G?8 giebt fiefy aueb. i3 ° 

3R artige. 

Crr$äl;lt mir tod;! 

5 - 7 A Requiem is usually a mass said for the departed (so called 
from oue of the prayers which beging with the words : "Requiem 
seternam dona eis" ; but the word here signifies only a simple prayer 
to be used after a " Pater noster," 

028 Mephistopheles tries to beguile the poor girl's heart by 

©alau is from the French, and raeans one who loves with dis- 
honorable intentions. 

529 In this simple line Margaret vindicates the character of the 
Germans, who never have been so depraved as the French and 
Italians. Tbe Germans have preserved with a holy veneration 
the traditions of their first heroie race, when people loved and 
were loved with a fervour and a censtancy that led the man to 
risk, and the woman to sacriliee everything but morality for their 

530 " Custom or not, yet it happens " — an answertruly devilish, 
as its objeet is to ridicule and sneer at morality. The idiomatic 
phrase : (£ö gibt ftdj audj> — means lit. " it gives iteelf also»'' 


3dfo ftcmb an feinem (BtexbeMtt ; 
(Se war Yoa§ Keffer als oon 9Jiift, 
23on fyatboerfaultem ©trofy : allein er ftarb als Gfyrtft, 
Unb fanb, bajj er tt>eit mefyr nocfy auf ber 3ecfye fyätte. 541 
„$Bie," rief er, .„mujj icfy micty oon ©runb au8 Raffen, 
@o mein ©ercerb', mein Sföüb fo $u »erlaffen ! 
$tcfy ! bie (Srinn'rung tobtet micfy. 
Vergab' fie mir nur nodj in biefcm Seben ! — 

DJtartfye (toetnenb). 
Der gute $ftann ! icfy f)ab ? tfym langft »ergeben. 

Sft e p t) x )t t p bj e I e S. 
allein, toeig ©Ott! fie toar mefyr ©cfyutb, als t$." 

Da« lügt er ! 28a$ ! am 3?anb beS ©rabs ju lügen ! 532 

(Er fabelte getüiß in legten gügen, 533 
SBenn icfy nur fyatb ein ftenner bin. 
„3d? fyatte," fprad? er, „nicfyt jum Zeitvertreib ju gaffen, 
(5rft Äinber, unb bann SSrct für fie ju fcfyaffen, 
llub 93rot im allertueit'ften ©tun, 
Unb !onnte nicfyt einmal mein £fyeil in grieben effen." 

S?at er fo oller Xreit', fo aller Zieh' oergeffen, 
Der Patferä bei Za% unb 9to$t ! 

531 2)ie 3ed?e, upon the score, which was generally written with 
chalk on a black board. 

532 Scarcely has Martha forgiven her hnsband before she calls 
him liar. This ficlileness of opinion is highly cbaracteristic, and 
is common among the low and heartless, who alter their views 
according as it serves their interests, praising one minnte and 
abusing the next. 

333 In order to pacify Martha's outburst of passion, Mephisto 
asserts that her good husband %i wandered " at intervals towards 
his end. 


W e p fy i ft o o fy e l e 8. 
v J?ictyt bod;, er fyat eud; l)er$ticfy brau getagt. 6S4 
($r fprad; : „911$ id; nun toeg öon*2Jfafta ging, 
'Da betet' xd) für grau unb ftinber brünftig ; " 4 
llnS loar beim aud) ber £>immel güuftig, 
Daß unfer Sd;iff ein türfifefy gafyqeug fing, 
Das einen ©d)a£ beS großen SuttcmS führte. 
Da tt>arb ber £abf erfeit iljr £olm, 
Hub id.) empfing beim and?, tote ftcfy'8 gebührte, 
SOiein toofylgemeJneS 536 £beilbaoon." 

Cn loie ? @ 100? £)at er>8 otelleicfyt oergrabeu? 

W e p fy i ft o b fy e l e 3. 
83er toeiß, too nun e§ bie oier SSinbe fyaben! 
©n f cfyöneS gra'ulein natym ftcfy feiner an, 
$U$ er in ^apel fremb umfyerf parierte ; 
<Sie fyat an tfym biet £ieb'S unb £reu'S getrau, 63tf 
Daß er'S bis an fein fetig Cnibe fpürte. 

534 The devil plays upon the word ^lacferet — which may be useel 
in the same double meaning as the English word " trouble." 
Martha says, " did I not trouble myself enough for him day and 
night? " while Mephisto answers, " oh ! yes ! he thought much 
of all the trouble you gave him." 

535 Fervidiy. 

03 '' Well measured, i.e. my due and proper share. 

J7 She becomes good-tempered and affectionate again, as the 
thought strikes her that her husband may have buried some 

8 The whole story is of course a mere invention of the devil 
to gratify an infernal whim of amusing himself at Martha's ex- 
pense, and of tormenting her, not indeed by way of reproving 
her selfishness, but simply for the sake of tormenting. 

©te $at i&m toiet Steb'S unb £reu'8 geü)an 
refers to Martha's exclamation. 

$at ev fo aüe £reu unb Sieb toergeffen ? 


©er @dje(m ! ber ©ieb an feinen Stinbern ! 
%nfy aüeS (Slenb, alle 9?otfy 
$onnf nidjt fein fcfyä'nbtid; Seben fytnbern ! *" 

. ättepbiftopfyeteS. 
3a fefyt ! bafür ift er nun tobt. M) 
2öäY icfy nun jefct an eurem s ßia£e, 
33etraurt' id? ifyn ein jücbttg Satyr, 511 
33tfirte 542 bann unterteil 7 nacfy einem neuen &tyofyc. 61S 


31$ ©Ott ! tote bod; mein erfter toar, 

ginb' id; nid^t leicht auf biefer 2ßett ben anbem ! s " 

(5$ tonnte f'aum ein fyerjiger Iftärrctyen fetyn. 

(5r liebte nur baö afljuöiete Söanfcero, 

Unb frembe SBeiber, unb fremben 2öein, 

Unb ba$ oerf(ud;te SBfirfelfoiei. 545 

539 A devil's joke indeed, playing with what is ever one of the 
strongest and least controllable passions in a woman — jealousy. 

640 He consoles her by suggesting, that after all, her husband's 
deatb may be very profitable to her. 

541 3ü$tig is here taken as an attributive adjective of 3aljr, 
though it should refcr to the verb betrauern. M I would modestly 
moLini for him a twelvemonth." 

5,2 I would look out. A Germanized FreDch word, only al- 
lowable in a coraie style. 

641 ©djafc, meaning " a lüver/ 7 in which sense it is used by the 
lower classes. 

544 In the hopes of finding another husband she begins with 
hypocritical curming to praise the one just lost, to show in fact 
how she could love and forgive. 

546 Referring to the old German adage : 

SSei&er, SBein unb SBürfelfptel 

Sßerberfcen mannen, roer'8 merfen Witt. 

the last words of which mean " who will take it as a warning." 


9hn, nun ! fo tonnt' e8 getm unb flehen, 
SBerai er euety ungefähr jo t>tel 
<Bon feiner Seite nad^efefycn. M * 
3d; fcfyiuor euety ju, mit beut ^ebinfl 
Segelt' ity fetbft mit eudj ben 81mg ! 5 "$e. 
£), eö beliebt tem §crrn ju fcfyerjen ! 548 

^1U e p t) t ft o p ^ e l e ö o>orf«$). 
9hm maefy' tefy miefy bei 3?iten fort ! 
&ie hielte tool)l ben Scufcl fctbft beim ©ort. 549 

Mi u If you showed such indulgence to him, and he so much to 
you, it must have been a fine niurriage ! " A masterly pieee of 
sarcasm, and justly deserved by Martha who, having quarrelled 
night and day with her husband, now bonsts of their love and 
happiness, and her own indulgence towards him, knowing she is 
safe from contradiction. 

547 Throughout this wonderful scene the sarcastic irony of the 
devil becomes gradually keener and inore venomous : he now 
goes so far as to declare that Martha would be a very fit and 
worthy wife for himself; — meaning that a woman who could 
enter into the holy bonds of marriage, willing to grant her hus- 
band every freedom to do wrong, in order to have the same licence 
allowed to herseif, is indeed a helpmate for the devil. 

The custora of exchanging rings, which was practised by the 
Greeks and Romans, as well as by the ancient German races, 
refers here rather to the betrothal than to the actual marriage - 
ceremony. In many parts of Germany, the interchange of rings 
is entirely dispensed with in the marriage service. This reminds 
us of Butler's satire on the puritanical notions in England during 
the Commonwealth, described in the lines : 

" Others were for abolishing 
That tool of matrimony, a ring, 
With which the unsanctify'd bridegroom 
Is married only to a thumb." — Hudibras. 

548 Martha seems inclined to take him at his word. 

649 An answer containing much coarse humour. In asking 
Margaret how it is with her heart, the devil's objeet is to excite 


3u ©retd)en. 
Sie ftefyt es benn mit ifyrem ipeqen ? 

2Ba8 meint ber §err bamit ? 

3Jcep^iftopl>eteö (»or fi#). 

Du gut«, unfertig« Stint l m 

Steht toofyt, ii?r grau'n ! 

Scbt too^l ! 

£) fagt mir bod; gcfc^ttjtn'D 
3cfy möchte gern ein ,3 eil S n tß fyaben, 
2öo, tote unb toann mein ©djafc geftorben unb begraben. 
3cfy bin ton je ber Drbnung gveunb getoefen, 
WlbtyV ifyn anty tobt im $3od?enbtättd;en tefen. Ml 

3a, gute grau, burefy jtoeier 3 eu 9^" 9Jtunb 
SSirb altertoegS bie äBafyrfyeit fmtb. 
§abe nod) gar einen feinen ©efellen, 
Den toill icfy euefy oor ben 9?id>ter ftettem 
3$ bring' iim fyer. 552 

foul and impure thoughts in her innocent mind ; her counter- 
question, however, proves by its simplicity that her heart is still 
strong in its original purity. 

350 The frequent elisions of the „t" is a great poetical liberty 
which can only be pardoned in a Goethe. The devil's speech, 
as these elisions would argue, seems to be written in the 
Viennese dialect. 

551 Martha is anxious to have a certificate to show hovv, when, 
and where her husband died ; she wishes to comply with the 
rules of respeetability, and to see his decease propeiiy annouueed 
in the weekly newspaper, where its publication would at the 
same time serve as an advertisement that Martha is again at her 
own disposal. 

552 Crime is heaped upon crime ! — Martha asks for a 



O tljnt fcaö ja ! 
W e p \) t ft o p 1} c l c 8. 
Unb tyier bie 3ungfrcw ift and? ba ? — 
Sin brauet Änafc' ! ift otel gereift ; 
gräuteinä alle vS^öfttcfyfeit eriüeift. 5 " 

SRüjjte bor bem Jperrn fcfyamrotfy werben. *" 

$or feinem Könige ber (Erben. 53 "' 

)ßl a r t fy e. 
Xa fyinterm " 5 £>an$ v>7 in meinem ©arten 
Söotten tm'r ber £>errn fyeut $lbenb warten. 558 

certificate. Mephisto acknowledges that tvvo witnesses are neces- 
sary to prove a point satisfactorily, and at the same time volun- 
teers a second, in order to bring in Faust as a party to his tissue 
of lies. 

bb3 A provincial expression. gräufem is used with an „8" in 
the dative plural contrary to all rules of Grammar. The mean- 
ing of the sentence is, t'jat he is polite to every young lady. 

554 In her simple modesty she feels that the presence of so 
gallant a youth "will make her blush," so unaccustomed is 
she to the ways of the world. 

555 This fear Mephisto answers by provoking in her those 
" light conceits " that engender pride ; he teils her that with her 
beauty she need not blush in the presence of a king. 

666 A contraction of the words hinter bem. 

7 Though strict grammar requires that all nouns which form 
the genitive in e3 should retain the e in the dative, yet this rule 
is by no means strictly observed. 

558 Observe the use of trartett with the genitive. 

Any attempt to enlarge on the particular beauties of this 
scene appears superfluous ; we may, however, observe that its beauty 
does not consist in its metaphors or its verbal grandeur, but 
rather in the grapbic and truthful picture it affords of characters 
that are tco real. How striking is the contrast between Martha 


Sauft. 2ReJ>$tiioMele8- 


2Bte tffd? XM'S förbcrn? *» tmU'ö balb gefyn ? 

$lfy brabo! gtnb' td? eud? in geucr ? 5So 
3n fur^er geü ift ©retten euer. 
§eut ^Ibenb fotft' tfyr fie bei s ttacfybar üUtortfyen M ' fefyn. 
£)a# tft ein 2öeib tote au beriefen 
3um Kuppler * unb ,gtgeunern)efen ! 563 

@o red;t ! 

9J{ e p fy i ft o p fy e I e S. 
£)ocfy toirb aucfy ma$ fcon un$ begehrt. 

and Margaret, between the innocent sympathy of nature's child, 
and the cold dissimulation of the worldly widow. Margaret 
sufFers whenever Mephistopheles chooses to provoke her com- 
miseration. Martha too has her sufferings, but they are onlj 
the anguish caused by jealousy, wounded pride, disappointed 
hopes and covetousness. We pity Margaret, but Martha' s griefs 
in spite of her " Friday looks and Lenten face " excite n sinüe 
in us as we fathora her motives, and see through her assumed 
virtue. Contrast has always been the principal ingredient of 
ridicule, the more so when this contrast takes place between 
semblance and reality, an aim and the means of attaining it. a 
contrast by which the appearance is in itself destroyed, and the 
aim deprived of its object. 

559 < t D oes it ( our scheme) progress ? Is it in train?" The 
verb trotten is used here in an idiomatic sense. 

560 Alluding to the state of excitement into which Faust has 
been thrown on hearing of the progress of their scheme. 

061 A colloquial form of speech : " At neighbour Martha's." 

662 lieferring not so much to the whole race of gipsies as to 
certain elderly women, who share their character, and are per- 
petually engaged in intrigue. 


(5in Ttenft ift mofyl be$ aubern wert!;. 

ÜJ2 e p fy i ft o p fj e ( e 8. 
©ir legen nur ein g&Itfg Seugnig nteber, 
$)ajj tyreä (S^errn au8gere<fte ©lieber 
3n ^pabua an tyeil'ger Stätte rutjn. 

©efyr ftug! 3Sir werben erft bie Steife macfyen muffen ! m 

W e p l) i ft o p I) e I e 3. 
Sancta simplicitas ! 581 barum ift'8 nid;t flu tfyun ; 
©ejeugt nur, ofyne biet ju totflen! M5 


2Benn (Et ^ nichts Keffers fyat, fo ift ber 'Ißlan jerriff en. 

9ft e p fy t ft o p fy e t e 8. 
O fyuTger SWann ! £>a voär ? t ifyr 8 nun ! 567 
3ft eö ba£ erfteinat in eurem %cbei\, 
Daß it>r falfd; 3 eu #m& abgelegt? 
£>abt ifyr bon @ott, ber Seit unb wa8 fid) brin bewegt, 
©om 9J?enfdjen, wa$ fid? ifym in ftopf unb £>eqen regt, 
Definitionen nicfyt mit großer ßxaft gegeben, 
Wiit frecher Sttrne, füfyner 33ruft ? 
Unb wollt ii)r red;t in3 3nn 7 re gel;en, 
§abt it)r baoon, ifyr mügt eS g'rab' gefielen, 
<2o oiet al§ oon §errn ©ctywerbtteinS £ob gemußt! M 

553 Faust jumps to the conclusion that they must first travel to 
Padua to procure the required certificate. His sen3e of right is 
not yet entirely gotie. 

561 A Latin exclamation meaning : " ho\y very stupid." 

615 " Swear to it without knowing anything about it." 

8 Faust is really annoyed at the devil's Suggestion, and ac- 
cordingly addresses his guide with the contemptuous er, as he re- 
fuses to fall in with his proposal. 

567 2)a Stands here for bteSmctl, or in btefem gaüe. If you refuse 
it on the present occasion you will not be so particular always. 

m A grand piece of irony against all metaphysical extrava- 



«£)u btft nnb bleibft ein Sügner, ™ ein ©opfyifte. 57 ° 

3a, tüenn man'8 nid)t ein bißchen tiefer \üügtc. 
£)enn morgen toirft, in allen Staren, 
£)a$ arme ®retd;en nid;t betören, 
Unb alle ©eelenlieb' Ifyr jd;tt>ören ? 

Unb 3U)ar oon Sperren. 


©ut nnb fcfcön ! 
Statin h)irb fcon eto'ger £reu' nnb Siebe, 
23cn einzig überallmäd^'gem triebe — m 
SBirb ba3 ancfy fo t>on §er^en gelm ? 

Sag ba3 ! (§3 rturb ! — 2öenn td? entpfinbe, ' 
gür baS ©efiil/1, für ba£ ©enmfyl 
9tod) tarnen fucfye, feinen finbe, 
3)ann burd? bie SBelt mit allen ©innen fcfytoetfe, 
9?ad; allen fyöcfyften ilBorten greife, 
Unb biefe ©lutl), fcon ber id; brenne, 
Unenblicfy, en>ig, etuig nenne, 
3ft ba$ ein tenflifcfy Sügenfpiel ? 572 

gances. Nothing could hit Faust harder tban such words, es- 
pecially when uttered by the devil. 

569 « jp or j ie - s a jj ar ^ an( j tne f a tlier of it." — St. Jobn, viii. 44. 

670 Nouns with long terminations, derived from foreign lan- 
guagcs, and taking en in the plural are often used colloquially with 
an e in the singular, thus we have 3efuite, spfyantafte, Sp&ilofoptye, 
(go^ifte, 2C, 

m By using this epithet Mephisto wishes to ridicule that lofty 
gentiment which recognises in love a divine power that elevates 
the soul to Hirn who is the source of all love, an assertion cer- 
tainly in direct Opposition to Faust's curse. (Vide Notes 251, 253.) 

in So far from having offended Faust, Mephistopheles has pro- 


m c p l; i ft o p \) c ( e *. 
3d^ab'bod;3i-ctf)t! 673 

£ßr' ! merf bir biejj— 
3$ bitte btcfy, unb fcfyone meine ßiutcje : 
*öcr tfecfyt behalten will, unb t?at mir eine Bunge, 
SBepf* getoiß. 574 

Unb tomm', td? t)ab' bes @$n>%n6 U:berbruß ; 675 
'Denn bit l>aft töecfyt, üorjüglid? weil icl? m\\% 67d 

©arten. » 77 

SJlavgarete an ft a u ft c n 9 Wxm. Wl a v t Ij e mit 2ft c fc ty t - 
ft o v fy e 1 c 8 auf* unb abfpajierenb. 

3$ für/f e$ mofyt, batf mtd? ber §err nnr fcfyont, 

voked in him a still more fervid excitement which he mistakes 
for the feelings of pure love ! We must admire che really pathetic 
beauty with which the poet describes the intoxication of love, and 
the despair implied by Faust's question at the conclusion : " Is it 
possible that the whole should be only a tissue of lies — the devil's 
deceitful play ? " 

675 The cold ans wer which his enthusiasm receives is in strict 
accordance with the character of the ever-denying spirit, who 
knows how soon coarse sensuality will damp all such finely- 
wrought feelings. 

574 With these words Faust's fiery nature recognises and suc- 
cumbs to the superiority which the evil spirit has already gained 
over him. 

675 Sdjreäken used for fdj>tt>a£en. The unb here unites fomm with 
the words „merf bir btefj." 

673 Faust's powerful resistance is baffled, the struggle has ter- 
minated against him. We have seen at times a sense of his 
moral dignity flashing up within him, but he is at last compelled 
to submit to Mephisto who, as the personification of doubt and 
sensualism, now assumes the mastery over his conquered foe. 

177 This first garden-scene exhibits Goethe's wonderful power 


§erab ficfy lägt, micfy $u befcfyämeu. 

(Im ^Reifenber tft fo getootynt, 

$lu$ Oütigfett fürlicb gu nehmen ; 

3$ \t>etß ju gut, baß fold; erfahrnen 5ftann 

9Jiein arm ©efprüd? nid;t unterhalten fann. 579 

(Sin 23tt(f t>on bir, (Sin 2öort mefyr unterhält, 
9118 alle ©eistyett btefer Söelt 57ä 

Qjr fußt tfyre §anb. 

Margaret e. 
Sncommobtrt euci> md)t ! 2öie tonnt tl;r fie nur Kiffen ? 
(Sie tft f o garfttg, tft f o raufy ! 
2öaS fyab' id? ntd;t fd;on alles fd;affen muffen! 
£)te SJiutter tft gar gu genau. 580 

©efyen toorüber. 

in diving into the secret depths of human nature, and briDging 
up like so many glittering pearls the choicest treasures of our 

This double scene, in which, be it noticed, the lovers pasa al- 
ternately before us three several times, each time exhibiting tlieir 
various characters in exquisite contrast, must be considered as one 
of the most charming creations of poetry. The Germaus have 
often been accused of too great minuteness in describing psycho- 
logically the development of the passions, but though no step is 
wanting in the gradual development of Mai garet' s pure love, and 
Faust'sfervid passion, orof Martha's vulgär bist, and Mephisto's 
fiendlike satire, the charge can hardly be brouglitagainst Goethe; 
nor has he indulged in any of that bair- Splitting sentimentality, 
or rhythmical profusion of words, which we so irequently meet 
with in modern German authors. 

578 This modest confession heightens Margaretes beauty, for 
one of the finest qualities of beauty is unconsciousness. 

579 Confessing that even wisdom becomes an easy prey to 
passion, which is ever foremost in bringing into conflict the two 
antagonistic elements of our nature, the spiiit and the flesh. 

580 Alluding to the common household work which she is 
obliged to do, in order to help her mother. If we compaie the 
artlese statement from the lips of an iunoccnt, contonted girl 



Unb itjr, mein £>crr, ityr reift (o immcrf ort ? 581 

?ld>, bafe ©etocrb' uub ißflttyt unö ba$u treiben ! 
SDtit lote oief Sdmterj t>crla^t mein manchen Ort, tW 
Uub barf bed) nun einmal nid;t bleiben !. 

3n raffen 3al)ren gefyt'S toofyl an, 

(So um unb um frei burd) bie 2Beft ju ftreifen ! 

£)ocb femmt bie böfe 3 eit beran, 

Unb firfj al« ©agcftolj 593 allein jum ©rab' gu fd;leifeu, 

£)a$ bat noeb deinem tooljtgettyatt. 


2Rit ©raufen fei)' tefy baS bort leiten. 

93t artige. 
©nun, toertfyer §err, beratet eud; in gelten ! 5U 

©el)en vorüber. 

witb the boasting, " heaven-storming " reasoning of Faust, we 
must deduce the moral that it is wisest to fulfil our duty cheer- 
fully in whatever positioa of life Providence has been pleased to 
place us. 

581 Then you are consta,ntly travelling, you have no rest, no 
comfort ; both are at your command, " if you choose to avail your- 
self of them." Though she thinks her ultimate objeet very 
artfully concealed, yet she has to deal with one who is quite her 

592 Mephisto understands the hint, and amuses hiraself in ex- 
citing her hopes. 

583 A Bachelor. 

584 Giving Mephistopheles a hint that he had better seize his 
opportunity before the chance is gone. If we compare the parts 
acted by the two pairs what a contrast we find. In Margaret a 
bashful, diffident, innocent love, which grows gradually into 
frantic passion. In Martha a seducing bad-concealed lust, which 
ultimateiy becomes utterly uncontroliable. 


93? et r g et r e t e. 
3a, au§ ben klugen, aus bem ©inn ! 5 " 5 
£)ie ^öfltcfyfeit ift eud? geläufig ;. 
Mein ifyr ^abt ber greunbe häufig, 
«Sie fiub berftanbiger, als icfy bin. 

8 a u ft. 
£> $efte ! glaube, tüa$ man fo öerftönbig nennt, 
3ft oft mcfyr (5itel!eit unb tojfttm. 58S 

Margaret e. 


Sau ft. 
9ld;, ba§ bie ßinfatt, ba£ bie Unfd)utb nie 
©ich fetbft unb ifyren fyeit'gen Sertt) ert'ennt ! 
3)aß £)emutty, ^tebrigfeit, bie Ijöctyften ®aben 
Der liebeboli autftbeitenben 9?atur — 5 - 7 

£>enft ifyr an mid; ein $lugenbficfd;eu nur, 

3cfy toerbe 3eit G eiul 8 an euci ) l n Genien tyaben. n 

Ofyr fetyb U)o^l fctel allein ? 

585 Referring to the proverb : Hu8 ben Singen, an 8 ben 'Sinn. 
In her diffidence she thiriks lt impossible that a learned man 
like Faust should lavish upon her more than mere courtesies. 

586 What deep truth ! how happy might Faust have been had 
he bimself ever believed in the truth of his affection. What 
seemsso very learned, isoften nothing but vanity, narrow-minded- 
ne ss. — Vanitas Vanitatum ! — The word toerftänbig does not here 
mean sensible, or reasonable, but rather learned as in the expres- 
sion „ein berftanbiger äftann." 

687 Faust suddenly becomes a changed man. He now seems 
able to regard humility, innocence, and simplicity as nature's best 

5öS The diminutive „Hitgenbü(fd;en" is here of great poetic beauty : 
" you may think of me but one little moment — I in my humble 
lot, shall have too much time to think of you." Words that be- 
tray the impression Faust has already made on hei* heart. 


3Ji a r g a r c t c. 
3a, ttnfre S5MrHtf#aft tft nur Kein, 
Hub bodj tottl fte berfeljen fciw. 
©h baben feine 2Jtogb ; muß fodjett, fegen, ftviefen 
Uttb nälVn, unb laufen frül; unb foat ; m 
Unb meine ÜKutter tft m eilten ©tücten 
2 c aecurat! 

9fct$t baß fie juft fo fefyr fid? etnjnfc^ränfen fyat 
SBtr tonnten un$ toett efy'r alö anbre regen 
3Äein SBater hinterließ ein fyübfcfy Vermögen, 
(Sin .spannten unb ein ©arteten bor ber <Stabt. 
Dod) tyab' t$ jefct fo gtemlicr) fttUe £age; 
äRein ©ruber tft Solbctt, 
üKein 2dnvcfterd;cn tft tobt. 
3$ Ijatte mit bem .\linb toobl meine liebe 9?otfy ; 
Ted; ü&ernä&m' icfy gern nod? einmal alle $tage, 
3c lieb toar mir ba$ $inb. 


(Sin (Sngel, teenn btr'8 glid? ! 

Margaret e. 
3d? joa, c8 auf, unb fyeralid) liebt' e« mid). 
(So toar naefy meine« SBaterS Xob geboren ; 
Die SWutter gaben toir oertoren, 
©o elenb, tote fie bamate lag, 
Unb fie erholte ftd) fe'fyr langfam, nad? unb nad;. 
Da tonnte fie uuu nicfyt brau beuten, 
DaS arme Söünncfyeu felbft ju tränten, 
Unb fo ergog icty'S gan$ allein, 
Wt 2Äil$ unb Sßaffer; fo toarb'S mein, 
\?Utf meinem 2lrm, in meinem ©cfyoofc 
SQ&ar'S freuublid), jabpelte, nxtrb groß. 

Du Ijaft getoig baS reinfte @lüct empfunben. 

989 Spat obsolete for fe&t 


£)od) aucfy getotg gar manche fcfytocre Stauben. 
£)e$ Kleinen s Btege ftanb ju 2ftad?t 
31 n meinem §8ett*, eS burfte faum fiefy regen, 
2Bar icfy ertoacfyt ; 

£3alb mufct' tc^'ö tränten, Mb e$ 51t mir legen, 
25alb, tocnn'ö nid;t fcfytotcg, bom §8ett' aufftefyn, 
Unb tänjelttb in ber Kammer auf unb nteber gefyn, 
Unb früfy am £age fd;on am Safd)trog ftelm ; 
£)ann auf beut 9Jtarft unb an bem §>eube forgen, 
Unb immerfort, tote fyeut jo morgen. 
£)a gcfyt'ö, mein £>err, nid)t immer mutfyig 51t ; 
£od? fetymedt bafür ba§ dffen, fcfymedt bie ^ul^ 5 ** 

©cfyen vorüber. 

5£ft a r t fy c. 
£)te armen Seiber finb bod; übel brau : 

590 What can be finer than this simple, natural picture of a 
good girl's every-day life, busying herseif with domestic matters, 
her whole thoughts given up to the care of a kind but austere 
mother, and to the rearing of a tender infant, who in spite of all 
her care had sunk gradually to the grave — her father too she had 
never seen — no wonder then she feit alone in the world, yet"she 
was contented, and willingly plodded 011 through duties that 
never vnried, never ceased, happy that she could be a help to her 
mother, and glad when she could find an ear to listen to her tale 
of early sorrovvs. The silent amazement with which Faust 
listens to the simple story of one who, girl though she was, had 
gone through all the tenderest and höhest duties of a mother, 
and had undergone a woman's sorrows, may for the moment allay 
our fears as to the fate of her lover. 

Besides the poetic beauty, there is a mine of sound, practical 
sense throughout these lines ; they show us what should be the 
education of the girls of the middle classes : let them be taught, 
like Margaret, that it is in their power to make the humblest 
home an abode of contentment and happiness by their assidui ty, 
meokness, tenderness and love, and truly they will find a much 
higher consolation fchan poor Margaret claimed for herseif. 


(Sin ©Ogcflotj ift fd;n>erlio? 31t Meeren. 

33? c p \j t ft o p fy e l c tf. 
(§6 tönte nur auf enre$ ©leiten an, 
OJiid; eines 93effern ju belehren. 592 

2E artige. 
Sagt g'rab', mein $err, fyabt ifyr nod; nid;tö gefnnben ? 
\\it fiel) baä $ei*5 nicot irgenbmo gebnnben ? 

5E)a$ ^pridjmort fagt : (Sin eigner §erb, 
Clin bra&e« SBefo, finb ©o(b nnb perlen mertl). W3 

3d? meine, ob tfyr niemals £uft bekommen? 

SWan l;at mid; überall red;t fyöflia) aufgenommen ? 

od) wollte fagen: 2£arb'§ nie (5rnft in eurem £)cr$en? 

s 3Ji e p ty t ft p l) e l e 8. 
SDtöt grauen feil man fid; nie untcrftelm ju feberjen. 

>1K a r t fy e. 

31 d>, \\)x bcrfteljt mia) nicfyt ! 


^aS tlmt mir tycr^lid? leib ! 

m Martha again appears, and still coaxing her companion ; she 
finde him rather a difficult bachelor to deal with, and she there- 
fore plies him with hints and insinuations still broader than 

The evil spirit is of course jesting with her. 

593 Thero are scveral adages in German expressing the same 
idea ; thus : 

©gener §eerb ift @otbe§ »er Hj. 
or: (Sin fromm 2öeib tarnt man mit ©otb nid;t überwiegen, 
or : (Sin ehrbar grait tion ©itten fdjon 

Unb l)äu8licfy ift be8 9flanne8 Äron. 


£)ocfy td? berftel/ — tag x\)x fc^r gütig feto. 594 

©d)en vorüber. 
£)tt lannteft mid;, o Keiner dnget, toteber, 
©leid? alö id; in ben ©arten !am ? 

(^afyt ifyr e$ mcfyt ? icb f cbtug bie Mugen nieber. 

Hnb bu öerjeityft bie greifyeit, bie xd) natjm, 
SBa8 f!dj> bie grecfyfyeit unterfangen, 
3H8 bu jüngft ax\8 bem Tom gegangen ? 

3cfy toar beftürjt, mir war ba$ nie gefd^elm; 
(5$ fonnte niemanb UeMS oon mir fagen. 
s Icfy ! bacfyt' icfy, fyat er in beinern betragen 
2öa3 grecfyeS, UnanftänbigeS gefeint ? 
(Se fd;ien xi)xx gletd; nur anjutoanbetn, 
yjdit biefcr Time g'rabe fyin ju fyanbeln. 
©eftel/ tcfy'S bo<$, kh nutzte niätf, toa§ ftd; 
3u eurem SBortfyeil lu'er gu regen gteicfy Gegönnte ; 595 
5lüein getoift, id; tt>ar red;t böf auf mid;, 
£)a|3 icfy auf euefy nid;t böfer tt>ert>en fonnte. 59i 

691 The whole of tili * dialogue is highly charneteristie of both 
actors. How very difierent is the conduet of the cold scheming 
widow, who tries to gain not the heart but the hand of the 
stranger, to that of the simple straight-forward Margaret, who 
does not dare to indulge even in the thouo-ht of e;aininp; or de- 
serving the love of one so noble as Faust. 

595 This old form of „beginnen'' is also found occasionally, in 
the works of Geliert* the celebrated fabulist, "Wielandf and others. 

596 How inimitable is Margaret's confession of her growing 

* Born 1715, 4th of July at Haynichen, near Freiberg, in Saxonv; obiit 131h of 
üeeember, 1769. 

t Lorn 1733, 5th of September, at Oberholzlieini, a village belonging to tlic tei 
of Ine town of Biberach; obiit 20th of January 1813. 


@üjj yicb^cn ! 

Sagt einmal ! 

Sie pftücft eine Sternblume unb gu^ft bie Blätter ab, eins nad) bem 

anbern. 597 


2öa$ foll ba$? (Sinen Strauß? 

"üft argarete. 
Stein, e8 foü nur etn Spiel. 

g a u ft. 

Tl a r g a r e t e. 

®efyt ! tfyr lacfyt miefy aus. 
©ie vu^ft unb murmelt. 


3a« murmelft bu? 

Margarete halblaut). 

(Sr liebt mtcfy — Siebt miety nid)t. 

£)it i;ofre3 £)immel8angeftcfyt ! 

597 It is a general custom for lovers to consult flovvers as a 
aort of oracle, as to whether their love is returned or not. The 
plan adopted is simple enough. A starflower, which seems to be 
the favourite, is selected, and the person Consulting it repeats the 
words : 

(§r liebt mtdj öon Sperren 
SCRit ©(tymerjen, 

3a— ober Sftetn ! 
a single leaf is picked off at each recurrence of the words 3a and 
Sfotn, and the answer of the oracle is yes or no, as 3a or Sftein is 
pronounced on pulling the last of the leaves. This childish game 
of love is introduced by the poet to show the simplicity and in- 
nocence of Margaret's nature. 


Margarete (fa^rt fort). 

Siebt mi$ — <m$t — Siebt mid? — m$t — 

3)a§ leiste SBIatt auSrupfenb, mit fyolber greube. 
(£r liebt miety ! 


3a, mein itinb ! Safr btefeö SBlumenmort 
Dir ©ötterauSfprud? fein ! Grr liebt fcicfy ! 
33erftefyft bu, roaS baS Reifet? (Sr liebt bid? ! 
(Sr faßt tyre beiben £änbe. 598 
TOd? überläuft'S ! m 

O fcfyaubre nicfyt ! Saß tiefen 33licf, 
Sa6 tiefen $>cmbebruct btr fagen, 
2öa8 unauSforecfylicfy ift : 
(&i<S> fyin&ugeben ganj unb eine SBonne 
3u füllen, bie enria, fein muß ! 
@tt>ig ! — 3fyr Qrnbe toürbe ^erjtDeiflung fein. 
Stein, fein £nbe! Stein (Snbe! 600 

Margarete brücft ilmt bie £>änbe, madjt ftdj io§ mtb läuft n?eß. Gsr fiefyt 
einen 5lugenbltcf in ©ebanfen, bann folgt er iljr. 

498 Faust, carried away by Margaret's pretty cbildish ways, and 
in raptures with the issue of the oracle, bursts fortb into a passion- 
ate deolaration of his love, and wisfaing to impress upon her the 
whole power, the whole weight of that feeling which gives up 
life to life, he asks her with solemn earnestness : " Doest thou 
know all the meauing of the words, he loves ihee ? " — while at the 
same moment he seizes both her hands in his, to impart to her, 
as it were by the magnetic power of his touch a portion of the 
overwhelming love with which his heart is filled. 

fi " Her exclamation : " I shudder," seals her doom. It betrays 
that an overpowering love, so overpowering indeed that it will 
lead to any sacrifice, has bound her from that moment to Faust 
for ever. 

600 These words with all their simplicity are füll of burning 
paäsion, and contain a deep poetical beauty. This portion of the 


^artt) C (rommenb). 
Die Waäfi bricht an. 

s )Ji c p \) t ft o p \) e l c o. 

3a, unb tmr u>olten fort. 
3d? bat' eitdj, länger r)ter ju bleiben ; 
^(letn c$ ift ein gar $u böfer Ort. 
(gä Ift, a(3 tyätte ntemanb ntcfytS ju treiben 
Unb nichts $u fdjaffen, 6jl 
K(3 auf beS v JJad;barn (Stritt unb STrttt ju gaffen, 

scene may be compared with the glowing account which Eve 
gives of her sensations on first discovering Adam. (Paradise 
Lost, Book IV. 475.) All that the epic poet expressed in the 

" thy gentle hand 

Seized me — I yielded" — 

is beautifully amplified in Goethe's dramatic masterpiece, and the 
reader cannot but be Struck with the extreme power of the line, 

u Let this pressure of the hand teil thee what is inexpressible," 

and with the terror with which Faust remembers that his happiness 
may not be eternal ; the thought of Adam's curse overcomes him, 
and despair is mingled with his joy, as the fallen man bewails 
with fearful remorse his lost earthly immortality. Throughout this 
contest between the extremes, happiness and despair, we can trace 
symbolically the interference of the evil spirit, who hates the 
very idea of happiness, to whom the sight of Miss is torment; 
thus, we find throughout the same fiend who " eyed with jealous 
leer " our first parents " imparadised in one another's arms," 
now marring with maddening doubts the enraptured dreams of 
Faust. v 

611 This is a violation of the general rule " duse negationes 
affirmationem faciunt" — a rule which, though contrary to the 
spirit of the German language, is always observed by modern 
writers : Tiere the words mean <( a3 if everybody had nothing to 
do." The repetition of the negative strengthens rather than 
destroys the negation in such passages, and numerous instances 
of this use occur in Geliert, Schiller, Klopstock and Wieland. 


Unb man fommt in« ©ereb', tote man fi$ immer [teilt. 60J 
Unb nnfer ^ßärcfyen ? 

3J?epift opfyeteS. 

3ft ben ©ang bort aufgeflogen. 
SUtatfytmÜ'ge «Sommeroögel ! 


üx fd;etnt ifyr gewogen. 6n3 


Unb fic tym aucfy. £)a3 ift ber «auf ber Söclt ! 604 

(Sin ©artenfyäuöcfyen. 

Margarete fartngt fyerein, ftecft fi$ fytnter bte £fyüre, fyäft bte Ringer* 
ftnfce an bte Sippen, unb gucft burd? bte 9ft£e. 

(£r fommt ! 

g a u ft (fommt). 
%ty ©cfyetm, fo netfft bu mtd; ! 

SCrcff* td> btd? ! 

er fußt fte- 

y)i a r g a r e t e 
(tfyn faffenb unb ben Äufj surütfgebenb). 

Sßefter üOtonn ! bon Sperren lieb' tcfy btcfy ! 6a5 

602 Disappointed by thestranger's evasive answers, and envious 
of the happiness of the other pair, the good matron attempts to 
hide her chagrin under the cloak of respectability, which she 
makes an excuse alike for brioging her own unpromising suit to 
a close, and interrupting that of her more successfnl friend. 

603 Observe the envy expressed in these words. 

604 This is a pretty comiört indeed for the lustful and pining 
widow ! 

605 ^y e are reminded throughout this scene of the happiness, 
frankness and innocence of Paradise. We have already been 
led to compare the vords and sensations of Margaret with those 

2öer ba ? 


SWepfyiftoM eleö flopft an. 
gctitft (ftamtfenb). 

2R c p $ i ft o |) § e 1 e « 

($nt greunb ! 

(Sin SCfticr ! «* 


(So ift totitfl $eit 3« fd;etben. 

2Hartfye (fommt)- 
3a, cö ift fpät, mein $ert. 

£)arf id; euefy nicfyt geleiten ? 

Margaret e. 
Die Butter untrbe nticfy — &bt rooljl ! 


9Jiug id; benn gefyn ? 
gebt »o&l ! 


Slbe ! 

of Milton's Eve, but we must have been Struck also by the close 
resemblance between the two characters. 

Faust who had once cursed all the brighter side of human life, 
the blissful feeling of hope, the comforting virtue of patience, 
nay, even the deepest delights that a tender love can impart, is 
beginning to acknxwledge to himself that pure and noble feel- 
ings may still exist, that mau may still be rendered really happy, 
when, at the very moment this change of feeling is taking place, 
the devil suddealy reappears and the unhappy man is again dragged 
down from the spiritual heaven to which Margaret' s last simple 
words had raised him. 

636 Though the devil here styles him his good friend — Faust 
lays asiue all conventional politeness, and gives him his real 


Stuf baldig Sieberfefyn ! 

1 gaufl unb 9ftepbtfH^ete8 ab. 

Margaret e. 
£>u lieber ©ott ! toaS fo ein SWftrni 
9ftcpt alles, alleö beuten famt ! 
23efd;ämt nur ftefy' icfy bor ifym ba, 
Unb jag' %u allen @ad;cn ja. 
S5tn bod; ein arm, untmffenb fibtfc, 
begreife nicfyt, roa8 er an mir finb't. m 


235 o 1 b lt it b § ö $1 e. 

Sauft (allein). 
(5rl;abner (Seift/ bu gabft mir, gabft mir alles, 
SBarum td; bat. 608 £)it fyaft mir nid;t umfonft 

& ° 7 Margaret left alone to her own thoughts corapares herseif 
to the highly gifted Faust, and feels how ignorant and inferior 
she is. The word arm, poor, does not refer to poverty in earthly 
goods, but to her spiritual or mental poverty, vvhich she cannot 
but contrast with Faust' s great learning. And here again Goethe 
exhibits in Margaret the same feeling of Subordination to the 
stronger sex, that Eve feit when she confessed 

"How beauty is exeelled by manly grace 
And wisdorn, which alone is truly fair." 

Goethe wishes to exhibit each sex in its own proper light, and 
has chosen the same distinguishing charaeteristics as Milton : 

"For contemplation he, and valour form'd, 
For softness she, and sweet' attractive grace." 

(Paradise Lost IV. 297.) 

608 rpjjg f ]] owm g monologue, written in Iambic verses of five 
feet, without rhymes, was composed after Goethe's return from 
Italy. The spirit which Faust here addresses in his retirement 
is the spirit of nature, ard not as Düntzer accepts, the spirit of 
earth, who spoke the overwhelming words : (See Note 30) 

" Thou art equal to the spirit thou canst conceive, and not to nie ! " 
otherwise we are unable to explain the positive contradiction betwecn 


Dein angefleht im Reiter ** jUgetBettbet 

©abft mir bie howiicbc SRatur sunt &onigrei$/ 

Jfraft, jie 311 fübten, 311 flaueren. Wid;t 

Shttt ftanncnbcti ^cfud) erlaubft bu nur, 

Cergönncft nur in iljxc tiefe Söruft, 

SBie in ben SBufen eine« greunbS ju flauen. " ; ' 

1)u füfyrft bic s Jicil)c ber ßebettbtgen 

9Sor mir öorbet, unb tcljrft mich meine ©ruber 

3m ftiücn S3uf^, in £uft unb Sßaffer fetmett, 

Unb toeim ber «Sturm im Söalbe brauft unb f narrt, 

Tic üiicfeuftctytc ftürjenb Sftcutybaräfte 

Unb 9fcad?batftÄmme quetfcfyenb nieberftreift, 

Unb ityrem galt bumpf fyofyl ber ©ügel borniert, 

Dann füljrft bu miefy jur ftd;ern§öl)(e, getgft 

the contempt which the spirit of earth displajed towards Faust, 
in refusing to enter into any agreement with him, and the grati- 
tude which Faust now expresses to this spirit for having already 
gi anted him all he desh ed ; for this as well as for other reasons, 
which we give in Note 610, we deeide that the spirit here invoked 
is the spirit of Nature, that is, the soul of the Universe. 

The thanks can on no aecount be addressed to Mephistopheles, 
as the devii caunot be taken as a messenger of that spirit of 
earth who weaves the living garments of God. 

Love has now for the first time made Faust dimly acquainted 
with the Almighty ; he feels himself indeed nearer to his philo- 
sophical coneeption of a deified nature, but still does not believe in 
a higher power — standing above nature. He does not in fact 
go further than Plato when he uttered his celebrated words : 

S> Zev ßaaiXev k.t.X. 

609 M Thou who hast turned thy countenance towards me ia 
fire " — the fire referring to the fire of his burning love. 

610 These iines prove clearly that Faust is not addressing a 
spirit that merely fashions matter into the forms in which it 
appears to our eyes, but one which forms, as it were, a linked 
spiritual chain by which all nature' 's works are connected, in 
short, the spirit of nature. He feels himself able now to look 
on nature's mysterious working, " as into the bosom of a friend." 


Midi bann mir felbft, unb meiner eignen 35ruft 

©efyeime, tiefe Sunber öffnen ficty. 611 

Unb fteigt cor meinem 23iicf ber reine DJtonb 

33efänftigenb herüber, fcfytueben mir 

S3on gelfentoänben, au$ bem f engten 53ufä;, 

£>er SSorwelt ftlberne ©eftalten auf, 

Unb linbern ber Betrachtung ftrenge 8uft. 612 

611 There isanold saying : " homo solus, aut deus, autdemon," 
and we know of no truer description of the effects of solitude. 
Solitude* raust either bring a reasonable being nearer to his Creator 
or plunge him into melancholy and despair, and this according 
as he harbours, or has bauished from his heart the comfort of 
religion. Solitude has ever been sought bj superior men ; 
among the Heathen philosophers Socrates cherished solitude, as 
Plato teils us in his dialogue " De Amore." Diogenes sought 
it in his cask, Cicero in his Tusculum, and many others have 
knovvn well her svveet delights. Pliny made her a pretext u vacare 
deo et studiis.'' Holy men, as Jerome, Chrysostorn, Cyprian 
and Austin all join in bidding us to seek her tranquil comforts, 
and greater than these, the divine psalmist, the man after God's 
own heart, availed himself of her solace. Now, we find Faust 
harassed and perplexed seeking a refuge amidst its soothing in- 

The analogy between his own feelings, and the gloominess of 
the cavern to which he has retired for shelter amitl the storms 
and thunderings of nature, is wonderfully drawn out. 

Love has made him aequainted with feelings hitherto unknown, 
and the mental struggle that ensues has compelled him to seek 
for solitude. Far from every human being he lives to his thoughts 
and begins to realize the paradox of Scipio, " nunquam minus 
solus, quam quum solus, "he studies nature, and the contempla- 
tion of her book lays befoie him the tranquil waters of the 
brook, the peaceful air, the solemn woods with their soulless in- 
habitants — then his thoughts pass on to his fellow creatures, and 
at last to his own seif. 

612 This fine passage is undoubtedly an allusion to Ossian's 

*See J. G Zimmermann's celebrated philosophical work on Solitude infour volumes, 
füll of a deep moral and rhetorical beauty. 


O baß bcm ?Jicnfd)cn nidjtö SBoflfommncS ünrb, 
ISmpfinb' icfy nun. £)u gabft 51t btcfer Sonne, 
'Die miefy bat ©öttent natj' nnb n&^er 6,a bringt, 
SWir ben ®efät;vtcn, ben \d) fc^on nid;t ntefyr 
(Sntfcefyren tarnt, toenn er gtcicl;, fatt unb fred), 
2Rt$ oor mir fclbft erniedrigt, unb ju 9tfdjt8, 
W\t einem Söortfyaud;, beine @aben toanbclt <iU 
@r fadrt in meiner Söruft ein rotfbeö geuer 
yiad) jenem frönen 33itb gefd?äftig an. 6!5 
So taumr id; oon $3egierbe 51t ©enujs, 
Unb im ®enuß oer[dmtad;t' icfy nad? 33egierbe. 61G 

" silvershadowed forms of ages past approaching the hill of 
ghosts on gloomy clouds." 

Compare this address to the moon with that commented on 
in Note 14. 

6,3 See Note 76. 

6H These lines clearly express the conflict between the antago- 
nistic principles in our nature, and teach that nothing but the 
strömtest faith can rescue us from the evil tendencv within us. 

615 There is ro happiness for Faust. In his retirement he 
might perhaps have discovered some raj of light amid the 
mysterious darkness of his existence, or sorne soothing oecupa- 
tion for his mind in its restless uncertainty — but no — his soul, 
fiiled with raging passion, burns only for sensual gratification; 
his serenest and loftiest feelings are marred by grovelling desire, 
and torturing doubt — and alas ! with him errors of whatever 
class they be, run ever to extremes, as he can summon no power 
of reason based on and fortified by religion, to temper their 
headlong course. 

6i6 tt Thus Faust reels from desire to enjoyment, and in enjoy- 
ing he languishes for desire," in aecordance with the devil's 
words commented on in Notes 312-316. — Faust feels himself 
driven on to a criminal enjoyment, which he knows will never 
afford him any real satisfaction ; but will, with each attempt at 
gratification, only fan his passions to a flame of redoubled violence, 
and thus render his case more hopeless, and himself more un- 
liappy thau ever. 


2Re:p&tjioJ>$eIe8 tritt auf. 

M e p t) t ft o p Ij e l e 8. 
£abt tfyr nun batb ba8 8eben g'nug geführt ? 
2Bte fann'3 eucfy in bte Sänge freiten ? 
(53 ift toofyl gut, baj} man'3 einmat probtrt ; 
1)ann aber lieber 31t toa6 Weitem ! 617 

3d? MociiV, bu fyätteft mefyr 51t tfyun, 
3U8 nricfy am guten Sag jw plagen. 6l8 

Nothing is so grand in Goethe's conception of Faust as this 
continual consciousness of what the evil spirit intends to do. It 
is thus that Goethe represents the voice of conscience, that is 
ever at work within us, now warning, now advising. In the 
Paradise Lost, too, we have the same picture painted perhaps 
irore graphically, but still the sarae ; ihough the conscience which 
guided and protected our first parents in their State of innocence 
is impersonated in the Archangel Raphael, who 

" Through the vast ethereal sky, 
" Sails between worlds and worlds, with steady wing" — 

to aid weak mortals by his warning voice. God has indeed left 
man's destiny to his own free- will, but knowing how mutable and 
infirm this is, He has given him both reason and conscience to 
control it, and woe to those who remse to allow to conscience the 
upper hand in its conflict with the flesh ; the consequences must 
and will be as ruinous to the Individuell as Adam's fall was to 
Eumanity. What in Milton's work is represented as intuition 
from hioher beino-s, is in Faust that inward voice, which is our 
surest guide in every doubtful moment. 

fcl7 In this scene Mephisto calls to his aid his most pungent 
sarcasm, to induce Faust to leave his retirement, as he cannot 
approve of so much meditation, or of such frequent communings 
with his conscience. 

618 The expression „am guten %ac\" — means here " in the broad 
daylight." We cannot agree with those who give to ,&\\t" in 
this passage its more literal meaning "happy, good," as this 
would b3 in total contradiction to the spirit of the complaint ex- 
pressed in these lines of the preceding monologue : 

„(Sr fad?t in meiner Öruft ein roilbeS gener 

9?ad) jenem fcöönen 23rtb ßefc^äfticj an." 


Tum, nun ! ich foff' biü) gerne mint ; 
Tu barfft mir'tf uta)t im Srnftc fagen. 
v Jln ttr ©e feilen, uul/otb, barfdj unb toll, 
3ft \oal;vlicb tocntg *ut bereiteren. 
Ten ganzen Xag l;at mau bte £)anbe coli ! 
8ßa$ it)in gefällt unb toaö mau laffeu foll, 
töamt man beut £)crrn nie au berSÄafe fpürett. 

3 a n ft 
SDaS tjt fo juft bei* rechte £on ! 
(gr roill nocl; ©anf, baß er mid; eunütn'rt. 6,lJ 
3J2 e Jp i) i ft o o l) e t e ö. 
SBte l)ätt'ft bu, armer @rbenfol)n, 
Tein geben otyne mid) geführt ? 
f$om ÄribSfrabS 6 ° ber Smaginatton 
$ab y icl; bid; beer; auf geiteu lang citrtrt ; 
Unb tuär' icfy nityt, fo toär'ft bu fd;ou 
33on bieftm (Srbball abfrajirt. ™ 

619 This part of the poem is again much older in style as well 
as in versification, for the flowing Iainbic line and its blank 
verses are given up, and a rhyming irregulär metre is adopted in 
its stead ; foreign words as „emttyiren, curtren," are again introduced. 

620 The word „^ribsftabö" is derived from labbert, or fribbeln, to 
Scratch, and aecording to Campe means w a quick and hasty ap- 
propriation" (Stnfid&retfjen) ; this explanation, however, appears to 
us erroneous, and the word refers entirel j to the wild unrestrained 
night of the imagination, as in the word $ribbelto£f (a fretful, 
irritable person.) We often find the dialectic $ribelefrab§ (crawl- 
ing, creeping) used instead of the purer form $rtb§frab8. This 
word, it should be observed, as also Sötrroarr (confusion), 3^"S a< ^ 
(zigzng). 2Wif<$mafdj (mixture), @d)nidfd)nad: (nonsense), are 
merely dialectic expressions, and only employed in a comic or 
satirical sense. 

62; This does not refer particularly to the moment when Faust 
had deterrniued on suicule^but is a general remark of the evil 
spirit, purporting that Faust would long ago have found this life 
insupportabie had it not been for the frequent distraction he had 


2ßct8 fyctft bit ba in §>öfoten, gelfenrt^en 

£)td? tote ein ©dmfyu 622 31t fccrft^en ? 

SBa^fcblurfft 623 aus bumtfem 9J?oo8 unb triefendem ©t 

ftetn, 624 
2Bte eine färöte, ^a^rung ein ? 625 
(Sin fcfyöner, fwfter ^ettöertretb ! 
£>tr ftetft ber 1 cetor noefy im Setb. 626 

23erfiefyft bn* toa$ fi«r neue &feen$fraft 
ÜCRir biefer SBaubet in ber Oebe febafft? 

so kindly caused bim ; and certainly, as Faust belongs to that 
class of men into whose minds there never enters an idea that 
thev have been sent into the world for any definite purpose, and 
as he lived on without a kindly thought for man, and with no 
feeling of Submission or love towards his God, despair must in all 
probability have driven him, in his state of mind, to the crime of 

622 „©djufyu," is one of the many populär names given to the 
Owl ; thus in Luther's translation of the Bible we find (Leviticus 
XI. 17.) 9fa$teuk, $äujfetn, ©djulju; we have also the names : 
@$ufu, @d?ubu, 2Stü)u; — certainly from the Latin Bubo, Avis 
nocturna, with the mythical origin of which Ovid in his Met- 
amorphoses Lib. II. makes us acquainted. 

623 In other editions we find fcfylürfft from fd&Iürfett, to suck in, 
absorb, sip ; it is no longer used with the unmodified it. 

624 Alluding to the researches of Goethe in Mineralogy and 
Botany, in the latter of which subjeets he devoted himself more 
particularly to the study of mosses. 

fi25 In comparing Faust with the owl and toad, the devil deals 
the coneeited philosopher a hard blow. 

«26 "\yhen Faust in his wild excitement asked for the immediate 
possession of Margaret, Mephistopheles ridiculed his impetuosity 
by telling him, he was like a Frencbman, (see Note 470) — and 
now, when he tries to conquer er tarne his passion in the solitude 
of the forest, he is jeered at for still having ' some of the doctor ' 
in him ! — the devil's aim is to poison with sarcastic remarks 
every moment of Faust's life. 


3a, tDÜrbeft bu eö afynen tonnen, 

'Du uxiveft £eufet g'nug,mein ®(üd mir tticfyt ju gönnen. 

dH e v l; i ft o p % c I e $. 
Sin ftBerirbifdM Vergnügen, 
3n 9tatyi nnb Xtyait auf ben ©s&irgen liegen, 
Unb (Srb' nnb £)immet roomtiglid? umf äffen, 
3u einer ©otttyeit fid) auffcfyrodlen laffen, m 
Der @rbc 9Jforf mit 2H)nung$brang burd;mül;ten, 
Wk fec^ö 5Tagtt)cr!' im ©ufen fügten, 6 * 8 
3n ftotjer Sftaft, id; weiß utd;t, ma$? geniegen, 
S -Mb liebctoonntgltdj in cdleS überfliegen, 
SBcrfdjtounbcn gang ber (Srbenfofyn, 
Unb bann bie ^ol;e Intuition — 

9ftit einer ©eberbe. 
3:1) barf nietyt fagen, h>ie ? — 31t fd?I:cgeiu G29 

267 Faust was at one time proud and presuniptuous <nongh to 
think hiinself capable of fathoming all tlie mysteries of creation. 

28 Keferring of course to the Scripture aecount of creation, 
the work of six days. It is not without signifieation that Goethe 
so often puts allusions to the Bible in the rnouth of Mephisto- 
pheles ; it was a favourite theory of the Middle Ages that the 
devil was thoroughly conversant with the whole of Scripture, and 
used this knowledge to cause doubts, confusion, and controver- 
sies among mankind. This idea is frequently to be met with in 
the Sermons and other writings of Luther, who, however, goes 
further, and adds by way of consolation, that the devil, once foiled 
in argument, cannot again attack his conqueror on the sarae 

629 The devil takes delight in stifling every purer sentiment by 
reminding us how hampered we are by matter, and how brutish 
and low our earthly nature is ; and thus he here tramples Faust's 
sublimest feelings in the dust. Though the passage issomewhat 
obscure, as the devil speaks only by hints. yet the general mean- 
ing clearly is that man with all his higher feelings, and all his 
profession of a love that soars above earthly thoughts, is sure in 
the end to aim at coarse enjoyment; a dark and sinister view of 
human nature. and fit only to be put in the mouth of a spirit, 
whose constant ooeupation is to eradicate every better sentiment. 



$fui 630 überbid)! 

9J£ e pl) i ft o p fy e ( e 0. 
£)a$ roitt eud; nicfyt besagen ; 
3fyr fyabt baS SRecfyt, gefittet pfui ! ju fagen. 
^an barf baö nicfyt r>or teuften Ofyren nennen, 
9ßa8 feufctye ©er^en mcfyt entbehren tonnen. 631 
Unb furj unb gut, icfy gönn' 3fnn baö Vergnügen, 
(Megentlid; ftcfy etmaS »orjulägcn ; 
£>ocfy lange fyält (§r ba§ nicfyt aus. 633 
£)u bift fd;on lieber abgetrieben/ 3 * 
Unb, ftäfyrt eö länger, aufgerieben 
3n £oübett ober Slngft unb ©rauS. 634 
©enug bamit ! ©ein tftebcfyen fifet babrinne, 
Unb alle 3 tr»irb ifyr eng' unb trüb 7 , 
ÜDu fommft ifyr gar nid?t au 8 bem <5inne, 
(Sie fyat bicfy übermächtig lieb. 66i 

630 Fie, for shame ! shame on thee ! 

631 Accusing Faust of hypocrisy, as he seems by his excla- 
mation to assume more modesty and delicacy than he really 

632 ^y e mus t observe the artful use of the different pronouns 
ißfyt bu, er" aecording as Mephisto uses irony, satire, or assumes 
a high moral tone, in order to persuade Faust to leave his retire- 
ment, and return to Margaret. 

633 //Abgetrieben'' in the sense of despondent ; a metaphorical 
meaning of the word übertrieben— overridden, (of animals.) 

634 The whole of this passage is intended to impress upon 
Faust that he must be tired of nature, that the delight derived 
from his dreams has already reached its culminating point, and 
should he strive any longer to penetrate the mysteries of creation, 
despair and madness must overwhelm him, as he discovers that 
her secrets must remain unriddled. 

6?5 Mephistopheles next artfully attempts to persuade Faust to 
returr» to Margaret, by placing before him too true a pieture of 
her present unhappy life, and describing to him how she lives ou 



Crrft tarn beine SiebeSnnttfy übergcfloffcn, 

$Bie bont gcfdmtoijneu ©d;nce ein üöäcfylcin überfteigt ; 

£)u fyaft fte tfyr tn8 £)er$ gcgoffen, 

9hm tft bei« 35äcfyleüt lieber feicfyt. 6M 

ÜXi$ büuft, anftatt in SBätbern gu thronen, 

Sieg' e$ bcm großen Ferren gut, 

£a$ arme äffen junge 637 33lut 

gär feine Xkhe ju belohnen. 638 

Dte 3eit totrb ifyr erbärmlid?' 639 lang ; 

Sie ftefyt am genfter, fielet bie sßMfen gie^n 

lieber bie alte (Stabtmauer fyin. 

Sßenn id? ein 23ögtein tt>aY ! fo gcfyt ifyr ©efang 

£age lang, fyalbe 9iäd?te lang. 

drearily from day to day, ever drearaing of him who has so 
cruelly forsaken her. 

6M Accusing him of having poured a torrent of burning love into 
her heart, and allowing his own love to grow cold. 

637 Stffe, ©raSaffe is often used by Goethe to designate children, 
and especially young girls ; the word affenjung means bere very 
young, childish. 

638 To reward — used ironically. 

639 Wretchedly ! the epithet is here very appropriate. 

640 „2Bemt id) ein Söglein todr'," is a well known populär song in 
Germany, füll of the sweetest poetical simplicity. It was pub- 
lished (1806-8) in a eollection of German songs „3)e$ Knaben 
SBimberfyom," by C. Brentano and A. Arnim, twocelebrated Ger- 
man poets of the romantic school. Goethe was a great admirer 
of these songs, and was induced by the famous Herder* to give 

* Herder, born at Mohrung (Prussia), A.D. 1744, was one of themostlearnedand en- 
lightened theologians of Germany. His writings are of three distinct classes: Litera- 
ture and r ine Arts, Theology, History and Pbilosophy. As a Theologian he acquired 
great celebrity for his commentaries on the Holy Writ ; as Philosopher he left us a 
treasure of observations on Nature, Man and History; throngh his explanations of the 
classical ages he tried to p^omote the harmonious improvement oi men by the im- 
mortal modeis of ancient Greeee ; he purified taste, and endeavoured to rajse man to 
greater perfection by a fuller appreciation of art, and clid much to cultivate a love for those 
populär legends and ballads with which German literature abounds; he expounded ihe 
hidden beauties of Ossian and Shakespeare in Order to hold them up as niodels for imi- 
tation. All his writings are inspired by the noblest feelhigs, and tlie heart oJ the reader 
is lost in descriptions and sentiments of the most sublime and exquisite grandeur. His 

masterworkis: „Sbeen gur ^fnlojo^ie ber ©e|d>i(fyte ber äRenjcfytyeit," in 


Grtnmat tft fie munter, meift betrübt, 
(Stnmctl recfyt ausgeweint, 
Qann voteber rufyig, tüte'S fd;eint, 
Unb immer verliebt. 641 


©erlange! ©erlange! 642 

SJfeJpfytftopfyeleS (ffttfö.) 
©clt ! 643 bag id) bid? fange ! 

considerable attention to this class of poetry ; he speaks of this 
song in such high praise, stylingit " unique in its beauty and 
tmth," that we venture to place the whole before the reader : 

Sßenn idj ein SSögtein h?är' 
Unb au<S> jtoet giücjfetn fyätt', 
ftlöa/ iä) git 2)ir; 
2Beil e8 eben nidjt fein fann, 
Ü5kib id) allster. 

S3tn t<$ ajeid) trett fcon ®ir, 
33in i$ bod) im ©cbfaf bei £>ir, 
Unb reb' mit 2)ir; 
2Benn t$ erreadjen tfm' 
*öin id) allein. 

(§8 ftercjebt !eine @tunb' in ber Sftadjt, 

3)a mein §er$ niebt ertragt 

Unb an ®td> gebenft, 

"3Daft Sit mir üiettaufenbmal 

1)ein §erj a,efd)enft. 

641 IIow very impressive and poetical is the devil's description 
of the sighing, weeping, longing Margaret. Its beauties are 
intended to aid in exciting Faust's wildest passions. 

642 Serpent ! as the impersonation of subtlety. 

643 ©elt from gelten, to be worth, to be of value, used idioma- 
tically as an interjeetion in the sense of truly ! is it not true ! 

which he proves not by metaphysical subtleties but by a free and lively arguraent, 
based on experience and analogy in nature, tbat all and everything proeeeds hörn one 
source and has one aim — God. Nor Was Herder less great as a poet; bis parables, 
Paramyths (a tale founded on a myth and serving to prove some general tmth, a 
form of poetry first introduced by him into Gernaan literature), bis legends, his tian- 
scriptions of Spanish Romances in bis Cid, and his Epigrama will alwajB form rlie 
brightest gems of German classical literature. He died 1803, and the Grand Duke 
Charles Augustus of Sax- Weimar caused a monument to be placed over his grave bear- 
ing the inscription : %\ä)t, i'iebe, Men ! 


33erru$ter ! l?cbc btd> öon Rinnen, m 
Unb ncrate nicfyt t>a<5 jdjcne £l>eib ! 
Spring' bie Segict 511 il>vcm fügen &ib 
Oticbt »tebcr &or bic l?alb berrüctten ©innen! 6ts 

SEBad foü e$ beim ? Sie meint, bu fetyft entflofy'n, 
Unb fyatb mib l^alb btft bu e$ fcfyon. ö46 

3d> bin it;r nafy', nnb tüäY td; nod? fo fern, 
3d? fann fie nie uergeffen, nie verlieren ; 
3a, td; beneebe fd;on ben £eib beö jperrn, 
3ßenn tfyvc kippen ifyn inbeg berühren. 

Wt e J> Ij i ft 6 p fy e I e & 
©ar ttofyl, mein greunb ! 3d) fyab' euefy oft beneibet 
Um« 3u)iUma,Spaar, ^ unler 9^ofen reibet. 6 * 7 

(SntfUefye, Kuppler! 

644 The same words that our Lord used, St. Matthew IV. 10, 
but how diffeientlj are they used. In our Lord's mouth they 
were an Order to a baffled tempter to depavt, and were spoken 
with a glorious consciousness of Spiritual superiority ; but as 
Faust utters them, they are rather an entreaty than a command, 
a feeble outcry of despair, a fainthearted confession that he finds 
his strength fast failing him, and that he is no longer able to 
wrestle against his wily seducer. 

615 He again implores Mephisto not to fan his passions into a 

On the irregulär plural of ©tnne, see note 19. 

646 Laughing at the idea of his being able to rescue himself 
from the net into which he has been decoyed by sensuality. The 
word entftcfy'n, from entftiebn, does notliterally mean toescape, but 
rather to struggle, and alludes to Faust'» endeavours to free 
himself from his loye. 

647 Evidently an allusion to Solomon's song IV. 5 and VII. 3. 
Goethe transiated the Song of Songs into German during the 
autumn of 1775. See Schöile's, „^Briefe unb 2luffä£e über'@oeU)e.'' 


©cfyön ! 3fyr f dampft, unb tcfy muß I a$en. 
£)er ©Ott, ber %ub' unb 2Käbd?en f$uf, 
(Mannte gleich ben ebelften 23eruf, 
?lu$ felbft ®etegenfyett ju machen. 
9£ur fort ! (5$ tft ein großer 3ammer ! 
3fyr follt in eures SiebcfyenS Kammer, 
Wcfyt ettoa in ben Job. 648 

648 The devil with the grossest blasphemy, makes uso of God'» 
name to induce Faust to return to his love. He argues that 
God rather countenances the acts to which Faust's passion is urging 
him, and hints that the Creator is really the one to blame for such 
sins ; just in the same way as in Eden the serpent strove to ex- 
cite in Eve's heart a distrust of God's sincerity by hinting that 
the prohibition of the forbidden tree was simply the effect of a 
jealous selfishness — "'For God," he said, " doth know that in the 
day ye eat thereof ye shall be as gods." Milton's Satan again 
is made to argue in the same way : 

God therefcre cannot hurt ye, and be just ; 
Not just, not God ; not fear'd then, nor obey'd : 
Your fear itself of death removes the fear, 
Why then was this forbid? 

What can your knowledge hurt him, or this tree 
Impart against his will, if all be his ? 

(Paradise Lost. Book IX.) 

Such argument3 as these afford indeed a specimen of sophistry 
well worthy of the devil. The reasoning he now uses has exercised 
the most pernicious influence on man's morals, a3 it has furnished 
us with the enervating argument of " Fatalism," which assumes 
that all our struggles to improve are vain, as the Creator himself 
has decreed the fall of his creature by his having created him 
with evil inclinations. We find an instance of this accusation of 
God in the words of the already guilty Adam, Gen. III. 12. : 
" The woman whom thou gavest to be with me," &c. ; by 
which Adam meant to imply that the blame was not his own, but 
that God himself was the real cause, and therefore answerable for 
his crime. 


2öa$ tft bie §immel$ireut>' in tt?ren Trinen ? 649 
8a| mtdj an tfyrer 53ruft ermannen, 
güt;r td; ni;i?t immer tyre Wctf)? wo 
©in tefy ber gtüdjtüna, ntctyt, ber Unbctyaufie, 
TVr Unmenfc^ ofyne .gtoetf unb 9?my, 
£>er ime ein SBajjerftuq üon gel« jn gelfcn braufte, 

649 Faust confesses that even the joys of heaven in her arms 
can never make him happy, alluding to the misery into which he 
knows he is plunging his innocent victira. One striking point of 
beauty in Faust's character is that he feels at tiraes all tho tor- 
ments of repeatance, and it is this consciousness in a great measure 
that interests us in him ; it excites our pity instead of our con- 
tempt for his weakness, tending to make us look on his career as 
& dark unavoidable misfortune, rather than the consequence of 
the self-will of a proud irreligious spirit. 

It may not be out of place to contrast here the modern and 
ancient draraa. The ancient Greek tragedians do not dwell upon 
individual characters so much as represent them as types of 
general ideas in conflict with fate or adverse deities. The ancient 
drama generalizes, and in this generalization sacrifices everything 
to a stern unity of time, place and action. In the modern (es- 
pecially Romantic) drama some passion or virtue, or simply some 
trait of character is selected for illustration. lts birth, psycho - 
iogical developmeut and moral progress are placed prominently 
before us, and we are thus induced to watch with interest their 
influence on some individuality throughout the action of the 
drama. It is the tendency of the modern drama to individualize, 
and in doing so to produce like nature an unlimited variety of 
characters. These are involved in complicated intrigues, the 
unravelling of which though apparently beyond our powers tends 
really to one aim ; which is to show us Man not as the ancient poets 
represented, struggling with dark fate, but with the events of the 
external world. Which last is now regarded as under the guidance 
of an all-powerful Providence, distributing with unswerving justice 
happiness or misery, aecording as we observe or disobey His laws. 

650 The preceding verse forms the conditional clause of this 
sentence, the meaning is " even in the case of my becoming 
happy, I must constantly feel her misery (the misery my sin 


begierig rcütfyenb, nad? bem $lbgrimb gu ! 

Unb feitroärt« fie, mit Jtnbltd? bumpfen 651 Sinnen, 

3m £üttd?en auf bcm fleinen 9üpenfelb, 

llnb all ifyr ^äuöltcl;eö beginnen 

Umfangen in ber Keinen 2Mt. 

Unb id>, ber ©ott&erfyaßte, 

$atte rttd;t genug, 652 

£)afc ict) bie gelfett faßte 

Unb fie ^n Krümmern f cfytug ! 

©ie, tfyren grieben mußt' icb mitergraben ! GS3 

£)u, §ölle, tmijjteft biefeS Opfer fyaben ! 

£)ilf, £eufet, mir bie ^gett ber &ngft öetfürjen ! 

SBaö muß gefcfyefyn, mag'« c^teict> gefd;etm! 

9Jtog ifyr ©efctyicf auf micfy gufammenftürgen 

Unb fie mit mir $u (ftrunbe gelm ! *** 

must entail on her)." Goethe omits the conjunctions to give 
more liveliness to his style. 

661 ®umVf/ dull, i n dull spirits. ©untpffyett, dullness», which 
Goethe has defined as " the charming veil through Avhich nature 
and truth appear in a softer light," which explains this apparent 

652 This line begins with an Anapsest, which is contrary to the 
rulea of the pure Iamhic verse. 

653 Goethe compares the homeless, wandering monster to a 
wild torrent dashiug from the mountaiü heights, and overthrowing 
the little peaceful cottage that Stands fearlessly on its side, " that 
great world of poor Margaret's." The grandeur of the passage is 
increased by Paust's accusation of himself that not content with 
hurling the rocks that lie scattered on the mountain side like a 
Titan or Cyclop, he must also undermine and destroy the peace of 
an innocent niaideu. 

654 The transition into wild despair, and the entire Submission to 
the powers of hell are quite natural in an unprincipled, hesitating 
man like Faust, who coukl have savtd himself by a pure love for 
Margaret, and whom we see fluttering round the flame of passion 
tili at last he approaches too near to the wasting fire, and is lost. 


2R e p l) i ft o p \) c t c S. 
©te'G toieber fiebet/ ö>ieber gl übt 

©e^ ein unb troftc fie, tu £tyor ! 665 

©o fo ein iiöpicbcn 65,i leinen SlnSgafrg fietyt, 

Stellt er fiel) ajeicty ba3 (Snbe fcor. 

($6 lebe, »er fiel) tapfer Ijält! 

Tut bift bod) fonft fo jiemlid) eingeteufdt. G5r 

SRtcfytS flbgeiclmtacfter« futb' td; auf ber äßelt, 

3118 einen Teufel, ber bergtoetfelt. 

©retten« © t u b c 
©retten (am ©pinnrabe allein), 

Weine 9toy tft fyn, 
üDtetn £>er$ tft fcfyuxr ; 
3d; pnbe fie nimmer 
Unb nimmermehr. 6S8 

ß65 The devil only laughs at Faust's conflioting passions, biddiug 
him to return to the town to comfort his beloved. 

The use of gel?' ein instead of gel)' hinein is peculiar. 

658 Äöpfdjcn refers to the headstrong obstinaey of a person 
determined to have his own way; a meaning taken from the 
phrase „fein $öpf#en auffegen" (literally : " to put on one's own 
head ") " to insist," " to be obstinate." 

657 (Stngetäufeft, is formed like eingebürgert and means " Sata- 
nified." * 

658 ^y e s h ou l(j h a ve difficulty in finding anything in poetry to 
equal the masterly manner in which Goethe has sueeeeded in 
illustrating the sudden change which has come over Margaret' s 
whole nature. This disclosure of her inmost feelings is so deep 
and beautiful and yet so simple, in a lyrical form, so entirely an 
outburst of heartfelt emotions, that our sympathy is only equalled 
by our admiration for the truthfulness of sentiment, and the 
beauty of expression evinced by the poet. 

The objeet of poetry in general is to paint the manners and 
emotions of man : " animi motus efFert interprete linguä," and 
this is especially true of the drama, into whieh monologues aie 


2öo id? tfyn nid)t fyab', 
3ft mir ba$ ®rab ; 
£)ie ganje SBelt 
3ft mir i>ergäUt. 

5SJiein armer $opf 
3ft mir üerrütft, 
äftein armer ©inn 
3ft mir jerftütft. 

SWdnc 9to? ift #tt, 
äÄeitt £>er$ ift f^toer ; 
3d? finbe fie nimmer 
Unb nimmermehr. 

introduced to explain with psychological minuteness, any moral 
change which, (as in the present case) external circumstances 
may have produced in a character ; these are always, in a greater 
or less degree, essentially lyrical; as they treat of the inward 
feelings and the changes which take place in the mind, heart or 
soul : so far then as the passions are described subjectively, and 
the introduction of all that is objective avoided, so far as the 
thoughts and feelings of a character are disclosed by that in- 
dividuality itself, the poet is justified in giving a lyrical form 
to any sentiments : thus in the present instance this form is per- 
fectly conformable with Margaret' s character, as she is the per- 
sonification of simplicity, unconsciousness, beauty, and kindness, 
growing into feverish excitement, producing an avowal of a passion 
as unaffected as it is unrestrained, as touching as it is natural. 
An unknown fire is burning at her heart ; a feeling she cares 
not to conceal has robbed her of her peace of mind and is dri- 
ving her almost to distraction. 

With regard to the outward form of this composition a few re- 
marks are necessary. The second verse differs from the other nine, 
in as much as it contains a double rhyme. The versification of tbe 
whole is far from perfect, as many irregularities occur in the 
Iambic metre, but these very irregularities only tend to give a 
stronger expression to the speaker's wild emotion, and enable us 
to describe it as " wild beyond rule and art." 


y Jlati) ifym nur fd;au' icty 
3um genfter fyinauS, 
yiad) ifym nur gel)' icty 
Slu* bem £auö. 

©ciu bofyer ©ang, 
©ein' ebte ©eftalt, ™ 
©eines 9ttunbe$ Säcfyeln, 
©einer klugen ©eroalt, 

Unb feiner 9?ebe 
©ein £)änbebrucf, 
Unb aefy ! fein Äufe ! 

gjieine 9toy ift l?tn, 
«DJfein §er$ ift fcfytoer ; 
3d? finbe fie nimmer 
Unb nimmermehr. 

Sftein 23ufen brängt 
©icfy nad? ifym fym. 
mcfy, Wirft' id> f äffen 
Unb galten itm ! 


Unb lüffen il?n, 
©o tote icfy tootttf, 

659 This hiatus is too abrupt. It would be an improvement to 
Substitute the definite article for @ein', which would not iuterfere 
with the meaning of the passage. 

680 In the last line but one of this verse the older editions have 
al$ f by which the meaning is altered, in our opinion, for the better. 

" My bosom longs as if it were to clasp him and hold him 
there " is, we think, both more powerful and more in aecordance 
with Margaret's excited State of mind, than the insertion of the 
interjeetion between the two sentences, the latter of which becomes 
then only a passionate and incoherent exclamation. 


$n feinen ftüffen 

23erget;en fotlt' ! b61 

SttarttyettS ©arten. 
Margarete. $ a u ft . 

50t a r g a r e t e. 
SBerfyrid; mir, £>einrid; — ! 662 

g a u ft. 

2£a$ t$ lann ! t6i 
Nävi fag% tote fyaft bu'S mit ber Religion ? öi4 
£)u bift ein fyer§lid? guter 9)iann, 
Mein td; glaub', bn fyältft nictyt mel fcason. 6?5 

6bl The last lines in which Margaret expresses the frantic de- 
sire, of " dying on his kisses" may be looked on as a gloomy 
forebodiüg of the fate in which the indulgence of this unhappy, 
unbridled passion was to involve her. 

662 „fctyrid) mir, §eumcfy" means " promise me, Henry, now 
to teil the truth and nothing eise." Düntzer explains this abrupt 
beginning by supposing that Margaret has already questioned 
Faust on his religion, and now wishes him to promise to adhere 
firmly to the Roman Catholic religion ; but there is nothing 
whatever to justify such an assumpticn, as the whole conversation 
on religion takes place subsequent to this introductory address of 

663 ""Whatever I can." This answer confirms the view we 
have taken, as it evidently implies a promise given before, he 
knows definitely what he is wishcd to do : and besides, the phrase, 
„toerf^rid^ mir/' is a common one in Germany amongst intimate 
friends, when broaching any serious subject, in order to obtain 
beforehand a promise exacting either to speak the truth, or to 
grant a request, as the case may be. 

664 „2öte fyaft bu'S ? " An idiomatic expression, nieaning : " W hat 
are your opinions on religion ? " 

665 Idiomatic for " you do not think much of it, — you hold it 
in light esteein." 


8ajj ba$, mein tfinb ! 1)u fntytft, id; bin bir gut ; 
jsnx meine Vicbcn Keß' kl; &ib unb s £lut, ■" 
SBiü uteinanb fein ©efüfyl uub feine Ätrcfye rauben. 

1)a$ ift md;t recfyt ; man muß brau glauben ! 667 

m Observe the uso of the conditional raood here. '•' I tuould 
sacrifice my life for any one whom I love/' or "for all those who 
are dear to nie." 

667 Before proeeeding further, it will be well to enter into a 
closer examination ©f this scene, which in its ethical and religious 
application ia the most important in the poem, the conversation 
of the two lovers being on a subjeet of the deepest importance 
both to themselves and to the whole human race — Religion ! 

Let none of our readers look on the introduetion of so sacred 
a theme in dramatic poetry as a profanation, or wonder that in 
Gerraany, as in ancient Greece, the stage should be selected as a 
means of promoting the morality and edueation of the masseä. 
In a country where despotism closes tbe doors of the Lecture 
ßoom, prohibits public meetings, and forbids assembled Citizens 
the right of free discussion, the theatre, as a last resource, has 
been transformed into a platform, from which such poets as 
Lessing, Schiller, Goethe, and others who have nobly followed 
their example, have endeavoured to teach lessons of piety and 
morality, and to instil into the minds of the people, some appre- 
ciation of and admiration for those highest blessings of humanity, 
religion, liberty and progress. But there is a peculiarity in the 
German character, (a nobler kind of hero-worship) which has 
also contributed to this result. In the earliest times, in days 
when towns and villages and the civilisation that spring from them, 
were alike unknown, the noblest German youths loved, aecording 
to Tacitus, (Germ. 13, 14,) to enrol themselves amongthe faithful 
followers and companions of some renowned chieftain, to whom 
they devoted their arms and Services. As circumstances changed 
this custom took a new directum, but did not disappear, for in 
later times instead of gathering round one who lead them to 
danger and to death, their descendants thought it more agree- 
able to listen admiringly in dreamy indoience to the songs and 
ballads of their " Minnesänger's," who in their tum have been 



supplanted by the more genial productions of the drama. To 
these two causes, acting and re-acting upon each other, is owing 
the fact that, in Germany the drama has preserved its vigour 
down to the present day, whereas in England, France and Spain, 
it came to a sudden conclusion in the compositions of Shaks- 
peare, Moliere, and Calderon respectively. Germany can still 
boast of really great and original authors, such as Gutzkow, 
Laube, Mosen, Grillparzer, Zedlitz, Hebel, Halm (Münch von 
Billingshausen), inen of the greatest talent and occupying a 
high position both in society and science, who have not disdained 
to write for the stage, as being the only way of gathering round 
them a crowd of admiring disciples, who could rejoice in the 
splendid effusions of their poetical inspiration, as their ancestors 
delighted in the bloody exploits of an adventurous leader. That 
under such circumstances all questions of deep interest, that affec- 
ted the whole people, should have been introduced on the stage 
is easy to understand : and religion, which forins the principal 
part of the life of every nation, as of every man, thus became 
a favourite topic with the poets, who used it to advance the cause 
of civilisation. To Englishmen this may seem a profanation, and 
we ourselves are far from approving of this stränge mode of teach- 
ing the lower classes, and would gladly see Germany in the en- 
joyment of that healthy freedom in which a nation is not com- 
pelled to turn the stage into a pulpit or a rostrum. In the 
development of any literature there is no less matter for philo- 
sophical enquiry, than in the closely-connected links of historical 
events. Every phenomenon has its reason ; no effect is without 
its promoting cause. The most cherished discussions in Germany 
were on religious subjects : where politics were forbidden, and 
science and philosophy interested only the learned, what subject 
was left of such importance as religion ? Protestant Germany, 
especially, ever in close conflict with Komanism, was glad to op- 
pose to its errors and superstition all the powers at her disposal, 
and while meeting it boMly in the open field of controversy, did 
not disdain to make use of the lighter wen pons afforded by lyrical 
songs, sarcastic ödes, epic poems, comedy, and dramatic compo- 
sitions both in prose and verse. In those countries a drama or 
tragedy would hardly bc considered really national, if it did not 


Tl a r g a r c t e. 
$ld;, toenn id; etwa« auf bicl; tonnte ! 

contain some allusion to the superstition and credulity, the heresies 
and deceit of Home. 

In introducing this particular scene Goethe, besides satisfying 
this Protestant feeling, has warned us against two opposite forms 
of religion, but equally objectionable, held by the two characters 
before us ; Pantheism, that old, impious Pagan notion that the 
Universe itself is God, and Roman Catholicism, which has from 
the earliest times imitated the modeis and forms of that Heathenism 
which it was so anxious to destroy. In Margaret we see a simple, 
innocent girl, clinging to the outward forms of Romanism, which 
by appealing only to the senses, excite the imagination, and nourish 
superstition. She is placed in Opposition to the unbelieving 
Faust, who in concealing his doubts under hollow phrases and 
metaphysical subtleties wishes to prove that everything that exists 
is God, and thus to create for himself a material God, though his 
very power of thinking might have convinced him, that there is a 
something spiritual even in us poor frail creatures, though placed 
on one of the smallest planets in the Universe. In Margaret we 
see represented blind faith without reason ; in Faust the light of 
reason undirected by faith. What then is the moral that we are 
to draw from Goethe's Faust ; that a blind faith in the Christian - 
ized Mythology is as unable to preserve from destruction, nay, is 
as likely, from its constant appeals to the senses and the imagina- 
tion, to lead to guilt and perdition as the undefined and boundless 
expanse of Pantheism, that " sea without a shore, and with no 
polar star to guide those who embark on it." But it also teaches 
that faith, however blind, is better than infidelity : for Margaret 
is at last saved through repentance and prayer, by the humble and 
resigned Submission to the Almighty will represented to her in 
the poetical emblem of " the mother with the chüd" We have 
then no need to vindicate Goethe's j-oem from the imputation 
frequently cast upon it, that he wished to prove that religion 
as well as knowledge, faith no less than reason, produces nothing 
but unhappiness and crime to mankind. This supposition is so 
contrary to the poets known character, that it can be entertaincd 
by those only who have never taken the trouble to make them- 
selves acquainted with the spirit in which he wrote. This may 
easily be ascertained by observing the distribution of rewards 
and puni&hments in the drama, always a sure test of the author's 



Du etjrft aucfy nkbt bte belügen Saframente. 

3cfy efyre fie. 

Dod) olnte Verlangen. 
3ur SÄeffe, jur 93etctyte btft bu lange mcfyt gegangen, 
©taubft bu an ®ott ? 


Süffeln Siebten, toer barf fagen : 
3$ glaub' an ©Ott ! 
^agft Sßrtcfter ober 2Betfe fragen, 
Unb tfyre Antwort fcfyeint nur «Spott 
Ueber ben grager ju fein. 669 


Soglaubftbu ntrf;t ? " 70 

opinions and intention. What then is Goethe's intention ? 
Margaret, conflding too much in a relio;ion, of which she has 
learnt only the outward forms, without having reeeived an ample 
spiritual Instruction, falls an easy prey to the tempter on his first 
approach. In the end, however, she is saved by repentance. 
But it is only at the last moment, and after she has brought dis- 
grace and death, not only on herseif, but on her family. It is 
clear therefore from her punishment in this world that Goethe 
did not wish to palliate Margaret's sin. Faust again at the close 
of the first part of the drama, is given up to the evil spirit for 
further tonnent. Being at peace neither with himself nor with 
God, he knows no rest, no joy, no happiness: he can find no 
comfort either in his self-conceit or in the contemplation of the 
outvvard world, but abandons himself as a tool into the hands of 
that devil, whom he himself calls "a produce of fikh and fire. 

668 Alluding to the sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church. 

669 "Wh dares to profess and therefore believe in God, when no 
one is capable of comprehending him ? is the evasive and so- 
phistical meaning of these lines. Faust insinuates that a pro- 
fession of faith in an Älmighty Being, whom we are unable to 
comprehend, would sound like scorn and mockery. 

670 Margaret not understanding this subtle answer. shows her 
conclusions from it in the words " Then you do not believe? " 


SDhfö&t' mtd? nictyt, bu tjolbcö Slngefityt! 
28er barf ifyn nennen, 
Unb »er bcfcnnen : 
Sd; glaub' tyn ! 
©er cntpfinben 
Unb ftcfy untertoinben, 
3u fagen: 3d? glaub' tfnt nicfyt? 
£)er SHIumfaffcr, 
©er SWerfyalter, 
gafct unb erhält er nid)t 
£>id?, mt$, fi# fefbft? 
2Mbt fid; bcr $immel nicfyt babroben ? 
Siegt bte (5rbe nid^t fyierunten feft? 
Unb fteigen, freunblid) blicfenb, 
(Smige Sterne ttidjt herauf ? 
©cfyau' tcty nidrt lug' in $luge bir, 
Unb brängt ntcfyt alleö 
Sftacty £aupt unb £>ersen btr, 
Unb roebt in emtgem ©efyeimniß, 
Unftd;tbar, ficfytbar, neben bir ? 
(SrfütP babon bein £er^, fo grog e§ ift, 
Unb ftenn bu gan^ in bem ©efüfyle felig Btft, 
^enn' eS bann, tote bu »tttft, 
Kernt'S ©tuet! £erj! Siebe! ©ott! 
3d? Ijabe feinen tarnen 
£>afür! ©cfityt ift alles ; 
Spante ift ©cfyall unb Sftaud;, 
Umnebelnb SpimmetSglutfy. 671 

671 This dithyrambic praise of Nature, though very beautiful 
as a lyrical composition, was never intended as a sublime hymn 
expressive of the purest worship of " Nature," Here again we 
must unequivocally protest against the charge that Goethe wished 
to propagate pantheistic doctrines by these lines. The man who 
wrote : 

„(Sr, ber tmyicp ©cremte 
SBctfe für Obermann ba§ fRet^te, 



£)a8 tft altes rec^t fd?ön unb gut ; 
Ungefähr fagt ba$ ber Pfarrer aud;, 
9ta mit ein bij^en anbern Porten. 

@3 fagen'S aller Orten 
^tüe 5>erjen unter bem fyimmlifcfyen Zage, 
3ebe$ in feiner ©pracfye ; 
2öarum nicfyt icfy in ber meinen ? 

2öenn man'ö fo fyört, möc^t'ö teibttd; fd;einen, 
<5te§t aber bod) immer f cfyief barnm ; 
£)enn bu X?aft lein ßfyriftentfyum. 672 

Sieb'Sftinb! 673 

Margaret e. 
(§8 tfyut mir lang fd)on toefy, 
£>afi td? bid? in ber ©efeflftyaft fefy\ 674 

©et ton feinen fyunbert tarnen 

£>tefer fyocfygelobet! 2lmen!" 

(@ött)e'3 2öefiöftltd;er 2)iöan.) 
must have been anything but a Pantheist. Goethe in acknovv- 
ledging a highest incoinprehensible power wishes it not to be 
called by one simple name. In bis eigbtieth year he used the 
following words to Eckermann : „Siebes $tnb, trag triffen roh* beim 
loon ber $bee be§ ©ßttltdfoen nnb trag trotten benn nnfere engen 23ea,nffe 
t)om fyödrfien Söefen fagen ! SBottte idj eS gleich einem dürfen mit 
fynnbert tarnen nennen, fo trürbe id) bod) nod) gu fürs fommen nnb im 
SSergletdje fo grcnjenlofer (Stgenfdjaften nod? nid;tö gefaqt fyakn." 

672 However beautiful all this may be, there is still no trace of 
Christianity in it. We may say of this answer with Lessing in 
his „ÜRattyau ber SBeife," page 35, 

Daß bofy 
3>ie (Sinfalt immer SHed)t Behält. 

673 The elision of the c in r,2iebe§" is too great a poetical licence. 

C74 Amid all the happiness enjoyed by the two lovers, Mar- 
garets mind is troublcd with a vague feeling of terror and a 


3 a u ft 

9Ji a r ß a r e t e. 
£)er ÜXftcnfd;, ben bu ba bei bir fyaft, 
3ft mir in tiefer, inn'rcr «Seele berufet ; 
<i3 l)at mir in meinein Sefcett 
(So nichts einen Stid; inö Jpcrj gegeben, 
3U3 bc$ üRenftyen uoibrig ©eftcfyt 6W 

Siebe ^uppe, 676 fürest tfyt nid;t! 

v )ji argarete. 
Seine ©egentoart belegt mir ba3 33lut 
3d; bin fonft allen 3J?enfd;en gut ; 
Slber, \w 677 td> mtd; feinte, biet; 51t flauen, 
$<&' id) »er bem Stoffen ein fyeimtid; ©tauen, 
Unb Ijalt' Um für einen Sd;elm bagu ! 
®ott bereit;' mir' 3, u>enn id; ilmt Unred;t tb)u' ! 

(§6 muß aucl; folri;e tf äuge geben. 6 "' 8 

Margaret e. 
SBolIte nid;t mit feines ©leid/eu leben ! 

chillingawe atthe presence of the evil one; this dread is the first 
whisper of a g'Uilty conscience. 

075 Margaret is disgusted with the diabolical nature of Mephis- 
topheles, the very personification of sensuality. His very face 
is repulsive to her. 

076 " Dear puppet, dear doli." Idiomatic expression for " Dear 
child ! " 

677 " The more I long to see thee, the more I am filled with 
an. instinetive horror of this man." 

678 Ääüje from Äaitj, which is literally a " screeeh-owl," but is 
used figuratively of an odd, or queer fellow. There is a similar 
use of ©and) and $oge( (bird), from which we derive the ex- 
pressions ein reifer, ein närrifdjer, ein feltfamer, ein brofliger, ein 
luftiger. 8ai\i, Söget ober @aud) f also ein ©elbfauj. 



®ommt er einmal gut ZW l) er ein, 

©tefyt er immer f o fpöttifcfy brein, 

Unb fyalb ergrimmt ; 

9Jian fieljt, ba§ er an tucfyts feinen Sfotljett nimmt ; 

(§3 ftefyt il)m an ber vStirrT gefcfyrieben, 

£)aß er nid?t mag eine ©eete lieben. 

3Jär tmrb'8 fo toofyl in beinern 2lrm, 

©o frei, fo Eingegeben rcarm, 

Unb feine ©egentoart fdmürt mir ba$ Onn're ju. 67 * 

£>u almungSoofler 681 (Sngel bu ! 

Wl a r g a r e t e 
£)a8 übermannt mtty fo febr, 
£)aj3, too er mir mag $u im« treten, 
gjtctn' id? f ogar, id? liebte btcfy nicfyt merjr. 
Sind? toemt er ba ift, f önnf id? nimmer beten. m 
Unb ba$ frißt t82 mir ins ^er^ t)irtetn ; 
£ir, £)einricfy, mug e8 and? fo feim. 

679 Idiomatic for " His presence troubles my inmost heart." 
Filmore translates it "He shuts and withers up my very heart." 

680 j , rom ^fynuttcj, » forboding, presentiment," " Thou presag- 
ino- an gel," " thou angel füll of presentiment ! " How strongly 
does Faust express in this one short exclamation the füll con- 
sciousness of his intended guilt ! SlfynbimgSfcotter, which oecurs 
in the first two editions is a deeided misprint, as ahnten is " to 
punish," "toavenge oneself on," whilst afynen means, " to have 
a foreboding of," " to forsee." Although Adelung draws no 
distinetion between the two words, modern writers never eonfound 

681 Margaret declares that she is so filled with beeret horror, and 
that her mind is so overshadowed by a gloomy feeling of appre- 
hension, when Mcphistophelcs is near, that she is unable even to 
pray. Artfully indeed does the poet mingle in Margaret' s bosom 
the raptures of passiouate affection with an awful dread of hell, thus 
preparing us for the final catastrophe of the first part of Faust. 

682 From freffen, to eat, to devour, only of animals. though it 
niay be used metaphoricnlly in poetry. 


jDu fyaft nun bte ^Intt^at^tc ! 

3cfy mufc nun fort. 

9lcfy, !ann id; nie 
©n ©tünbehen rufyig bir am Q5nfen Rängen, 
Unb 33ruft au 33ruft unb @cel' in (Seele brängen ! M * 

$cfy, toenn t<fy nur alleine f erlief ! 
3d; lieg' bir gern l?ettt 9Rad;t ben Siegel offen ; 
£)od; meine ÜÄutter fcfyläft nicfyt tief, 
Unb nritrben toir bon ityr betroffen, 
3d; loar' gleid? auf ber ©teile tobt! m 

£>u enget, baß l)at leine ftotlj. 
£>ier ift ein Släjcfycfyen ! Drei tropfen nur' 
3n ifyren £ranf umfüllen 
3Xit tiefem ©etytaf gefällig bie :ftatur. 6 * 5 

2Ba$ tfyu' tefy ntd^t um beinettoitlen ? 
@8 ü)irb ifyr hoffentlich nicfyt fcfyaben ! m 

SBürb' iety fonft, 8iebd;en, bir eö ratfyen ? 

©eV tefy biefy, beftcr s 3Jtann, nur an, 
äßeijj ntcfyt, n>a$ mid? nad? beinern Tillen treibt ; 

683 Faust ensnares her with flattering words. 
efi4 Margaret yields to him with a slight excuse. 

685 This objeetion Faust successfully meets, by giving her a 
srnall phial containing a narcotic, three drops of which, admmis- 
tered to her mother, would plunge her into a deep ßleep. 

686 Margaret, overcome by anxiety fear and passion, fails to hear 
Faust' s iDJunction to give only three drops. 


3ci; IpU fd;on fo otel für btcfy getljan, 

£)aj3 mir ju tfmn faft mcfyts mefyr übrig bleibt, 687 

gjce^tjtoMeteS tritt auf. 

£)er ©raSaff ! 688 ifterti>eg? 

§aft lieber fptonirt ? 
SUi e ^ t> t f t o p i? e t e ö 
3d? fyab'8 aitöfit^tttd) toofyl vernommen, 
£>err £)octor tourben ba fatecfyefirt ; 
£off , e$ foll 3fmen toofyl klommen. 



687 The first edition had über instead of übrig. 

Ueberbteiben, of which we still retain the derivative Ueberbletbfri 
is often met with instead of übrigbleiben. Goethe even uses „bte 
übergebliebenen ^ßapterc." 

With these concluding words, Margaret, completely carried 
away by an irresistible inipulse whieh she is unable to fathom, has 
sealed her own doom. Though man is no longer permitted to 
live in that Eden of happiness, which our first parents lost by 
their disobedience, there is still within his reach an abstract 
Paradise, the happiness of Innocence. This he may enjoy so long 
as he keeps guard against the serpent of pride and sensuality, and 
avoids his snares. But the man into whose heart passion has 
penetrated through the dark gate of guilt looses this second 
Paradise, and he is driven out into the wilderness of sin, misery 
and deatli. This reminds us of the following lines : 

®rutn fyüte £>idj unb fliege 

S5or ber @ünbe @d)metd)elttort; 

©leid) fcotn 23erge btc 2att)ine, 

SÄetßt e8 3)tdj unljaftfattt fort — 

Öfyne ©nabe— ofyne 9hu)— 

©türjt e8 ®t<$ bem Slbgrmtb ju! 
689 Mephistopheles here enters and disturbs Faust in the de- 
light, whieh he feels at his success. „©raSaffe," a familiär 
mode of addressing boys and girls. — (See note 637.) 

689 Now for the first time, in addressing Faust, Mephistopheles 
make use of the more formal @te, and also gives him his title of 
3)octor. This ironical allusion to his examination by Margaret 
on the subject of religion, is intended to erase any better im- 


®ie 9Jtöbet$ ftnb bod; feljr intcrcffirt, 

Ob einer fromm unb fd;üd;t netd; altem Söraucfy. 
®fe beuten, bneft er ba, folgt er unö eben aud;. 

SDü, Ungeheuer, ftefyft nid;t ein, 
Söie tiefe treue liebe (Seele, 
SBon ifyrcnt ©tauben Doli, 
©er gang ade in 

3fyr feligmadjcnb tft, ftcfy fettig quäte, 
©aß fte ben liebften 3Jlann oerloren baltcn foü. 690 

©u übcrfinnltd;er, finnltd&er freier, 
Grm 2Jtägbetetn na§füt;ret btd?. (i9i 

©u ©pottgefcurt oon ©red nnb gener! m 


Unb bte <ßl$[tognomte oerftefyt fie metfierltd;. 

pressions, which the simple girl's true and disinterested love may 
have left on hi3 mind. 

690 Faust, thus speaking of Margaret, proves that he is fully 
capable of appreciating the hidden feelings of a believing soul 
that trembles at the thought of losing for ever in a future world 
hiin who is her idol in the present. 

631 Mephistopheles answers these tender words with a sarcastic 
smile at the " transcendental " sensuality of the philosopher, which 
permits him to be lead by the nose by a weak and simple girl. 
SJJägbeliin, a diminutive of 2ftagb, " little maid " is still in use in 
many parts of Germany. 

•ftaöfüljret, formed from the expression, SBet ber 9^a[e herumführen. 
Compare Note 5. 

692 @£ottgeburt from @£ott, moekery and ©efmrt, anything born, 
offspring, creature ; @£ottcjebitrt, a being composed of moekery, 
a quintessence of irony, made up of filth and fire : the word ÜDrecf, 
has reference to his coarse sensuality, the geuer, to his passion for 
destruetion. From the same word trotten are derived @:pottgebUbe, 
moekery incarnate ,,©})ottfrage," "an ironical question, " and 
„©pottßetft," " a mocking spirit/' &c. 


3n metner ©egentoart nnrb'S ifyr, ffe »ctg tttcfyt, toie ? 
9D?ein 3ftä3fcfyett 693 ba toetff agt verborgnen @tnn ; 
@te füfytt, ba§ tcfy ganj fieser ein ©enie, 
25tetleid>t gar toofyl ber Teufel bin. 694 
Stornierte 5Ra*t — ? 

SBa« ge^t btcy« an? 
$aV icfyt> o<fy weine grenbe bran ! 


21 m 33 r u tt n e tt. 696 
©retten unb 2 1 e 8 # e n mit trügen. 697 

693 2fta8f(§en, diminutive from SDiaSfe " My face, m y physiognomy 
seems not to please her." 

694 In allusion to the common superstitious belief, that genius 
was the gift of the evil spirit. This idea originated in the fact 
that a genius (especially in former days) passed his life generally 
in solitude, and gave up his whole mind to the pursuit of loftier 
aspirations, exeluding himself from the ordinary pleasures and 
amusements of the world without. In the same sense the Ger- 
mans use the idiom, er f)at beti teufet im Seifte, " he hasthe devil 
in his body," to express the idea " he is very clever." 

695 With this infernal remark the crime is consummated. 

696 The scene at the fountain discloses what has taken place 
ßince the above conversation. Faust's guilty objeet is now ac- 
complished. After sacrificing Margaret to his unbridled passion, 
he has deserted her at the instigation of the devil, who think 
thus to increase his sin beyond the hope of pardon. Though no 
mention is made here of the death of Margaret's mother, we 
must assume it as having taken place, as it is alluded to in the 
scene in the Cathedral, which, we may observe, was written in 
Italy under the influence of the gloomy ceremonies of the Romish 

697 This scene in which Margaret and Bessy are introduced 
is written in a populär style, and is beautiful alike for its power, 
its simplicity and truth. Every word spoken by Bessy, must 
pierce as a dagger Margaret's heart. 


J>aft nichts oon SBärMtyen* 8 gehört? 

©retd; en. 
sitln ©ort; 3i; lomm' gar wenig unter &ute. 

I* i e 6 d? e n. 
(^cnn§, <Stybi(lc fagt' mir'8 feixte ; 
$)te t)at fid) cnbttd? aud? betl)ört. tia9 
S>aS tft ba0 23orneJ)mtrmn ! 70 ° 

® r e t d) e n. 

8 t e <ty e tt. 

(50 ftinlt 
<Sie füttert jioct, toenn fte nun ißt unb trtnft. 


St e cfy e n. 
@o tft'0 Hjr enblicr/ recfyt ergangen. 701 
5öte lange fyat fie an bem $eri gegangen ! 
£)a0 mar ein (Späteren, 
5luf £)orf unb £an^la£ gurren ! 
9Jiu6t* überall bie erfte fex?n, 
Sttrtcftrt' ifyr immer mit ^aftetd;en unb 2öem ; m 

698 33&tbet$cn, diminutive of Barbara. 

659 Literally " has made a fool of herself." The verb betören, 
from ber Xfyor, the fool. 

700 tt This is the consequence of pride.* ? $ornd?m, " Noble" tfyun, 
" to do," — to act like a nobleman, to be proud. 

701 (i g erve ner right." Bessy, so far from feeling pity for her, 
cannot conceal her malignant joy at the fall of one who had as- 
pired to a position above her class. This feeling is very common 
among the vulgär, who are always the first to throw the stone 
at their neighbours. 

702 Goethe here uses the Germanized form of the French word 
" courtiser." The expression is an i4iomatic one and means 
" Courted her with pasties and wine," *ßailetd?en, a diminutive 
from haftete, a pie, tartlet or pasty. 


SBttb't fid) tt>a8 auf t^re @d^>önl?ett ein, 
2öar bocfy fo efyrloS, fid; nicfyt ju fd;ämeu, 
©efd?enfe fcon tljm anmnefymem 
SSar ein ©efof unb ein ©eftylecf ! m 
SDa tft benn aud; ba§ 23lihnd;eH toeg ! 

© r e t d) e tu 

£>a$ arme 33ing ! 

8 i e 6 d) e n. 
5Bebanerft fte nocfy gar! 7C 
Sßenn unfer eins am spinnen toar, 
Un3 9ßad)t8 bie üWutter triebt hinunter ließ, 
Staub fte bei ifyrem SBufylett füg ; 
5Utf ber £t;ürban£ unb im bunfetn @ang 
Sßarb tfynen feine Stunbe ju lang. 
£>a mag fie benn fid; bilden m nun, 
3m Onberfyembd;en I'ird?Bu§' tfyun ! m 


@e[d;lec£ irom fdjlecfen, to lick ; hence, though onlj in the 
lovvest language, " to kiss " ; fofen, to foudle ; ein (Mop unb ein 
($efd)fe(f, " a fondling and kissing" 

704 Margaret hearing in Barbara's misfortune a description of 
her own fall, can only pity her companion in guilt. This feeling 
Bessy cannot at all widerstand. 

705 Süden, literally " to stoop," " to bow," " to duck down." 
Here, figuratively " to be submissive, to repenfc." 

706 ©ünberfyembcfyen, " the sinner's dress," a long white robe, 
in which any female who had thus sinned, was compelled in 
Germany to walk to church on a Sunday, and to kneel before 
the altar, while the priest delivered a sermon in allusion to the 
sin she had committed, and afterwards offered up aloud in the 
name of the offender a public supplication for pardon. In sorne 
parts of the country various insults were also heaped upon such 
penitents. By these customs, especially in tbe Protestant states, 
the Germans kept up that character for chastity nnd sobriety, 
for which they have been historically * famous ; the loss of 

* "In the days of Chivalry, or more properly of Eemauce all the men were bravo and 
all tlic women were chaste, and notwithstauding the htttcr of these virtucs is acquired 


Gr nimmt fic getoifj in feiner grau. 

8 i e ö d; c n. 
Gr n?är' ein 9?arr ! (Sin ftutter 3nng' 
£at cmbcrto&rtS nod; Suft c-emtng. 
(3t tft and; fort. 

© r c t d; e n. 
£>a8 tft nid't fd'ün ! 

2 i e § d) e n. 
JWcgt fie tlnt, fofl'8 tt;r übet gefyn, 
£)a$ Äränjel reiben bie S3nben tfyr, 
Unb ^äderling ftreuen um* bor bie £fyür' ! m 


honour being by tbem still considered a greater misfortune even 
than the loss of life. 

Goethe has especially seleeted this sin, as being the most dc- 
testable of all to the German mind, thus showing thafc irreligion 
in a man and vanity in a wonian may lead them to the perpetra- 
tion of this offence. 

7or it j^ u adulteress was whipped through the village : neither 
u wealth nor beauty could inspire corupassion, or procure her a 
" second husband." (Tac : Germ:) And in later times even if 
a fallen girl found a man willing to marry her, she was obliged 
to go to church in a wreath of straw, instead of the myrtle one 
worn by maidens, and the girl3 of the neighbourhood on the 
wedding eve shewed their knowledge and hatred of her offence, 
by strewing cut straw before the door of the bride's house, instead 
of the customary offering of palm-twigs, The same feeling was 
exhibited by the yells and howling with which the unfortunate 
couple was reeeived when they braved public opinion by showing 
themselves out of doors. Analoo;ous to this was the old Eng-lish 
custom of Skimmerton-riding, part of which ceremony consisted 
in strewing cut or chopped straw at the door of a bride whose 
virtue was suspected. 

and preserved with mach more diflicnlty than the former, it ia aseribed almost withont 
exception to the wives of the ancient Germans." " Adulteries were piuiished as rare 
aiid unexpiable crimes, nor was seduetion justified by example and fashion." 

Gibbon's Üecliue and Fall of the Roman Empire Vol I. Chapter IX page 294. 

" Conscious pride taaght the Gcrman females to suppress every tender emotion that 
stood in competition with honour, aad the first hononr of the sex has ever been that of 
ohaatity."— Ibid Vol. I. page 296. 


© r e t-cfy e n (nad) £anfe gefyeub). 
2Bte fonnt' tdj fonft fo tapfer fd;mäfy(en, 
SBenn tyät ein armes SDtfägbtein festen ! 
2öie fonnt' tdt) über anbrer ©ünben 
yiidjt 2öorte g'nug ber 3 u "Ö e finben ! 
Sßte festen mir'8 fc^toarg, nnb fc^tüärjt^ noefy gar, 
üJJitr'S immer boefy nicfyt fd;n)arj g'nug toar, 
Unt> fegnet' miefy nnb tfyat f o groß, — 708 
Unb bin nun f etbft ber ©ünbe Blog ! 
£)cd? — alles, toaS ba^u mid? trieb, 
©ott ! toar fo gut ! aefy, toar f o lieb ! 709 


3n ber 2ftauerl)öljle ein Slnbadjtbüb ber Mater dolorosa, 23Iumen!rflge 

basor. 7I ° 

Bessy's want of eharity finds an apt Illustration in the following 
beautiful lines from Byron's " The Giaour." 

" No : gayer insects fluttering by 
"Ne'er droop the wing o'er those that die/ • 
" And lovelier things have merey shown 
"To every failing but their own, 
"And every woe a tear can claim, 
"Except an erring sister's shame ! " 

708 How truly despicable does pride appear, when fallen. 
Margaret, who had formerly been the severest of all in her 
railing at others shame, who had ever striven to blacken even 
this black offence, and yet had never madeit appear black enough, 
now finds that pride, after betraying her, has, like her seducer, 
deserted her. 

The Omission of the subjeet (id)) in the sentence, „2öte festen 
mtr'S fd)warä, unb fd)iüärjt'8 nod) gar/' often oecurs in Goethe's 
earlier writings. 

709 Margaret's concluding words contain a deep psychological 
meaning. It is the lesson of the " tree of knowledge " over 
again. Like the serpent in Paradise, pride lurked in her inno- 
cent heart to tempt her. She little knew that the consequences 
would be as black and füll of despair, as the feelings which 
seduced her seemed pure and beautifnl. 

710 Singer, " falsebray." The narrow space between the outer 


® r c t d; e n 
(flecft frtfd&c Sfumett in btc Ärügc). 7 " 

SIcfy neige, 

£)u Sd;merjcnreicfye, 

©ein Slntttfc gnäbig meiner Wotfy ! 

SüaS ©dauert im $er$en, 

2Ktt taufenb @d;merjen 

üBücfft auf su beiueS (SotyteS £ob. m 

3um 93ater blttfft bu, 
Unb ©eitler fcfytcf ft bu 
hinauf um fein' unb beine 9totfy. 

S5)er fügtet, 

2öte üritfylet 

©er ©cfymers m * r * m ®ebetn ? 

&>a3 mein armes §erj fyier banget, 

walls of a town and the nearest row of houses. In a niche in 
the wall Stands an image of the " Mater dolorosa ; " such images 
are still frequently found in lonely places in Koman Catholic 
countries. They generally represent the Virgin Mary, her 
heart pierced with either one or five swords, the latter num- 
ber referring to the five wounds of Christ. This idea, as well 
as the name " Mater dolorosa." is taken froui a Latin Church- 
song, written in 1306 by Jacoponus, of which the following is 
the first Strophe : 

Stabat Mater dolorosa, 
Juxta crueem lacrimosa, 

Dum pendebat Filius : 
Cujus animam gern entern 
Contristatam et dolentem 

Pertransivit gladius. 

This song has been rendered still more famous by the music 
which Rossini composed for it. 

711 Margaret puts fresh flowers in the pots standing round the 
image. The flowers are bright and blooming, but her heart is 
withered and broken. 

712 A free translation of the above quoted Latin lines. 


2öa$ eö gittert, ma$ »erlanget, 
SEBctßt nur bu, nur bu allein ! 713 

2Bobin icfy immer gcfye, 
äßie todj, wie n>el), tüte toelje 
äöirb mir im 33ufen bter l 
3d; bin, ad; ! laum alleine, 
3d; wein', id; tt>ein', id) töeirie, 
£)aö 3perj aerbrid;t in mir. 7i4 

T)k ©d;erben 71 ° öor meinem genfter 
Söetfyaut' id; mit £l;ränen, ad) ! 
5118 id; am frühen üUtorgen 
£)ir biefe ^Blumen brad;. 

(Schien t;elt in meine flammer 
!£)ie (Sonne frülj herauf, 7I6 
(Sag id; in altem Sammer 
3n meinem SBett fcr;on auf. 

£)ilf ! rette mid; t>on Sd;mad) unb £ob ! 

Öd; neige, 

£)u ©d;merjenreid;e, 

<Dein 9Uttlifc gnäbig meiner 9£otf; ! 717 

713 The three last verses consist entirely of Trochees: the 
rhyme between the third (which is an Iambic Dimeter) and the 
last liue is very peculiar. 

714 Expressing the boundless woe that weighs upon her heart. 

715 „@<$erfcett," for flower pots. 

716 These words must be understood as referring to time ; i.e. 
" When the sun was shining early in my Chamber." 

717 In the scene at the fountain we have heard Margaret's sin 
judged by others and condemned by herseif. In this, is disclosed 
to us the fearful conflict between shame and apprehension, that 
is now ravaging her tortured heart, and that has driven her to 
seek comfort and consolation in the idolatrous worship of the 
" Mater dolorosa ; " though it must be confessed that the fervid 
enthusiasm of the south has conccntrated in this worship the 


m a <$ t. 

©trctfje öor ©retdfoeuö £i;ürc. 
v ^ a t c a 1 1 n, @ofbat, @ret<$en8 ©ruber. 

SBcnn td? fo faß bei einem ®etag, 

SBc mancher [idj bernbmen 7lS mag, 

Unb bie ©efeöen mir ben glor 

5>er SKägblem taut gepviefen »or, 

TOt öoüem ©las baö Öob ücrf$n>emmt, 7,i * 

©en (Stfenbogen aufgeftemmt : 72 ° 

©ag td; in meiner fiebern töufy 7 , 

most heart-felt grief, the most ardent love, and the deepest 
compassion ; yet this deification of a woman, is certainly oiie 
cause of the lax moralitj of a creed, which appeals to the 
senses rather than to the intellect, to iraagination more than to 

The following scene is not found in the " fragment," and some 
coinmentators regret that Goethe by introducing it, disturbed the 
beautiful harmony of the first part of the tragedy. We must 
suppose that he inserted it with the intention of showing how 
Margaret's sin brought not only lipon herseif, but upon all the 
members of her family circle, misery, disgrace and death. The 
psychologically developed transition froin repentance to despair, 
which is so powerfully traced in the three (originally) consecutive 
scenes, at the fountain, before the image, and in the cathedral, 
is, we adinit, interrupted by the appearance of Valentine ; but 
we consider this Interruption rather as a favourable relief froin 
the monotony/whieh woulcl otherwise arise from their similarity, 
inasmuch as, without auy material diminution of tragic effect, 
we are allowed a respite from the intense sympathy we are corn- 
pelled to feel for the despairing victim of passion. 

718 SSerüfymen. This derivative of rühmen is no longer used 

719 SBerfdjteemmeit in the sense of " to wash down." 

720 ©et! (gffertbegen aufgeftemmt, does not refer to Valentine, but 
to the self-satisfied coneeit of the Company. 


£ört' all bem ©cfytoabroniren m gu. 

Unb ftretdje läcfyetnb meinen 23art, 

Unb friege ba$ fcolle ©Ia$ ^ur £ aiu > 

Unb fage: „Sitte« nad? feiner Art! 

$lber ift eine im gangen 8anb, 

£)ie meiner tränten ©retel 722 gleist, 

£)ie meiner @d?n?efter ba$ ^Baffer reicht?" 7 " 

Xop! £op! Hing! Hang! ba$ ging r/erum ! 

£)ie einen fdjrieen : „@r fyat ffiecfyt ; 

@te ift bie 3ter com gangen ©eftylecfyt !" 

£)a faßen alle bie £ober ftumm. 

Unb nnn ! — um* §aar fiel? auSjurauf en 

Unb an ben 2öänben hinauf gu laufen ! m — 

2)tit (gticfyelreben, ^afenrümpfen 725 

@ott jeber ©cfyurfe mid? befd;impfen ! 

©eil töte ein befer ©cfyulbner fi£en, 

33ei jebem gufallSnjortcfyen fd&töifcen ! 

Unb möcfyt' tefy fte gufammenfcfymetgen 72S — 

$i>nn' ity fie boefy nid;t Lügner fyetBen. 

1tX @d?roabrontrert from <£d)tt>abron, Fr. : "escadron," Eng. : 
" squadron." The peculiar signification given by the people of 
one country to words borrowed or derived from the language of 
another is frequently very characteristic, and füll of deep mean- 
ing. For instance fd)n)abrorüren, which is a verb derived from a 
French word expressing simply a body of eavalry, is used by the 
Germans for "to brag, boast," denoting clearly enough the 
character of " Braggadocio " which the French soldiery, es- 
peeially the eavalry, have earned for themselves throughout 
Europe. The Italian termination of the English word " Brag- 
gadocio " is equally significant. 

722 ©retel, diminutive of Margaret. 

723 Idiomatic expression " to hold a candle to any one." 

724 Run one's head against the wall, i.e. in despair: to be at a 
loss what to do, where to find help. 

725 Substantive formed from Sftafe, " nose " and rümpfen, " to 
lift," or " turn up." He could not bear their sneering remaiks 
and mocking faces. 

726 3«famntenfd)tneif3en, " to dash to pieces." " Yet I could not 


©a«!ommt$erott? Söttdfc#ei$t gerbet? 
v^rr' id) nid)t, c$ finb ityrer |ti>et 
3ft er'tf, glcid? päd' id; ilni beim gelle ; 
©o(( ntd)t lebenbtg Don ber Stelle ! 7S 


gaujl. HUcHiMHelt«- 

2Bie tton bem genfterbort ber ©afrtftet 
$ufti>ärt$ ber @d?ein be$ etr/gen yämpcfyenS flämmert 
Unb fcfytüacty nnb fcfytüäcfyer feitnxirts betmmert, 
llnb ghtfterniß brängt ringsum bei ! 
<&o fiefyt'S in meinem 23ufen näd;tig. 728 

call them liars." In this straightforward blunt soldier we have a 
personification of rough honour. He has no regard for any- 
thing but his offended pride. Never again will he be able to 
boast of the beauty and virtue of his sister: he therefore thinks 
only of avenging the injury done, not so much to her as to his 
own pride, and falls a saerifice to this impetuous sentiment. We 
thus find verified the words of Schiller „unb <StoIä roar'S buidj ben 
bte (Sngel fielen," 

"'Twas pride by whick the angels felL" 

Valentine seems to have only one single thought ; to revenge 
his insulted honour, he believes his sister's fate already known 
and spoken of in the whole town, and in this mistake becomes 
himself the herald of her shame. 

727 In spite of all his wrongs, his bloodthirsty and revengeful 
feelings prevent our having any sympathy for him. 

8 We again meet Faust beside the same church, near which 
he first saw Margaret. The concluding line of this passage, in 
which he describes by a beautiful simile, his unhappy state of 
mind, is very expressive : 

„@o ftetyt'S in meinem iBufen nächtig." 
There even the light of hope, like the flame of the " Eternal 
Larap" growing gradually fainter and fainter, is at length totally 
obscured by the surrounding darkness. The light burning day 
and night before the prineipal altar in Roman Catholic Churches 
is called the " Eternal Lamp." 



Unb mir tft'8 tote bem frühem fcfymäd)tig, 

£)a$ an ben geuerleitern fd)leid)t, 

@td; leif bann um bie üJiaucm [tretet ; 

v 3)ttr ift'S ganj tugenbttd) babei, 

(£in btBcfyen £)teb3gelüft, ein bt^d;en Gammelei. m 

©o fput't 730 mir fcfyon burd; alle ©lieber 

<Dte fyerrlicfye SöatyurgiSnacfyt. 731 

£)ie fommt uns übermorgen toieber, 

£)a toeig man boefy, toarum man toafyt. 732 

SRücft tv>ol)t ber ©cfyati inbeffen in bie Jpöfy', 
£)en td; bort hinten flimmern fefy' ? 

£>u lannft bie grenbe balb erleben, 
£)a$ teffeld;en fyerau^nfyeben. 
Scfy fdn'elte nenüd? f o hinein ; 
@tnb berrttcfye ^ötoentfyaler brein. 733 

729 Mephistopheles on the contrary feels like a kitten crawling 
on a fire-ladder, which generally is a fixture on each house-top. 
bammelet, from ramtrteln, to romp, to make a noise ; here used 
in the sense, to go caterwauling. 

730 i( ^]j m y ]} mDS are haunted," an idiomatic expression. 

731 See Note 457. 

732 In tbis speech Mephistopheles mockingly refers to Faust's 
passion, which drives him to see Margaret again. 

733 These lines allude to the belief commonly entertained in the 
Middle Ages, that the interior of the earth contained hidden 
treasures, which it was necessary for any one that wished to get 
possession of them, to raise from their concealment, and that 
these treasures were to be seen at certain times (generally once in 
seven, though often only once in a hundred years)when theyrose 
of their own aeeord slowly towards the surface of the earth. At 
those times it was said ber <£$ai$ bliifyt, " the treasure is in bloom," 
and it was then necessary to aecomplish the task of raising or 
lifting it up, commonly called, " its redemption." Unless, how- 
ever, certain speeified forms were observed in the mode of doing 


SRityt ein ©cfd;mcibc ? Wcfyt ein s Jfing? 
Ziehte liebe 33ufyte bamit ju jieren ? 

9$ fafy babei toofyl fo ein £)ing, 

?U$ tote eine 5lrt üon ^erlenfcr/nüren. 734 

©o ift es rec^t ! Sföfr tfyut e$ fter/, 
SStaui td; or/ne ®efd?enfe ju ifyr gel;'. 

(58 folit' eud; eben md;t berbriefcen 
Umfonft and; ettuaS $u genießen. 
3efct, ba ber ipimmel Dotier (Sterne gtüfyt, 
Sollt ii)x ein toafyreS ftitnftftücf fyören : 
3d? fing* it^r ein moratifefy Sieb, 
Um fie getoiffer $u betören. 735 

so, it again disappeared. According to the common belief it 
resembled glowing coals or amass of red gold, and was contained 
in a cauldron or large iron vessel, the spot beneath wbich it lay 
being denoted by a dim flame. „klammern," which oecurs in the 
second line of Faust's first speech, and „flimmern," in the second 
line of his second speech, are both derived from „flamme": the 
Latter is, however, more in use. „Söroentfyaler" was a Dutch 
silver coin, with the impressiou of a Hon, worth about 3/6. 2)rem, 
contraction of barem or more correct : Darinnen. 

734 u ^ row Qr S (; r ; n g f pearls." This is a sarcastic allusion 
to the tears, often figuratively called pearls in poetry, which 
Margaret is destined to shed in her despair. 

735 This song is a successful populär adaptation of the song of 
Ophelia (Hamlet Act IV. Sc. 5) of which we subjoin a classical 
translation by Schlegel. Instead of „Stuf SWorgen" in the first 
line, it should be „^enf SWorgtn," as the song is supposed to be 
sung on the morning of St. Valentine's day : 

2ütf 2ttorgen ift @t Valentin« £ag 

2Bofyl an ber ^dt nod) friilj, 
Unb idj 'ne SDcatb, am genfterfd?lag 

Söttt fein nur SJalentm. 


(Sittat gut Sittyx. 

SßaS matfyft bu mir 

$or SiebcfyenS Sfyür' 

$att;rincfyen ^ier 

5öet frühem iageSblicf e ? 

Sag, lag e* fein! 

(§r lägt bid? ein 

9118 9ftäb$en ein, 

$11$ TObcfyen nicfyt jnrücte. 


3ft e$ bollBrad^t, 

£)ann gute Sßactyt 

3I)r armen, armen £)inger ! 

§>abt ifyr eucfy lieb, 

£fyut feinem £)ieb 

Sfair nict>tö gu Sieb', 

511$ mit bem 9ftng am ginger. w 

(Sr roar bereit, tfyä't an fein $leib, 

Sljät' auf bie $ammertfyür, 
Steg ein bie 9Mb, bie aU 'ne 2ftaib 

@tng nimmermehr t>erfür. 

SSei unfrer grau mtb @t. Äatljrin (Caritas) 

O pfui ! roa§ foH ba§ fein ? 
(Sin junger Sftann, tfyat roa§ er fann— 

33eim Fimmel, ba§ ift nid?t fein. 

(Sie fyradj : ,,&)' ifyr gefct)ergt mit mir, 

©elobt itjr mi$ ju frein ; " 
Sä) brädj'S au$ nic&t, beim (Sonnenlicht ! 

Sßärft ®u nidjt lommen herein. 

736 Such is the story which the devil calls "a moral song." 
So far indeed as it contains a warning against yielding to a mo- 
ment of passion, and instils respect for the laws of society, it has 
some claims to that title. 

In the lines : „£t)ut feinem £)teb 

SRur nichts ju Sieb'," 
the word ©ieb, has the meaning of 23urf$e. With regard to the 
two negatives, see Note 601. 


Valentin (tritt *or). 
Seu totfft bu t?ter? 23eim ©erneut! 
2>ermatebeiter Rattenfänger ! m 
%u\\\ Teufel erft ba8 3nftrument ! 
3um teufet fymterbretn ben länger ! 

Die 3itl?er ift entjroei ! an ber ift nichts $u galten. 

Wim folt eö an ein <Sd;äbelfpatten ! 

SUeep^tfto^^etcö (juftaHft). 
£>err £)octor nicfyt gemieden ! fjrif dj ! 
$art an mtcfy an, tüte id) euety füfyre. 
§erauS mit eurem glebertmf ü) l 
9tar jugeftoften ! 3cty toartre. 

latent in. 
Sartre ben ! 

Sßarum benn nicfyt ? 

737 The legend of the rateatcher of Hameln (a small town in 
the Duchy of Calenberg, in Hanover) is well-known in Germany. 
It relates that the rateatcher in question, who lived A.D. 1284, 
played the pipe so beautifully, that all the rats that infested the 
town followed him into the river Weser and were drowued : and 
that, on the inhabitants refusing to give him the reward they had 
promised, he began to play another tune, which was so charming 
as to entice away all their children. He led them to a neighbour- 
ing mountain, which suddenly openedandßwallowed upthe whole 
generation of young people, with the exception of one child who 
(fortunately for posterity) escaped to teil the dreadful tale. Ac- 
cording to Karl Sinrock's* beautiful ballad „Der Rattenfänger," 
two little ones returned — " one blind, the other dumb." The 
term Rattenfänger is equivalent here to "seducer." 

* Karl Simrock born in Bonn, 1802, has acquired for hirnself the greatest merits in 
German literature for having translated the „-Jctbehingen/' tbe worksof JQCLXtTttCLUU 

toon ber 2lue, SSaltfyer toon ber Vogetoeibe :c. Not less interesting is his 
„©bafetyearc al$ Vermittler jnjeter Nationen." His aim in all Ms writings 

was to excite in the German people a love for their ancient poets, as without a know- 
ledge of their works the literary creations of our tiuies are often incoinprehensible. 


SBalentt n. 
2Iuty ben ! 

9J^ c p ^ i ft o p ^ e ( c 3. 

®etotj3 ! 


3d? glaub 7 ber £eufe( fi*t ! 
2öa8 ift bernt ba$? ©ctyon toirb bie £anb mir tafym. 

9flepfyifto£fyele$ (suftauft). 
©tog' 311 ! 

Valentin (fällt). 
D toefy ! 738 


9ta ift ber Kümmel jafym ! 

Sftun aber fort ! 2öir muffen gletd> oerfd)u>inben : 

£)enn fcr;on entftefyt ein mörberlid) ©eftyrei. 

3cfy tt>eiß midj trefftid) mit ber ^oligei, 

£)ocfy mit bem 231utbann ftf/lecfyt micfy afyufinben. 

^iart^e (amgenjier). 

§erau8! §erauö! 

©retten (amgenfter). 

herbei ein £ici>t ! 

9ftartfye (tüte oben)- 

SJJan fdn'lt nnb rauft, man fcfyreit unb fid;t. 


£)a liegt fc^on einer tobt ! 

2ft a r t fy e fteraustretenb). 
£)ie SJförber finb fie fcenn entflofy'n ? 

733 Mephistopheles has succeeded in dragging his victira still 
further on the path of crime, and has advanced another step 
towards the object he has in view. Faust, now branded with the 
Woody mark of murder, will be obliged to fly, leaving Margaret 
a prey to her despair. Valentine, who represents the idea of 
family honour, the basis on which alone can rest the virtue, 
happiness and prosperity of a household, is falling a sacrifice to 
his thirst for blood, without the satisfaction of having wiped out 
the stain upon his name. 


© r C t d; e n (farauötretenb) 
2Ber liegt fyier ? 

£)einer Butter @ofyt. 73f) 

?Ulmä'd;tiger ! toeld?e Wotfy ! 

3d? fterbe ! ba$ tft balb gefagt 
Hub bätber nod? getfyam 
2Ba$ ftefyt ifyr Söeiber, fyeult unb f lagt ? 
ftommt fyer unb fyört mid; an ! 

Sitte treten nm ifyn. 
5D?ein ©retd;en, fiel) ! bit bift nocfy jung, 
8ttft gat nocfy nid;t gefcfyeibt gemmg, 
ÜUtodjft beine ©acfyen fd;led)t. 
3cty fag' bir'3 im Vertrauen nur: 
£)u bift bocfy nun einmal eine — ; 
<&o fei'S aud? eben recfyt ! 

9J?ein ©ruber! ©Ott! 2öa$ foll mir baS? 

tfafc unfern §err ©ott au$ bem (Spafc. 
©efd?efyn tft leiber nun gefd)erm, 
Unb toie eS gefyen fann, fo toirb'S gelm. 
£>u fingft mit ©nem r)eimttcr; an, 
Söalb fommen ifyrer meiere brau, 
Unb trenn bidj erft ein £)u£enb fyat, 
©o fyat bid? aud; bie ganje ©tabt. 

2Benn erft bie (Scfyanbe toirb geboren, 
SBirb fie fyeimticfy jur SBBelt gebraut, 
Unb man jtefyt ben «Soleier ber 9^act;t 

739 The people, by calling Valentine Margaret's "mother's 
son " instead of her ", brother," show their utter conterapt and 
abhorrence of her conduet. 


3fyr über ftopf unb Obren ; 
3a, man modele fie gern ermcrben. 
ffiäcfyft fie aber unb macfyt ficfy groß, 
£)ann gefyt fie aucfy bei Sage bloß, 
Unb ift bocfy nid)t fd&öncr geworben. 
3e fyäßüctyer wirb ifyr ©eficbt, 
3e mefyr fud;t fie beö £age3 Sidjt. 

3d) fefy' toafyrfyaftig fcfyon bie £eit, 
£)a|3 alle brate SSürgerSleut', 
2öie fcon einer angefte(ften Seiten, 
$on bir, bu Ifte^e ! feitab meinen. 
£)tr foü ba3 £>erj im SetB »erjagen, 
3Benn fie bir in bie klugen fefyn ! 
©otlft leine golbne Ä'ette mefyr tragen ! 
3n ber Stird?e nid>t mefyr am Elitär ftelm! 
3n einem frönen ©pifcenfragen 
£)icb niebt beim £anje Wohlbehagen ! 
3n eine finftre 3ammerecfen 
Unter Bettler unb Krüppel bid> terftetfen, 
Unb wann bir benn auefy ©ort oergei^t, 
Sfof (Srben fetyt üermalebeit ! 74 ° 

23efefytt eure <Eeele ® ott ju ©naben ! 
SßeKt ifyr no$ ^äft'rung auf eud) laben ? 

£önnt' id) bir nur an ben bürren ßetb, 
£)u f d;änblid? lupplerif d?e$ äöeib ! 
£)a fyofft' tefy aller meiner ©ünben 
Vergebung reiche SJtojj ju finben. 

740 Valentine sustains his bold and straightforward character to 
the last. Even on the brink of the grave he does not hesitate to 
declare the truth in the inost uncompromising language, regard- 
less alike of the anguish of Margaret and the rebukes of Martha, 
whom he denounces as the original cause of that succession of 
misfortunes ending in his death. 



SRrin Brüter! Oeltye £eiienpein ! 


3cb faae, la[; tic Ibränen fetm ! 
Xa bu bt$ [pvactyft tcr crfjre (o$, 
©abft mir ben föttetfteu ver^cn^ftoß. 
3* flehe hireb ben Xotcöi'cblaf 
3u ®ott ein atö Solfcat unt brat. 



amt, Orgel unb ©efang. 

©retten unter toierem xßetfe. SBöfer ©eift fantet ©retc&eii. 

»öfee ©etft. 741 
2Bie anter*, ©retten, nur bir'S, 
311$ tu nc* boU Uftföulfe 
£ier 311m SUtar trofft, 

3lu8 tem vergriffnen 23ücbe(d>en 

lebete laUteft, 

£atb ßinberfßtele, 

£alb ®ctt im £er$en ! ni 

©retten ! 

2Bt ftcfyt tein Hopf? 

3n reinem £er$en ! 

belebe Ütftffetbat? 

tJet'ft bu für tetner ÜÄuttcr Seele, bie 

Xurcb tieb gut langen, langen $etn tunüberfd)lief ? 74? 

Auf tetner Sdwelle treffen SBlut ? 

Unb unter beinern £erjen 

741 The personification of Margaret's bad conscience. 

742 What a toucking allusion to the irmocent prayer of child- 
hood ! 

743 Here for the first time we bave mention made of the mother's 



SRegt ficfy'3 mcfyt qiritlenb fd;on, 
Unb cmgftigt btcfy unb fid? 
SJtft afynungSbclier (^egentuart ? 

Sei)! ffie$! 

$Bär' tdt) ber ©ebanlen lo^ 
£>ie mir herüber unb hinüber gefyen 
Siber mid? ! 744 

Dies irae, dies illa 
Solvet sseclum in favilla. 746 

744 "What a contrast between the happy and innocent Margaret, 
■whom we first met Coming from the cathedra), and the forsaken, 
self-accusing, fallen girl now before us, vainly endeavouring to 
lift up her heart in prayer to God. 

745 Of this song, written by Celano in the thirteenth Century, 
we give the original Latin Version, as well as a German transla- 
tion by K. Simiock. 

Dies irae, dies illä 
Solvet sseclum in favilla, 
Teste David et Sibyllä : 

Quantus tremor est futurus, 
Quando Judex est venturus, 
Cuncta stricte diseussurus ! 

Tuba mirum spargens sonum, 
Per sepulchra regionum, 
Coget omnes ante thronum. 

Mors stupebit et natura, 
Quum resurget creatura, 
Judicanti responsura. 

Liber scriptus proferetur, 
Inquo totum continetur, 
Unde nrandus indicetur. 

£ag ber SKadje, £ag ber@ünben, 
2Btrb'ba§ SBettaü fiäV entjfinben, 
SBic ©tybul unb ®av>ib !ünbeu. 

SSetd)' (Sntfefcen mirb ba realten, 
Sßenn ber 9ttd)ter fommt$ufd)alten, 
©treng mit un§ ©erid)t p Ratten. 

Sie $ofaun' im SBunbertone 
«Strengt bie ©räber ieber ßone, 
gomer't aüe ju bent Zfyxont. 

©taunenb feben £ob unb £eben 
©idj bie Kreatur erbeben, 
$fted?enfd)aft bem £erm ju geben. 

Unb ein 23udj rotrb aufge [dplagen, 
®a ift alles eingetragen , 
SBelt, barauS btd? gu fcerffagen. 


23öfer @ctft. 
®rimm faßt biet) ! 
©ic s ]>ofaune tönt ! 
£)ie (Gräber beben ! 
Unb bein £er$, 
9luS Slfcr/enrnty' 
3n glammenquaten 
lieber aufaefäaffen, 
«ebtauf! 716 


Soor* icty fyier meg ! 

9Kir ift at8 ob bie Orgel mir 

Den $ltfyem fcerfefcte, 

©efang mein §erj 

3m Sicfftcn löfte. 

Judex ers;o cum sedebit, 
Quidquid latet adparebit, 
Nil inultum remanebit. 

Judex ergo cum sedebit, ©ifct ber 9^td6tcr bann imb richtet, 

Quidquid latet adparebit, Sßirb, roaS bunfel ift, (jeticbtet, 

Nil inultum remanebit. $eine @d?utb bleibt un'öefd) licfytet. 

Quid sum miser tunc dicturus, Std) ! mag TOerb' td) Strtttcr facjen, 

Quem patronum rogaturus, Sßeldjen @dnt£ unb 9fotb erfragen, 

Quum vix justus sit securus ? 2)a ©ered)te felber jagen ? 

Kex tremendae majestatis ! $öntq, furchtbar Ijod? ergaben, 

Qui salvandos salvas gratis, 2)ret ftttb betner ©nabe ©aben, 

Salva me, fons pietatis ! 2öoüe, ©nabenborn, mtd) laben. 

I have given the read er the power of judging for himself of 
the terrible impression, which must have been made on a guilty 
conscience by this song, so füll of scriptural truth and awful 
majesty. There is an admirable English translation of it extant, 
written by Lord Roscommon in the time of Charles II. which 
in many parts is well worthy of the original. 

746 Referring to the third verse : " Tuba mirura spargens so- 
num " — " The graves tremble, and thy heart trembles too, 
awakened from its rest of dust to a doom of flames." 


DJttr ttrirb fo eng' ! 
£)ie SUtauernpfetler 747 
^Befangen mtd; ! 
£)a8 ©ettötbe 
©rängt mtd; ! — guft ! 

23öfer ©eift. 
Verbirg btcfy ! ©ünb' unb ©tyattbe 
bleibt ntcfyt berborgen. 
Suft? 8td?t? 748 

Quid sum iniser tunc dicturus ? 
Quem patronum rogaturus ? 
Cum vix justus sit securus. 

Sööfer ©cift. 
3fyr SStotltfc toenben 
25er!(ärte bort bir ab. 
ÜDie £)ärtbe bir $u retten, 
©d^auert'S ben deinen ! 
5öe^! 769 

747 Goethe imitates Voss iu the use of this Compound, „Sftauew* 
fcfeUer." " The n is not here the terraination of the plural, but is 
inserted merely for euphony. 

748 Referring to Margaret's last exclamation, " The organ 
stifles my breath; — the pillars of the wall close over me." 
"What is it then she desires ? Air ? Light ? No guilt, the spirit 
answers, no sin can remain concealed or hidden : yet air and 
light are just what will betray them to the world. 

759 In the reflections which the evil spirit makes, becoming 
gradually more and more gloomy, in order to drive her to despair, 
there is a truly poetical grandeur. 

At the words, " Thoa art lost for this world and the next ; — 
there those pure and innocent spirits will refuse to receive thee," 
Mai garet can bear no more, she falls senseless to the ground : — 
her heart is broken ; not in the usual world ly acceptation of the 



Quid sum raiser tunc dicturus ? 

9to$6arbi ! Guer g(äfd?c^en !— 

©ic fällt in £>l)nmadjr. 

© e fl e n b toon «Sedierte unb GH e n b. 

word, but in a raore spiritual meaning : it is "broken and con- 
trite." Notwithstanding the enormity of her offence, from this 
moment repentance, the true repentance of a Christian, seems to 
have entered her soul. What she feit at the fountain arose 
merely from wounded pride ; before the image of the Virgin, she 
gave way to a despairing remorse and sharae at the loss of that 
hononrable pride, in which she had hitherto trusted, and to anxious 
apprehensions of the consequences ; but it is only when she hears, 
pealing from the choir, the awful words " Quid sum miser tunc 
dicturus?" that she becomes fully aware how deeply she has 
sinned against God, and that she breaks down under the con- 
sciousness of her guilt. 

750 However confused and meaningless the following scene may 
appear at first to the reader, he will find that it is by no means 
without its signification, whether he considers it an integral part 
of the poem, intended to give us an insight into the consequences 
produced on Faust's character by the crime he has committed, 
or again, looks on it merely as a satire on the poetical medio- 
crities, who then infested the literature of Germany, and offered 
strenuous Opposition to more aspiring minds and to genius of a 
higher order than their own. 

If we take the first view of the case, the poet has drawn a 
striking contrast between this scene and the last, a contrast füll 
of psychological meaning. "We have seen Margaret in three 
different stages of gradually increasing moral misery turn to 
God, and seek comfort and consolation from above, to sootfre, 



Sauft. Sfte^tftoMere«. 

23er(angft T)u nicfyt nad; einem SBcfcnfttelc ? 
3cty toiinfcfyte mir bert atterberbftert 33oct. m 
2luf btef&m 2Beß' finb \mx nocfy toeit bcm 3tet. 

the terror and despair under which she is labouring. Less suc- 
cessfully Faust endeavours to drown bis feeling of restlessness and 
disquiet, and to stifle the voice of conscience, by abandoning 
himself to the empty and vague enjoyments of Nature, typified 
by the midnight orgies which are prepared for hirrTBy the devil. 
He is induced to hazard an ascent of the Broken or Blocksberg in 
the regions of "Schierke" and tf Elend," the latter of which 
words means " Misery." On the Brocken, see note 368. He 
returns frora it, however, as dissatisfied as he went ; for even 
nature has no consolation to offer to a doubting, irreligious heart. 

But the " Walpurgis-Night " scene, with the Intermezzo that 
follows, (which is an imitation of Shakspeare's " Midsummsr- 
NigmVs dream") is also intendedto satirise the literary efforts of 
those " half-clever " German writers, who, though desirous of 
reaching the summit of the Greek Parnassus, never succeeded in 
getting higher than the top of the German Brocken, where 
witches, cobolds, and other unclean spirits were superstitiously 
believed to hold their revels. The flickering " will-o'-the-wisp" 
of literary Systems, the jays of lukewarm criticism, the pewits 
and owls of mysticism and the disorderly dancing of the witches, 
those Muses of falsehood, deformity and vulgär satire, each and 
all alluding to that spirit which infested poetry in Germany at 
the end of last Century, though forming a confused whole, repre- 
sent pretty faithfully the State of German literature in the times 
of Goethe. By the Proctophantasmist, the arch-enemy of all 
progress, is especially meant C. F. Nicolai, a wordy critic, who 
would have wished to introduce into literature a sort of " matter 
of fact" Radicalism, and w r ho, disregarding the spirit of a woik, 
cared merely for the letter, the outward form, and thought only 
how best he might gain the favour and applause of the vulgär 
by flattering and pandering to their wishes and passions. 

In closely analysing this scene, with a reference to its double 
meaning, we shall find a twofold interest. 

751 In allusion to the populär superstition that witches rode on 
broomsticks and the devil on a goat. 


2o lang id> mirf; uod; frifd; auf metneu ©einen füfylc, 
©enügt mir btefer ifnotenftort. 
©aS htlft'^ bog man ben 2öeg ücrtur$t ! 
3m s v\abi)rintl) ber £l)ä(er fyinsufd;leid?cn, 
Tann biefen m gelfen ju erftetgen, 
23on bem ber Duefl fid; eroig fprubetnb ftürjt, 
TaS ift bie ?uft, bie f otd;e ^ßfabe toür^t ! 
©et grüfyttng toebt fetyon tu ben 53irfeu, 
Unb felbft bie gid;te fül)tt tyn fd;on; 75:J 
(goüt' er ntcfyt aud? auf unfre ©lieber ttürfen ? m 

M e p fy t ft o p fy e i e 8. 
gürftafyr, td; fpüre ntcfytö babon ! 
Ditr ift c$ nnnterttd) im &ibe ; 
3d; tt>ünfd)te;@d)nee unb groft auf meiner 53afyn. 
2i3ie traurig fteigt bie unbottfomnme ^d?eibe 
£)e$ rotten 2Wonb3 mit fpäter ©tutb fyeran, 

752 The demonstrative pronoun here does not refer to a pecuHar 
rock, but means " to climb, this or that rock," — the antithesis 
being elliptically understood. 

753 The pine (g;d)te) is here referred to naturallj enough, as 
being the last among the trees to put forth fresh shoots in spring ; 
but the use of the word has given rise to a highlj ridiculous and 
very far-fetched explanation of these two lines. According to some 
interpreters Goethe is made here to allude to Fichte, the great " I 
am I" — philosopher, who gave Nicolai a severe chastisement 
with the stinging lash of satire in a work published by the cele- 
brated Schlegel, Tübingen (1801), entitled: „^rtebrtdj Sfticolat'S 
2eben unb fonberBare Meinungen, ein Settrag jur Stteraturgefdjtdjte be8 
vergangenen unb utr ^äbagogt! be8 angefyenben 3aljrfyunbert8." 

In our opinion, although Nicolai is later introduced in the 
form of a " wild -fire," there is no Warrant for such an interpre- 
tation of these lines, which have a natural and logical connection 
with the preceding description of spring. 

75i This line again refers simply to the recreating influence of 
spring ; for we must remember that we are in this scene on the 
eve of the first of May. 


Unb leudbtet fdjtecfyt, baß man foi jebem Stritte 
SSor einen $3autn, bor einen Seifen rennt ! 755 
(Maab', baj? id) ein 3rrlicfyt 756 bitte! 

765 Mephistopheles, dissatisfied with everything that may eerve 
as a proof of the infinite goodness and power of God, finds fault 
with the new life produced in nature by the genial influence of 
spring, and longs for the frost and snow of winter as inore in 
accordance with his feelings. 

756 Snttdjt , 3frrtDifc^ , " Jack-wi'-the-lantern," or "will-o'-the- 
wisp," scientifically known as Ignis fatuus, has been defined by 
Sir Isaac Newton as "a vapour shining without heat," and is a 
gaseous vapour, phosphoric in its nature, produced from decom- 
posing animal or vegetable matter in damp situations, and of the 
same phosphorescent nature as the sparks that are seen dancing 
on the surface of the sea. It is more commonly observed in the 
countries of the south, such as Spain and Italy, than in the colder 
regions of the north, owing probably to the rapid process of 
putrefaction arising from the warmth of the climate combined 
with the quantity of stagnant water; but it is also visible in 
England and Germany especially in damp places, and in the 
neighbourhood of dung-hills, stagnant pools and burying grounds, 
anywhere in fact where putrescible matter abounds. 

Flitting as it does mysteriously from place to place with a 
motion desultory as it is swift, nowrising, now falling, now totally 
disappearing, now hovering at a height of six feet or more from 
the ground, ever varying in form and size, anon, flowing in the 
air with wave-like motion dropping sparks of fire, its hue alter- 
nating from red to yellow from yellow to red ; growing more 
and more faint as the beholder approache-, tili when he reaches 
the spot over which it hovered, it is gone ; and finally re-appear- 
ing to his astonished eyes some distance further on the road ; 
need we wonder that it should have been (nay, should still be in 
some parts) an object of awe to the illiterate, or that the super- 
stitious should ascribe it to the supernatural agency of the evil 
spirit, or should hesitate to pass by night the places haunted by 
this ghost-like phenomenon, deeming it a departed spirit of an- 
other world ! But we nay hope that the wide-spread Instruction 
of the present day has dispelled these superstitious ideas. " It 
* is one of the noblest purposes of philosophy to release the mind 
' from the bondage of imaginary terrors ; and by explaining the 


©Ott \tff \d) eins, baß eben luftig brennt. 

Ve ba! mein greitub! £)arf id; ÜDicft ju ttuö f orbern? 

föa« nnllft bu fo oergebenß lobern? 

3eij bod; fo gut uno leuefyt' uns ba l/inauf ! 

Sud Sfyrfurctyt, fyoff td), fort cö mir gelingen, 
ÜDtetn teictyteS Naturell 511 fingen ; 
9tax Bicfjacf 757 gcfyt getoöfynlid; unfer Sauf. 

(£i ! et ! (5r benft'ö ben Dienfd?en nad^uafymen. 

M mode in which the Divine Providence disposes the different 
" powers of nature, to elevate our thoughts to the one first cause, 
" to teach us to see God in all, and all in God ! " 

This 3rrltdjt, $n:totfd), as we have already said, is intended 
to represent Nicolai, an author and bookseller at Berlin, but 
chiefly celebrated as the editor of a critical review, entitled „ s J?eue 
aüegemeinc SBibliotfyef," in which he attacked the writings of Garve, 
Herder, Wieland, Fichte, Kant, Lavater, Goethe and Schiller — 
in a word all those authors, who are at once the pride and 
glory of the German nation. But we must not suppose him to 
have been a man of mere ordinary talent ; he was one of those 
spirits in which the present age abounds, who criticise from sbere 
love of criticism and oppose out of mere Opposition. Mephisto- 
pheles asks him to be his guide and keep him from stumbling 
amongst the blocks and trees, which are symbolical of the diffi- 
culties which are to be met with in poetical compositions. After 
these explanations the reader will find the following song between 
Faust, Mephistopheles and the Will-o'-the-wisp, both intelligible 
and amusing. The satire is not open to the charge of bitterness 
and personality which has been advanced with good reason against 
Byron's " English Bards and Scotch Keviewers," the allusions 
being so general in their character, that they are interesting even 
apart fioni their polemical importance as directed against a man, 
who, in his blind eagerness to promote German literature, eould 
find no better way of doing so, than by opposing without excep- 
tion all those who have proved themselves the foundation-stones 
and pillars of its golden age. 

757 u Zigzag," alluding to the irregulär motion of the " Will- 



<3d? Grr nur g'rab', in8 £eufel$ tarnen ! 
@onft blaf id? ünn fein glacferleben 758 au«. 


Sä) merfe wofyl, ifyr fetb ber §err com §au$, 

Unb will mid? gern naefy eud? bequemen. 

Mein bebenft ! ber 23erg ift Ijeute jaubertoll, 

Unb wenn ein 3rrticfyt euefy bie 2öege weifen foll, 

<5o müßt ifyr'S fc genau nid^t nehmen. 

gauft, SlftepfyiftopfyeleS, 3rrltd?t (im Söedrfefflefcmfl). 

3n bie £raum- unb ,gauberfyl)äre 759 

@inb Wir, fcfyeint e$, eingegangen. 

gütyr' uns gut unb macb' bir (Sfyre, 

IMg wir borwärts balb gelangen, 

3n ben weiten, ßt>en Räumen ! 

(Sei)' bie Zäunte hinter Räumen, 
Sßie fie fdmell borüberrMen, 
Unb bie flippen, bie fid) bücfen, 
Unb bie langen gelfennafen, 
Sie fie fdmarcfyen, wie fie blafen ! 76) 

758 Like many men we meet with, who as soon as we ask them 
to do us a favour, endeavour to overrate its importance so much 
that we regret having ever requested it. It is not enough to do 
a favour ; much depends on the manner and spirit in which it is 
done. As the Latins said " Est modus in rebus." 

gfaeferfebett, derived from ffoefern, " to flicker," &c, (eben, " to 
live," meaning "a flickering life" : it is also used for a life with 
out aim or objeet. 

759 yf e can eas i]j distinguish the respective parts of each of 
the dramatis personse in this alternating song, although the 
several strophes are not expressiv assigned to each. 

The first is evidently sung by Mephistopheles, who introduces 
us into the sphere of "dreams and charms." We shall meet 
Goethe on the same ground, which Shakspeare has chosen in 
Midsummer-Night's Dream, when he reminds us that " we do but 
slumber while these visions appear." 

760 This description of the trees, cliffs and rocks rapidly flitting 


Durd; bie Steine, bnrd) ben SRafett 
(Sttet Söa<$ anb ©achteln nieber. 
£>ör' id) ftanfdjen? l)ör' id; lieber? 
§ür' id? fyolbe l*iebc#Hage, 
Stimmen jener ,\>immelsta$e ? 
31*aö »tr hoffen, was mir lieben ! 
Unb baö (Scfyo, mie bie Sage 
5Utcr Reiten, fallet lieber. m 

\X\)\\ ! Sdmlm ! tönt e$ näfyer, 
tfaug nnb JHbtfc nnb ber £)äl)er, 
©inb fic alle n?ad; geblieben ? m 

by, so impressive in its simplicity, must be attributed to the 
Ignis Fatuus. 

" How they snore — how they blow ! w 

The iiame Schnarcher (i.e. Snorers) is given to two granite 
rocks, eighty-two feet in height, situated on the Barenberg to 
the east of Schierke ; populär superstition considered that the 
earth's centre was at a certain point on one of thera, owing to 
the fact that the magnetic needle there deviates con&iderably from 
its normal position. This name doubtless arose froin the snoring 
or sighing of the wind, howliüg unceasingly through the woods 
by which the spot was formerly surrounded, and from the sup- 
posed resemblance these rocks bear to two noses. 

761 Faust hears in the rippling brooks and murmuring stream- 
lets, the soft voiee of heavenly days gone by, days of love, of 
happiness and hope ; he experiences that feeling so incompre- 
hensible and undefinable, which thrills through the bosom of us all 
when we stand on the summit of some lofty mountain, and which 
has found in Heinrich Heine an excellent Interpreter in his 
„3)ie ^arjreife." 3a, im fyöcfoften ©rabe tounberbar erfdjetnt uns Me$ 
beim erftett Jpinabfcfyaiten fcom söroefen, alle (Seiten unferc§ ©eifreS em* 
^fangen neue (Sinbrücfe nnb biefe, meiftenS toerfcbtebenarti.q, fogar ftd; 
roiberfprecbenb, öerbtnben firij in lmferev ^eele jtt einem großen, nnent* 
n>orrenen, unüerftanbenen ©efüfyl. (pag. 46.) 

762 Ufyu, or @dnü)U. In imitation of the owls hooting. 

Ufnt, " the owl" (Stryx passerina) is also used in diminutive 
forms, as ßäujdjen and Äöligletn, In different parts of Germany it 


(gtnb fca« ÜJtolctye 763 burcfyS ®efträud?e? 

V'ange 23eiue, btde 23äud)e ! 

Unb bie ©urjeln, tt)te bie ©drangen, 

Söhiben fid; aus getd unb Sanbe, 

(gtretfen tt>imberltdje Sßanbe, 

Und 51t fcfyreden, und 511 fangen ; 

5Iuä belebten berben "üJtofern 

©trccfcn fie ^ßofypenfafem 

Waty bem ©anb'rer. 7o4 Unb bie SJJtöufe 

£aufenbfävbig, fd^aarentveife, 

£)urd; tad SUtoeS unb burdj bie ©etbe ! 

Unb bie gunfemoürmer 7(iJ fiicßcit/ 

goes by the names of Tobtertfcogef, "the dead or death bird," or 
©todeule, SScribeitle, §au8eufe, ©tehieufe, ©tehifaug. 

Äauj is also applied to a jester, or a man of curious or eecen- 
trie habits. (See Kote 678.) 

Stbife, " peewit," (tringa vanellus L.) in many parts of Ger- 
many called ber geibpfcut, bie ^tmmetejtiege, or 3 rDe ^ e ^? in Osnabrück 
the name of „Äitoitt" is applied to a man who meddles in every- 
body's matteis, a busybody. 

§ä()er or Jpefyer, " a jay," (corvus glandarius L.), has many 
similar forms in use, as, £afyer, £äger, §eger, ^tegcr, £eter. 

76:i 9Jtotd;>, "a Salamander," (Lacerta Salamander L.), an ugly 
spotted black and yellow reptile, which was vulgarly believed to 
possess the power of resisting the action of fire, an idea which 
has bcen refuted by experiment. This name was often applied 
to a fat man. 

764 The comparison of the tree-roots to snakes coiling along 
the ground as if to terrify them, is very powerful. 

2Kofern " filoments ; " ftafent, '• fibres ; " «ßotWetifafern, a Com- 
pound of s J$on# and gafern. 

SWafern» is applied to all kinds of wood, whose fibres are so 
iiieoularly intenvoven, that when polished they form distinet and 
visible or patterns. föltätx, is used in the same sense. 

05 gwtfenttmrttt, " the glow-worm," (Cantharis Noctiluca L.), 
or as it is also calltd ScfyamiiSuriivmdjen, geiicmuirni, (S leim den. 
Kreuz has : 2i>ie eine« ©lütypiuniS €d;eir;, ivie eine« 3rrt:d;t« Öftnj, 
Voss savs : 2)ev fiimnievnbe ©lityrouim. 


W\t ßcbräitgtcn Sc$tovttläe*3fi8eit, 
3um Dertoirrenben ©deitc. 

?lbcr fag' mir, 766 ob nnr ftetycn. 
Ober ob voir weiter ad)en ? 
$OIe$, atleö fdjemt ju brefyen, 
gelS uub Fannie, bte ($eficfyter 
©cfynciben, unb bte irren Siebter, 
SMe fü; mefyren, bie ftcfy blähen. 767 

9JSe^3 1) tft o p 1? ete 

fe tuatfer meinen gipfet ! 
£ter ift fo ein 9Jüttelgtpfet, 
$80 man mit (Srftaimen fiefyt, 
2öie im 33erg' ber SJiammon glittet. m 

7 ™ This last Strophe must be attributed to Faust, who, utterly 
bewildered by the confusion around him, begs Mephistopheles 
at last to give him some explanation of this turning, whirling, 
flying motion which seeras to be affecting the whole face of 

767 It has often been observed that Will-o'-the-wisps become 
raore and more Dumerous, until frequently two or three of them 
seem to join and form a larger one. This is what is referred to 
by the word Mäljett, which means u to swell or puff out." 

m SDfamtmon, (maramon), Gr. .«a^uwrao-, derived from the Siriac or 
Hebrew, denoting rieh es. Bochart derives the word Mammon 
from the Arabic ' Maat,' meaning ' ditescere ' (to grow rieh), and 
' Malon' 'opes' (wealth), that is, to grow rieh in wealth ; the 
derivation from the Gr. fiainou, vehementer cupere, as if it were 
(xaipäiVt valde cupere, can only be taken in a figurative sense, 
expressing, like the Arabic original, a fervid desire for money 
and riches in worldly people. In the words " Ye cannot serve 
God and Mammon," Matthew VI. 24, God is clearly opposed 
to Mammon, which induced many commentators to personify 
Mammon as the ruler of Hell. Gold and silver being gained 
from the interiorof earth are therefore looked upon as Mammon's 
gifts, figuratively by taking the part or the attribute for the 
whole or the objeet, Mammon may only refer to worldly matters 
as opposed to our duties towards God ! — - 


Sßte feltfam glimmert burcfy bie ©rünte 
(im morgenrötfylich trüber (Sctyein ! 
Unb felbft bis in bie tiefen ©d;limfce 
1)eö $Ibgmnb$ wittert er hinein. 
£)a fteigt ein £)ampf, bort gießen <Sd;roaben, 
£ier leuchtet ©tutfy aus £)unft nnb gtor, 
£)aim fcfyleicht fie lüie ein jarter gaben, 
£)ann bricht fie toie ein Duett ^eroor. 
£ier fcfytingt fie eine gan^e <Strecfe, 
DJiit fyunbert albern, ftd? burcfyg £fyat, 
Unb fyier in ber gebrannten (Scfe 
herein jett fie fid? anf einmal. 
£)a fprühen gunfen in ber s J£äfye, 
SBie auögeftreuter gotbner <Sanb. 
£)odb, fct;au' ! in ihrer ganzen £)öfyc 
©ntjünbet fid; bie getfenlnanb. 769 

(Meucfytet uicfyt ju biefem gefte 

Milton represents Mammon as one of the fallen angels. 

" Mammon, the least erected spirit that feil 

" From Heav'n : for e'en in Heav'n his looks and thought« 

" Were always downward bent, admiring more 

"The riches of Heav'n 's pavement, trodden gold, 

" Than ought divine or holy eise enjoy'd 

" In vision beatific. By him first 

'• Men also, and by his Suggestion taught, 

" Ransack' d the centre, and with impious hands 

" Rifled the bowls of their mother earth 

" For treasure, better hid. Paradise Lost, Bk. I. 

" Mammon is so proud a boaster that his clients which believe 
" in him, cannot choose but be confident of him : for what doth 
" he not brag to do ? Yet, if we weigh his power aright, we 
" shall conchide of Mammon, as Paracelsus doth of the devil, 
" that he is a base and beggarly spirit." — Bishop Hall. 

769 This description of the metallic light shining in the depths 
of the abyss, is unequalled by anything in poetry known to us. 
^d)roaben, means damp exhalations. 


£err iDtommon ^räd?tig ben ^ataft ? 77 ° 
lim ®lücf bafe btt'ö gefefyen t/aft ; 
3d; frnire fd/on bie imgeftümeu ($äfte. 

2öie raft bie ©inMbraut " l burdj bie 8uft ! 
9Wit welchen (Schläge« trifft fie meinen 9tocfen ! 

770 On a day when all evil spirits are gathering together, 
Mammon is sure to be feasting also. There is an old tradition 
among the lower classes that in the centre of the Blocksberg is 
concealed a Castle rieh in gold, silver andprecious stones, belono-- 
ing to a bewitched prince. This is, however, merely an allegorical 
expression of the idea, that gold and silver, which are hidden 
deep in the bowels of the earth, are the inost powerful ministers 
in the devil's service. 

771 SBinbSbraut, SBmbbrut, SSmbbraut, SötnbbrauS, SBtnbtttrbel, (lit. 
"the wind's bride") "the storm-blast, whirlwind, hurricane, 
tempest," in Gothic and old Saxon " Wintes-brut and Windis- 
brut." The expression 23tnb8braut may be taken from the fol- 
lowing passage in Ovid's Met. Lib. VI. 

" Hsec Boreas, aut his non inferiora locutus ; 

" Excussit pennas : quarum jaetatibus omnis 

" Adflata est tellus ; latumque perhorruit sequor. 

" Pulvereamque trahens per summa cacumina pallam, 

" Verrit humum : pavidamque metu caligine tectus 

" Orithyi'an amans fulvis amplectitur alis. 

" Dum volat ; arserunt agitati fortius ignes. 

" Nee prins aerii cursus suppressit habenas, 

" Quam Ciconum tenuit populos, sua moenia, raptor. 

" Illic et gelidi conjux Actsea tyranni, 

" Et genitrix facta est." 

where Orithyia is expressly stated to have become the wife of 
Boreas. According to the German Mythology the 2ötnb8braut 
or 2ötrln?inb was caused by grau §i(bc or grau £olba (i.e. a witch 
or an elf) flying through the air, whenever the fearful north- wind 
blew. The Sclaves also believe that a female demon rushes 
through the air at the approach of Boreas. 

In other poets we have the following allusions to it : 

Stuf baß er niebt gürnenb 

Uns errege ttibrigeu ©türm unb heftige 2Binb8braut. 

§r. ©to Hb erg. 
Wolke is of opinion that the word is merely another form of 
2Btnb$brau8, which means " the howling of the wind." 


©u muj3t be3 getfenS alte ^Kippen patfen ; 
©onft ftürjt fie bicfy fyinab in biefer <§d;tünbe ®ruft. 
(Sin Heftel serbicbtet bie ^ftacfyt. 
§öre n>ie'$ burd) bie halber frac^t ! 
Sutfgef cfyeucfyt fliegen bie Gruten. 
£>ör' e$ f buttern bie ©äuten 
droig grüner ^ßaläfte. 
©irren nnb SBredjen ber Slefte, 
©er ©tä'mme mächtiges ©rönnen, 
©er Snrjetn knarren unb ©eignen ! 
3m fürd;terlicfy berroorrenen gälte 
Heber einanber fragen fie alte, 
Unb bnrd; bie übertrümmerten Älüfte 
3ifd;en unb beulen bie Süfte. 
£örft bn stimmen in ber §ölje ? 
3n ber gerne, in ber s JJä fye ? 
3a, ben ganzen 23erg entlang 
©trömt ein tmttfyenter ,3aubergefang ! m 

§eren (im ©fror). 
©ie $eren jn bem 53 roden jie^n ; 
©ie ©toppel ift gelb, bie <Saat ift grün. 

772 This description of the fierce crashing and moaning of tbe 
blast is of wonderful power. 3Now begins the real Sabbaih of 
the witches. The witches' song, füll as it is of nonsense and ex- 
aggerated vulgarity, is by contrast adapted to increase our ad- 
miration for the delightful and classical poetry contained in the 
preceding lines. This plan of drawing a striking contrast, has 
been adopted (though with bad results rather than good ones) by 
many modern German writers, who for the sake of introducing 
a kind of poetical idealism on the one side, followed immediately 
by a coarse materialisra on the other, too often for the sake of 
showing their wit, subjeet to ridicule the very things they have 
deified the moment before. While acknowledging the undoubted 
talent of many of the disciples of this school, we cannos approve 
of their caustic, superficial mode of writing, and regret that 
powers of so splendid an order should have been perverted to a 
use so unworthy of them. 


Tort fammelt ftd; ber große §«uf/ 

y\Tr Urion 773 fi£t oben auf. 

So gebt e$ über ©teilt nub Stod — 

S 1 i m in e. 
T)ic alte ^aubo m femmt allem ; 
^ie reitet auf einem ^Jiuttcrfdrtoetn. 

<So (Sf?re bem, loem öfyre gebührt ! 
grau 43aubo bor ! unb angeführt ! 
(Sin tüd^tig Sd;\t>eiu unb Butter brauf, 
1)a folgt ber ganje £>e£enfyauf. 
^elc^en 2Seg fommfi bu fyer ? 


Ueber'n 3tfenftein ! 
£)a gueft' id; ber Grule inä s JMt Innern. 
£>ie mac^t' ein ^aar klugen ! m 

773 Urion, aecording to Adelung is a proper name, usually pre- 
ceded by £err, that is : Mr. Urian ; often used to designate 
a person you do not wish to name, but for whom you have not 
much respect. " What is Mr. Urian doing here ? " <fec. u We 
need not stand on ceremony with Mr. Urian," are polite phrases 
intended to inform any one without personality, that you neilher 
expected nor wished to see him. 

The word Urian is also frequently used for " the devil," as in 
the following passage from ^ii^enzel Sternau : „©täubte fteif unb 
feft, ber leibige Urian fyabe bem ©rürtber ber 33urg fyülfretdje £anb ge- 

754 33aubo, in the Greek Mythology the woman who gave some 
water to Demeter when in search of her daughter Proserpine, 
and by her coarse remarks made the goddess smile in spite of her 
grief. Goethe introduce3 her as the symbol of wanton impudence, 
and places her astride on a pig. As ^rau §Ube or §otba or ^potta 
in German Mythology leads the army of furious ghosts, so 
33aubo is put at the head of the band of witches. 

775 The voiees we now hear belong to different witches, pursuing 
their journey by the aid of broomsticks, pitchforks and rakes, or, 
in the case of those specially favored by the evil spirit, on the 



@ 1 t m m e. 
£) faljre jur £ct(e ! 
2öa8 reit'ft fcu fo fdntefle ! 

9!J?icfy fyat fie gefdmnben, 776 
£>a fiel? nur bie äöimben ! 

ßeren. (Sfyor. 
£)er 2Beg ift Breit, ber 2öeg ift lang, 
SßaS ift baS für ein toller £)rang? 
<£ie ®aM fticfct, ber 33efen frafet, 
£)aS ftinb erftitft, bie Butter plafct. 777 

§ e £ e n m e i ft e r. 778 § a l b e 8 G> fy o r. 
2£ir fcfyteicfyen tote bie @cfyne<f im £)au£, 
£)ie äöeioer alle ftnb oorcmS. 
£)enn, ge^t e$ ju beö 35öfen £)au$, 
£)a$ Söetb fyat taufenb (Stritt oorauS. 779 

backs of he-goats, after having anointed their hands and feet 
with the witches' balm, ber §ejcenfalbe, a substance prepared from 
the fat of a murdered infant and some narcotic poisonous plants. 
3(fenfteht is the name of the high granite rocks, we have 
mentioned, on the Blocksberg, and so called from the brook 3tfe, 
the environs of which abounded in hawks, owls and eagles, and 
which, according to old traditions, was formerly a princess. (Sin 
5J3aar Vlitgen mad&eu, an idiomatic phrase meaning " to be aston- 
ished," as our phrase " to open his eyes, to stare," is used. 

776 ©efd>unben, from feinten, u to flay." (Akin to the Latin 
scindo, and the English skin.) 

777 From this mass of nonsense we can make out that it is 
the poet's object to point out the degradation as well as the 
wickedness of a belief in witchcraft. 

778 After the women ride the men ; the wizards and sorcerers, 
who emblematieally represent the critics of the „Mgemetne beutfdje 
SiMiot&ef," (see Note 757.) 

779 Alluding to the old idea that a woman, when once on a 
path of vice, advances on it more quickly than a man, owing to 
her being more susceptible of exciting impressions, and evil in- 


Slnbre £älftc. 
Sit nehmen baS utebt fo genau: 
3HÜ taufenb (geritten mad;t'S bie grau; 
\Ted>, uMe fie auety fid; eilen fann, 
SWit einem Sprunge macfyt'ö ber Wiaxm. m 

(Stimme (oben). 
D emmt mit, lommt mit, bom gelfcnfec ! 781 

Stimmen (bon unten). 
2öir möchten gerne mit in bie fjäty*. 
So« toafcfyen nnb blanf ftnb n>ir ganj ttub gar ; 
2lber aud? ewig unfruchtbar. 732 

53 e t b e £ fy ö r e. 
(58 fd)tr>eigt ber 933 tnb, e$ fliegt ber Stern, 
©er trübe SDtonb berbirgt fiel; gern, 
3m Saufen fprüfyt ba$ gauberd?or 
2$iel taufenb geuerf unten fyerbor. 783 

780 The second half of the wizards' chorus, however, is not 
willing to confess this inferiority, and asserts that a man reaches 
a point at one bound, which it would take a woraan a thousand 
steps to attain. 

781 As the gelfenfee cannot refer to any lake or sea on the 
Blocksberg it must be an allusion to the " watery writings of 
the critics." 

782 y er y characteristic of critics who are ever desirous of soar- 
ing higher, and yet confine themseives, as the German adage 
says, " to washing other men's linen." 

Sölctnf, must be taken in the sense of "clean" i.e. "thougb 
by continual washing \ve are always very clean, yet we are barren." 
The word is also used in the following phrases Stanfer 33ein, 
white wine, bfanfeö 3tnn, shining tin, ba8 blaufe ©dr)roert, a drawn 
or naked sword, ein Mantel SBetn, a naked or bare leg. Compare 
Schel. Interpretation of Juv. I. iii. " Pedibus qui venerat albis." 
Blank, French blanc is derived by Menage from albianus, thus : 
Albianus, albianicus, bianicus, blanicus, bianco, blanc. By others 
from blanc, which in Danish means shining ; the Germans have 
also blinfen to shine, Saxon blaecan, English bleach. 

783 The united chorus of wizards describes the effect produced 


(Stimme fron unten). 
§alte ! £afte ! 

Stimme (fcon oben). 
2£er ruft fca aus ber getfenfpatte ? 

Stimme (unten). 
9?efymt mid) mit ! Sftetymt mid; mit ! 
3cfy ftetge fd;cn bretfyunbert 3afyr, 
Unb famt ben ©ipfet ntd;t erreichen. 
3d; toäre gern bei meines ©leiten. 784 

$etbe QfyÖre. 
@3 trägt ber 23efen, trägt ber <Stocf , 
£)te @abel trägt, es trägt ber 33ocf ; 
3öer beute fid) nid)t lieben fann, 
oft en)ig ein üerlor'ner Storni. 78S 

on the whole face of nature by their bustle and confusion. The 
moon as one of God's creatures, hides herseif in obscurity, that 
she may not participate, even by a look in the horrible deed of 
that night. 

784 It is not difficult to see that the voices from below, who are still 
desirous, after toiling and climbing for three centuries in vain, to be 
where the others are %ing in air, are intended to'represent 
those unfruitful exertions in philosophical speculations, " which 
are sticking to the rocky cleft of pedantry." 

Roman Catholie commentators explain this passage as referring 
to Protestantism, and proving the author's opinion that that light, 
which by the blessing of God was shed upon Europe, has done 
but little towards iinproving the spiritual condition of Germany. 
There is however, not the slightest reason for supposing that 
Goethe, the child of Protestantism, would make so undutiful an 
attack on his religion : his sole object, here as elsewhere, was to 
make use of the powerful weapons his genius afforded him, 
against those metaphysicians and philosophers who pursued their 
theories or inquiries without religion. 

785 The general excitement on such a night is so great that 
every man with the least pretensions to talent can rise above the 
earth ; whoever is still unable to take a flight into the higher 
regions of imagination is a lost man ; there is no hope for him. 


$ a l b t) e r c (unten). 
3$ tripple nad;, f o lauge $eit ; 
SDföe finb bie anberu )d;on fo tocit ! 
3d; fyab' $u §aufe feine Wuty', 
Hub temme Incr bod; nid;t baju. 7(W 

(S fy o r ber £) e £ e n. 
£)ie ©alfcc gibt beu $e$en äftufcfy, 
(Sin Summen ift jumAcegel gut, 
(Sin gutes <5cfyiff ift jeber £rog ; 
£)er flieget nie, ber fyeut nid)t flog. 787 

33 e t b e £ fy o r e. 
Unb toettn u?ir nm ben ©tyfet 3teX;n, 
<So ftretctyct an bem 33oben fyin, 
llnb beeft bie >petbe tueit nnb breit 
W\t eurem <Sd;ti)arm fcer £)ereut;eit ! 788 
©ic laffen fidj nieber. 

98 e p fy i ft o p fy e l e 8. 
£)a$ brätigt unb ftöfct, ba$ rufd;t 789 unb flappert 


The demiwitch from below represents tbat class of persons 
in the literary world, who though utterly devoid of all poetical 
talent, are always trying to produce something original. ]Sfothij<c 
is more pitiful than these vain and futile attempts ; at one timc 
German Hterature was absolutely overrun by these " Illustrious 
Mediocrities." Goethe has written a very interesting essay on this 
" Period of forced Geniuses n as he called these " Dii minorum 

787 3)te @albe> " the ointment, salve, balm " (see note 775.) — 
(Sin Summen, " a rag" — the rag of effrontery. — 3eber £*og, "ever 
trough " — the trough of shallowness. 

788 \y nen once on the peak let us settie down. When we have 
once obtained, by our noise and restlessness a good position in 
life, «nb wenn nMr um beu ©ipfel äiefyn, then we can settie down 
quietly, with nothing more to care about or think of. 

7 * 9 9hifdjt from rauften, xufdjetn. rufölidj, a derivative from 
rauföen. 9tu[d)en, rufdjeln only used colloquially. Campe has 
also rüjdjen> to niake a noise. 


£>a« i\)ä)t unb quirlt, ba« jtefyt imb plappert ! 

£)a« leuchtet, fprüfyt unb ftintt unb brennt ! 

(Sin mafyre« §erenelcment ! 790 

^ur feft an mir ! fonft finb ftir gleid; getrennt 


ganft (in ber gerne). 
§ier ! 


2Ba« ! bort fd)on fyingeriffen ? 
<£)a n>erb' tety §au«re<$t braud^en muffen. 
^la^I Sunfer SSotanb* 791 lommt. ^la£! füger WM, Sßla^ ! 
§ier, £)octor, faffe miefy ! nnb nun, in Einern (Saft, 
Saß uns au« bem ©ebräng' entweihen ; 
(5« ift p toll, fogar für meine« ©leiten. 792 
£)ort neben lenktet toaS mit ganj befonberm ©cfyein, 
@« jiefyt mtd? n>a« naefy jenen (Sträußen. 
Äomm', fomm' ! n>ir fd;lupfen ba In' nein. 

Qu ©eift be« SfiMberfprud?« ! 9ta ju ! bu magft mtd; führen. 
3cfy beute boefy, ba« ttar red;t flug gemad)t : 
^um 53rocten toanbetn n>ir in ber 3Bafpitrgi«uactyt, 
Um im« beliebig nun fyiefelbft ju ifolirem 


790 Mephistopheles describes with humorous brevity, the very 
essence of witches. 

791 Runter SSolanb, Squire Voland. In the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries the name Välant " the seducer " was often applied to 
the devil. The feminine form was Valantinne, Välandinne &c. 
In the Frankfort dialect the evil spirit is also called golb or gulb. 

792 "It is too bewildering even for me /" Mephistopheles, not- 
withstanding his diabolical nature feels disgusted at the prattling, 
buzzing, crowds of witches ; he therefore persuades Faust to get 
clear of the crowd as quickly as possible. 

793 Touren derivative from " insularis," insulated, of an island, 
Campe recommends the use of the literal translation „toftinfetn.'' 


Di tp $ t ft op fy e 1 c i, 

Da fiel) nur u>eld;e bunten glammen ! 
(56 ift ein muntrer VMub beifammen. 
3m kleinen 7 * ift man md;t allein. 

Dod? broben müd?t' td; lieber fetyu ! 
Schon fei)' tefy ($lutfy unb Sirbetraucfy. 
Dort ftrömt bie 2Jtenge ju bem 33öfen ; 
Da muß fiefy manches 9?ätl)fel löfen. 795 

9Jtfepfyiftopl?ele 3. 
Dod? mandieS Dftitfyfel fnüpft ftd; and;. 
?aj$ bu bie grege Seit nur faufen, 
Sir wollen fyier im füllen Raufen. 
@$ ift bod? lange fyergebrad^t, 
Dag in ber großen Seit man Heine Selten mad;t. 7:,ß 
Da fei?' id) junge §e£d)en, naett unb blojj, 
Unb alte, bie fiefy flug oerfyüllen. 

794 $m kleinen used here for u in small Company." 

795 Faust characteristically aspires still higher. He is not 
drawn towards the evil one for evil's sake, but only by his desire 
'* to discover " what is beyond the reaeh of mere human coneep- 
tion. He wishes therefore to be condueted to the summit of the 
mountain, there to see solved many a problem that has puzzled 
his brain. 

796 In aecordance with the philosophical System of the ' Monades/ 
which was dcveloped principally by Leibnitz : his theory being that 
all that is existing in the great world is a produce of smaller worlds. 
•-Tic ganje 2üett beftefyt aus Sftonaben, womit fie fid) einmal beremjelt 
imb im Sinjelne« baS @an$e fyat, inbem jebe üftonabe für fic^ ift,— 
SDcifrofoömo g— aber andj ebenfo nrieber toerbinbet,— inbem bie Mo* 
nabett ni$t bloß für ftcfy finb, fonbern alle ju|ammen cjefyören unb— ju* 
fammenfyängen— 2R a J rofoömuS. (©öfcbel, Berlin 1832. „£egel 
unb feine 3 e it»") Goethe very significantly puts into the mouth of 
the evil spirit all those abstruse theories and hypotheses, whieh 
have never produced anything but doubt and infidelity. Apart 
from this allusion, however, Mephistopheles wishes to introchue 
Faust to the " little world," the world of coarse sensuality. 


<Seib freunblicfy, nur um meinettoiflen ; 

Die Wirt)' ift fletn, ber <$pa% ift grog. 

3cfy fyöre toaS t>on Snftrumenten tönen ! 

25erftuc^>t ©efdmarr ! 797 man muß ftcfy bran getoöfynen. 

^oitim' mit ! forara' mit ! e$ fann ntd^t anbcrS feim, 

3cfy tref fyeran unb füfyre bicfy fyerein, 

Unb icfy üerbtnbe bicty aufs neue. 758 — 

2öa$ fagjt bu, greunb ? ba$ ift fein Heiner 9?aum. 

£)a fiefy nur fyin ! bu fiefyft ba§ (Snbe faum. 

(Sin £)unbert geuer brennen in ber SReifye ; 

3)?an tan^t, man fctyir>a£t, man focfyt, man trinft, man liebt ; 

9hm f age mir, ir-o e$ toa3 Keffer« giebt ? 

Sötltft bu bicty nun, um un3 In'er einzuführen, 
<äU ^äub'rer ober Teufel probuciren ? 7h9 

^tüar bin icfy fefyr getoofmt incogmto p gctm ; 
Docfy tagt am ©aüatag man feinen Drben febn. 
(Sin Äniebanb zeichnet mid; nicfyt aus, 80J 
£)od? ift ber ^ßferbefufc 801 fyier e^rent>olt §u $a\\$. 
(giebft bu bie ©dmecte ba? 602 (Sie tommt ber angefroren ; 

797 (Sefcfynarr, from fdjttarren, to rattle, " thatrattüng noise. Ac- 
cording to populär tradition the musician on these festive occasions 
was generally seated in a tree, with a horse's-head for his fiddle, 
or a thick stick, or a cat's tail for a flute. 

798 Satirical reminder of his having introduced him to Margaret. 

799 Faust asks, whether it will be necessary for the devil to 
appear as a devil or as a sorcerer, in order to gain admittance. 

800 In allusion to the order of the Garter, the oldest in Great 
Britain, which was founded by Edward III. in the year 1350. 
It may imply that Faust is about to mingle with distinguished 

801 The " horse's-foot," i.e. the cloven-foot; also Shimvfnß («?e 
Note 436.) 

802 2)ie <£$ticd'e, the snail. As Madame Baubo was the leader 
of the witches, so 1 a snail (as the personificatioiv of slow relapse 


SWit tyrcm taftenbcn ©efid^t 803 
\\it fte mir fd;on toaö a&gerodjeii. 

SBenn id) and; will, oerlaugn' id; l;ier nüd; nid;t. 
Stamm nur! S5on Seiter gefyen mir 51t geuer, 
3d; bin ber Berber unb bu bift ber greier. ö04 

3u einigen, bie nm fcerfllimmenbe lobten ft^en. 
3ljr alten $txx% tüciö mad;t tr>r In'er am (Snbe ? 
9$ lebt' cuefy, menn id? enefy fyübfd; in ber Wdtc fänbc, 
SSon <Sau§ nmjirft unb 3ugcnbbrau# ; 
(^enug allein i[t jeber ja 31t §au& 


2öer mag auf Stationen trauen ! 

9Jtan tyabt nod; fo öiel für fte getfyan ; 

$)enn bei bem $otf, wie bei ben grauen, 

©tefyt immerfort bie 3ugenb oben au. 805 


3eljt ift mau oon bem 9?ecl;ten atiptoeit, 
3d? lobe mir bie guten Wim ; 
<Dcnn freilid;, ba mir alles galten, 
<£>a war bie redete golbne ,gett 83S 
Sßiv maren matyrlicfy aud; nic^t bumm, 

into old errors) is selected as the first to reeeive Faust and his 
eompanion into a Company, where, owing to a universal feeling 
of egotistic self-satisfaction, everything is at a dead-stand. 

J S)aS taftenbe ©efttyt, " with the feelers," as feeling is the 
most acute of the snail's senses. 

8ji (( j'j[ b 8 t j ie p an{ l er? ail( ] thou the lover, the wooer, ihe 1 

fc05 In this epigram Lafayette is introduced, compiaining of the 
ineratitude of the French nation. 

806 The old Secjttunift again of the years preceding 1789, 
grumbles at the loss of the good old times, \vhen he and his 
party were all in all, and the State and the people a mere tool in 
their hands for the gratification of their whims and caprices. 



Unb traten oft roaS toir nid;t feilten 
£)od; je£o fe^rt fiel; alles um imb um, 
Unb eben ba toir'S feft erhalten wollten. ™ 

s 21utor. 
2öer mag tootyl überhaupt jefct eine (Sd;rtft 
23on mäßig ttngem 3ni?alt lefen ! 
Unb toaS ba$ liebe junge 3$otf betrifft, 
£>a3 ift nod; nie fo naferoete getoefen. 808 

(ber auf einmal fel;r alt erfd)eint). 
^um jüngften £ag fül)l' id; ba$ 23olf gereift, 
£)a id; jum le^tenmal beu |)erenberg erftetge ; 
Unb toeit mein gä^d;en trabe läuft, 
@o ift bie mit aud; auf ber 9?etge. 809 

gröbelfye£e. 810 
3t)x §crren gel)t rttct)t fo oorbei ! 

807 In the Parvenü, revolution in its beginning, reign and end 
is characteristically described ; just at the inoment when least 
expected, all turns again into the hands of the old legitirnistic 
power ! 

808 rp^g ]jt erar y W orld here comes in with the complaint that 
the rising generation are so precocious and forward, so wrapped 
up in an impudent coneeit that they are above reading-books. 
üftaferoetS "impertinent, coneeited, would-be-wise, inquisitive." 
Hilpert writes ; „ ? J?aferoei§," is one who desires to obtain know- 
ledge, and asks questions with a view of showing that he has 
sufficient sense to speak on a subjeet that is above Ins compre- 
hension. We apply the name especially to young people who 
express opinions on subjeets they do notunderstand, and by their 
rash decisions offend those to whom they ought to show deference. 

809 ®a idj gutn legten mal beu §ejenberg erfteige, expresses the 
poet's hope and wish that this play will give the coup-de-grace 
to the superstitious belief in witchcraft. Sßeil meiu gäßcfyen trübe 
läuft, allegorically implying that the devil, as represented in old 
German traditions, is now quite out of date. 

010 &iöbetl>ere, from STröbcI, old rubbish, old clothes and rags, is 


Saßt bte ©etegettljett nid;t fahren! 

vUifntcrtjant blidt nad; meinen SBaaren ; 

@3 )k\}t basier gat mand;ertei. 

Uni? bo$ ift nid;tö in meinem Nabelt, 

©ein feiner auf bev CSrbe g(eid;t, 

&a£ nid;t einmal jnm tnd/t'gen ©d/aben 

©er 9Eenf$en unb ber 2Be(t gereid;t 

Mein T)oId; ift fyier, bon bem nid;t 53lut gcfloffen, 

Stein Äeld), au$ beut fid; nid;t, in ganj gefnnben Setb 

Skrjefyrenb fyeißeö ©ift ergoffen, 

sicin (5d;mnct, ber nid;t ein UebenSüntrbig 2Beib 

23erfül)rt, fein @d;tt)ert ba8 nid>t ben SBunb gebrod;en, 

9iid;t etwa tyinterrncfs ben ©egenmann burd;fto$en. 8U 

grau illtulmtc ! 8l2 fie berftefyt mir fd)(ed;t bte gelten, 
©etfym, gefd;elm! ©cfd;et)n, getfyan ! 
Verleg' fie fid; auf 9totigfeiten ! 
92nr Heiligkeiten jiel;n nn$ an. 813 

a witcb or a hag who sells such stuff. In the same sense the 
word £vöbeljube is used, a jew dealing in old clothes. 

811 There is nothing in her störe that has not contributed its 
aid to a deed of crime and death: no dagger that has not drawn 
the life-blood, no goblet that has not conveyed poison to unsus- 
pecting lips, no jewel that has not seduced a maid or wife, no 
sword that has not been disgraced by a secret blow, given behind 
its victim's back. All these are enumerated as the instruments 
by which this cousin of the devil seeks to lead man to crime, 
and these are the recommendations which she gives to her cus- 

812 Claiming the same rclationship with this witch as with the 

R!3 Goethe now directs his sarcasm against the restless dis- 
satisfied spirit of the day, when men were never contented with 
anything but what was novel : their pleasures after a time palied 
them, and they were obliged to seek out some new means of ex- 
citement. And so it was with their crimes ; the very instruments 



£)a6 kl) mtcfy nur ui$t f elbft uergeffe ! 
5>ctg* icfy mir baö bocfy eine itfeffe ! 814 

©er ganje (Strubel 8l5 ftrebt nad) oben ; 
©u glaubft ju fd;ieben unb bit toirft gefcfyoben, 

2Ber iftbenn baö? 


23etrad?tc fie genau ! 
Silitf) 86 iftba3. 

of crime — dagger, poison, or whatever it might be, excited no 
interest, nay, could not attract their notice unless they had the 
merit of novelty. 

814 Faust is now taken into the second circle. 

2)ie[|"c, literally " a fair," " a market : " as these fairs were the 
scene of amusements of every description, and generally of the 
lowest stamp, the word f,9)ie[fe," is also used figuratively for 
" revelry." — Faust's exclamation therefore is, " what awful 
revelry ! " 

815 ©trübet, " a whirlpool " — and figuratively " a whirl of plea- 
sures or dissipation : " the word is connected with the Swedish 
" strida " and the English " stride." 

816 Lilith, a Hebrew word meaning " the nightly," bte 9?äd)tige, 
and found in Isaiah XXXIV. 14, in which passage it has been 
rendered in the Vulgate by the word "Lamia," in Luther's 
translation by „ÄoMb," in the English Version by " screech-owl,"' 
while other translations have " an ugly night-bird." According 
to an old tradition of the Eabbins, previous to the formation of 
Eve, God had created a woman, to whom the name Lilith was 
given. This idea no doubt took its origin from the words used 
in Genesis I. 27. " So God created man in bis own image ; 
male and female created he tliem" — whereas (it is argued) Eve 
was not formed tili some short time after — (vide Gen. II. 21.) 
The tradition goes on to State that this Lilith was forsaken by 
Adam, and while Eve became the mother of humanity, Lilith, 
who had turned into a huge she-devil, daily brought forth a verv 




yjl e p l) t ft o p i) e l c 8. 
3lbamö erfte grau. 
9tfmm bid; in s 3ld;t oov t^tetl fd;tfneu paaren, 
95or biefem ©d;mutf, mit beut fie einjia, prangt, 
SBeim fie bamtt beu jungen 3ftamt erlangt, 
©o lägt fie tfyn fobalb nid;t wieber fahren. 8l7 

^a fifcen gtoct, bie 5Ütc mit ber jungen ; 818 
£)ie fyaben fdjon ftaS SHecfytS 819 gefpruugen ! 

©aö l;at mm t;eute feine 9?ufy\ 

legion of imps, hundreds of which, however, luckily for mankind, 
she herseif destroyed as soon as born ; her enmity was not con- 
fined to her own offspring, for she had deadly power over infants, 
and could destroy boys under three days old, and girls less than 
twenty days, uuless protected by some counteracting power — from 
this arose the Jewish custom of hanging round the neeks of their 
children amulets, bearing the naraes of the three angels, Senoi, 
Sansenoi, and Sanmangeloph. 

This fiend had also the most beautiful hair, which was a snare 
to be particularly guarded against by young men ; she may be 
compared with the old heathen myth of the Gorgons — indeed 
she may perhaps be identified with Medusa, with her serpent- 
hairs, and power to kill by a look. 

617 Mephisto wams Faust against the Siren beauty of her locks, 
as it is no easy matter for a man once ensnared by them, to free 
himself from her power. Mephisto's aim is to raise Faust's 
curiosity as to her seduetive beauty, rather than to warn him 
against her. 

■* H The pair pointed out by Faust are an old and a young 
witch, thus exhausted by dancing as to attract the philosopher's 
peculiar attention. 

819 2öa§ *e$t3 ßefpruttßeti, an idiomatic expression for " they ^7 
must have enjoyed a great deal, or had great fun already." 



(SS gefyt jum neuen ^anj ! 9?un fomm ! toir greifen 31t. 
3 a U ft. (mit ber jungen tanjenb). 
@mft fyatt icfy einen fd;önen STraum ; 
Da fafy ity einen Apfelbaum, 
gmei fd;öne Steffel glänzten bran ; 
©ie reiben mid?, tcfy (tieg fytuan. 

Die @d;öne. 
Der $epfeld;en Begehrt tfyr fetjr, 
Unb fcfyon com sßarafctefe fyer. 
23on greuben füfyl' icfy mid; fcetoegt, 
Dag aucty mein ©arten fold;e trägt. 821 
^e^^ifto^^ele^ (mit ber selten), 
©nft ^att* iety einen tauften £raum ; 
Da fafy id; einen gefpaltnen Saum, 

Die Sitte 
Qty biete meinen beften ©rüg 
Dem bitter mit beut ^ferbef uft ! 

^rofto^antaSmift 822 
SBerfhtctyteS SBotf ! n>aö unterftefyt ifyr euefy ? 
§at man eu$ tauge niifyt betoiefen, 

820 On the " witches' Sabbath," aecording to populär super - 
stition, the dancing commenced immediately after feasting, and 
was kept up incessantly tili morning light dispersed them. There 
is 011 the Blocksberg, near the witches' well, a parched, barren 
place, still known as the " witches' dancing place." 

821 The apple is doubtlessly selected here, as being the forbidden 

822 This word is one of Goethe's own coining, and is introduced 
to give vent to his spite against Nicolai, who has already ap- 
peared as a " will-o'-the wisp." He is now brought forward in 
the different character, of a Proctophantasmist, i.e. a " Back- 
ghost-seer" (from the Greek npcoKros and (^dvTacr^a) and is 


ein ©etft ftcfyt nie auf orbeutltd;en güßetl ? 
9f£un tanjt it;r gar, und anbern .lUcnfci;cu glcid; ! 

© le o d; ö n e (tanjenb.) 
SBaä totü beim ber auf uuferm 53all ? 

Sauft (tanjenb). 
(ii ! ber ift eben überall. 8i3 
28a3 anbre tanken, mu§ er fctyä£cn. 
.staun er ntd)t {eben (Stritt befd;tt>ä£en. 
So ift ber @<$rttt fo gut als nityt gefctyelm, 
21m meiften ärgert Um, fobalb tmr t>oni>ärtö gc^rt. 
3öenn il)r eucfy fo im Greife breiten wolltet, 
SEBte er'3 in fetner alten Wütyc tlmt, 824 
£)a$ fyie^ er allenfalls nocfy gut ; 
23efonber$ toenn ifyr ifyn barum begrüßen folltet. 

$ r o 1 t o p t) a n t a ö m i ft. 
3fyr fetyb nod? immer ba ! s J?ein, ba§ ift unerhört. 
3>erfc^tt)inbet bod> ! mir fyaben ja aufgeklärt ! 825 * 
£>a8 Xeufelvtyatf, 826 e« fragt nad) feiner SRegeL 

held up to farther ridicule, because, after all his preaching, 
writing and thundering against the belief in witche3 and gliosts, 
he liimself feil inio the absurd delusion that he was haunted by 
evil spirits, of whom he at last only got rid by the ingenious 
device of applying leeche3 to his spine ! Not content with keep- 
ing his troubles to himself, he lectured on the subject, and actualiy 
published a long weary essay on his affliction and its eure, in his 
„TOtofoMföe 2^anblungen."_(I. 53.) 

823 Alluding to Nicolai's character of meddling and finding 
fault with everything and everybody. 

n * Keferring to horses or other animals employed in turning 
the wheels of a mill ; like them, the poor critic Nicolai is blind - 
folded, and keeps going over the same weary ground, over and 
over again. 

825 Having enlightened the world with his writings, and re- 
futations, Nicolai is perfectly astonished to find witches, who 
have also the audacity to dance. 

826 £enfel8£acf are the clever literary men who were above 
taking notice of good Nicolai's grumbling. 



2öir ftnb fo flug, unb bennocfy ftmft'S in £eget. 
2£te lange fyab' ity nid;t am SEBafyn fyinauSgefefyrt 
Unb nie tutrb'ö rein, bag ift bod; unerhört ! 

£)te (Schöne. 
(So Ijört bod; auf uns fyter gu enütyiren ! 

3d? fag'S euefy ©eiftern in« ©efufrt, 
£)en ©etfteSbefyotiSmuS leib' tefy nid;t ; 
9Jtein ©eift lann tfm nid)t e^erciren. 82!) 

(§8 rotrb fortgetangt. 
Jpeut, \tif tety, ttuft mir ntc^tö gelingen ; 

827 In „Segel." This word has been the subjeet of an immense 
number of the most absurd notes : amongst other explanations 
it was taken for ©gel (a leech) with the diobolical X prefixed, 
and was there fore said to mean the devil. There seems however 
little doubt that the allusion is to Tegel, a little village near 
Berlin, which belongs to the Humboldt farnily, and was forrnerly 
a hunting seat of the great Elector: for in the year 1797, a 
ghost is said to have appeared there, and notwithstanding all 
Nicolais protests against its truth or possibility, the story gained 
very general belief in the neighbourhood (vide ^Berliner ^Blätter, 6. 
9?oö. 1797.) Filniore has compared the whole affair to the cele- 
brated " Cock-lane ghost." 

828 He has long tried to perform the duties of Hercules in 
sweeping the Augean stable of German literature — but all in 

«29 These lines refer to the period of which Carlyle says : " a war 
" of all the few good heads in the nation, with all the many bad 
"ones, beganin Schiller's „2Kufenahnana^," 1793- The Xenien, 
" a series of philosophic epigrams jointly by Schiller and Goethe, 
" descended then unexpectedly, lik'e a flood of ethereal light, on 
"the German literary world, quickening all that was noble into 
" life, but visiting the ancient empire of dullness with astonish- 
" ment and unknown pangs." 

Nicolai in his narrowmindedness cannot bear these fiery spirits, 
and he openly declares he will never submit to their despotism, 
as his own spirit (observe the double sense of the word) is unable 
to exercise similar sway. 


Ted; eine Dieife nelnn' ich immer mlt MJ 
Uub hoffe nodj, &or meinem testen «Schritt, 
£)ie Teufel uub bie Siebter 51t bcjtt)ingen. 

(5t nrirb fid; gletd) in eine Sßfüfee feigen , 
Taö ift bie 5lrt tote er fid; fulagirt. 831 

3u ffauft, ber auö bem £ans getreten ift. 
SöaS läffeft bn baö fd;öne U T iäbd;cn fahren ? 
£)a$ bir 311m £an$ fo liebtid) fang. 

?ld) ! mitten im ©efange fprang 
(im rotfyes SföäuSdjen ityr aus bem üKunbe. 8: ' 2 

£)aS ift toa$ 9ted;t$ ! £a3 nimmt man nid;t genau ; 
©enug bie ilWinS war bod; ntd;t grau. 8;J3 
SBer fragt barnad; in einer ©d;äfcrftmibe ? 

£>aun fa() id; — 



SDlcpW** fieX>ft bu bort 
(sin btaffeS, fdbtfneä föinb adein unb ferne ftefyen ? 
<Ste fdu'ebt fid; laugfam nur uom Ort, 
<&k fctyeint mit gefcfylojjnen gügen ju gelten. 

830 Alluding to Nicolai's huge volume of travels, into which he 
crammed an immense quantity of dry uninteresting matter, ap- 
parently for the mere purpose of increasing the bulk of his book : 
Goethe therefore sarcastically hints that his exploits on the 
Blocksberg will be too great temptation for his pen, and are sure 
to be published before long. 

831 BnlaQixt, from the French " soulager." 

* 32 According to a superstitious belief that a red mouse or cat 
sprang from the mouths of witches as soon as they feil aslecp. 
833 rpj^ g re y mouse j s another emblem for death. 1 , 


3cfy mu(3 benennen, bag mir bändet, 
5Da§ fie bem guten ©uetd;eu .qleic^t. 831 

£aj} baS nur ftefyt ! £)abei n>trb'ö nicmanb ttofyl 
m ift ein ^auberbitb, Ift lefcloS, ein 3boL 835 
3fym ju Begegnen ift nt cl)t gut ; 
äSom ftarren 23licf erftarrt be$ Sütafcfyen SBlttt, 
ilnb er wirb faft in Stein oerfebrt, 
23on ber ÜJJtebufe ^aft bu ja gehört. 836 

güriüafyr, eS finb bie Hugen einer £obten, 
£)ie eine tiebenbe §cmb ntdjt fc^tog. 
£)a£ ift bie SBruft, bie ©reteben mir geboten, 
2)a3 ift ber füge l<ei£, ben tefy genog. 

^a§ ift bie ^anbetet, bu leicfyt oerfüfyrter £fyor ! 837 
£)eun jebem fommt fie tote fein ^iebeben oor. 

g a u ft. 
SBetcb eine SBotme ! toelcfy ein Reiben ! 
3d; !ann oon biefem SSItcf ntd?t fd;eibetu 
2öie fonberbar muß biefen frönen £>al8 
(Sin einzig rotfyeS ©dmürd;en fc^müden, 
9?td;t breiter alö ein ütftefferrüden ! 838 

834 In the midst of this revelry Faust' s conscience awakes, and 
lie sees in the distance the victim of his passions standing alone 
and deserted, with fettered feet, »mit gefd)toffnen güßen.* 

835 u jj | » j s taken here in the sense of Homer's eidwXov 
i.e. a shadowy apparition, and not as now used to signify an 
objeet of worship or affection. The exaet meauing here is " a 
lifeless ghastly phantom ! " 

8!6 Mephisfopheles tries to persuade Faust that the apparition 
is only Medusa (vide nete 818.) 

837 This is just the charm — the phantom appears to every one 
in the form of his own bride .. 

ss8 ^hat a horrible sight ; round her neck he sees a single 



?Jt x e p l) i ft o 4? I) e l e ö. 
®an$ red;t ! id) fei?" cö ebenfalls. 
Sic fann baö >paupt aucb nntcr'm Arme tragen ; K3y ' 
ronn *ßerfeu$ f;at"ö ifyr abgc|d;(ageu. — 
9te immer btefc Suft jum SBafm ! 
Ätemm' bod; fcaö §ügeld;cn fyeran ! 
frier tft'S fo luftig tote im gratet ; 8, ° 
Unb fyat man mir'S nicfyt angetan, 
@o fei/ id) n>al)rtid; ein £l;cater. 
2öa8 gibt'S beim ba? 


©leid; fängt man lieber an. 
(Sin neues Stüd, basierte @tü<f fcon fieben; 
So biet ju geben ift allster ber $3raud;. 
Gin Dilettant 812 fyat e$ gefd;rieben, 

narrow crimson string, not broader than the back of a knife, 
alluding to Margaret's doom to die through the executioner. 

839 Alluding to the story of St. Dionysius, who, according to 
the Roman Catholic legend, walked t wo miles vvith hishead under 
his arm, after his execution. 

640 The Krater is a populär place of resort at Vienna, especially 
for the lower classes on Sunday. At one time it was not less 
famous for populär dramatic Performances and its ^Surftet, (Punch) 
than no w for the reckless merriment of the people. 

841 Alluding to the great difficulty of satisfying the public by 
private theatrical Performances. 

812 Johnson defines a Dilettante as " one who deliffhts in cul- 
tivating or promoting science," but in German its meaning is 
much more confined, and sismifies one who takes a delio-ht in 
cultivating or promoting science, or more generally the firie arts, 
though he cloes not raaJce it his profession : In this sense it 
nearly corresponds witli the English conventional use of the word 
" Amateur." It afterwards came to mean a mere dabbler, a 
"smatterer," if we may be allowed the word — as one who was 
not professional^ acquainted with a science was pretty sure not 
to excel in it. We may mention that from the Greek iSiojTrjs 


Uub Dilettanten fpteleifß and;. 

^erjcifyt, itjx £>errn, wenn tcfy öerfdjrohtbe ; 

Wlid) büetttrt'ö, m ben Sßorfyang aufjujiefyn. 

Söenn id; eudj auf bem 25tocf$berg ftnbe, 8n 
TaS ftnb' id> gut ; benn ba gehört ü;r fyftt. ■* 

lit. an unprofessional man, we have our word i'/iotf, by exactly 
the same argument. 

These dilettanti at one time regularly overwhelmed Germany's 
literature and fine arts : there was not a village, nay, scarcely 
could a famiiy bc found, in which there was not a dramatic author, 
whose compositions were performed by buch dilettante companies. 
Goethe had justly the greatest aversion to these authors and 
their staffs, as they were never able to accomplish properly what 
they took in hand, more espeeially as they were too conceited to 
undertake some simple or easy pieces which were within their 
reach, but alvvays selected the most difficult and complicated 

843 2)ifetttren instead of befecttren, to be delighted. 

844 A sarcastic wish, meaning "may I find you far away from 
here." «©ei? auf ben ©roden« or wroenn 3)it auf bem 23rocfen roärft,« 
is as usuai to say in the Hartz mountains as it is in Southern 
Germany, baß Sit bod) bort roär'ft, roo ber Pfeffer roädjft, or ©ety fyin 
reo ber Pfeffer roädjft"— go where the pepper grows, that is, if you 
were only miles and miles away. 

845 " As that is the fit place for you." 



(Dberomi und Sföiamaa pldmj ^orki>it 



^cute vnbcu tmr einmal 

846 Amid the tumult of criticism that now follows in this 

"Intermezzo" we must, to use the words of Dr. Johnson, " con- 

sider ourselves as a ship in a poetical tempest, impelled at the 

same time by oppositc winds and dashed by the waves from every 

quarter, but held upright by the genius of the great poet." 

This Intermezzo, written entirely in short epigrams, may be 
looked on as an experiment on Schiller's Suggestion, that a whole 
comedv might be written with success in this form. The title of 
it is borrowed from Shakespeare's immortal poetical fiction, the 
Midsummer-Night's Dream. Of Shakespeare we maysay, asre- 
gards the personification of the fairy world, what Herodotus said 
of Homer with respect to bis creation of theold Greek Mythology, 
that he has peopled heaven. Shakespeare by the power of his 
genius was the first to give forms to the various elfs and cobolds, 
and to represent the numerous fictions of bygone times as actual 
living characters. The prineipal source from whieh Shakespeare 
derived his ideas of the reaJm of elfs, was the populär fairy tale 
known as " The merry pranks and jests of Robin Goodfellow," 
Avhich was first published in 1595. Four years, however, before 
the publication of this tale we find the same eharacter introduced 
by the same name, in a comedy entitled " The two Italian Gen- 
tlemen," though he is frequently spoken of there by his other 
familiär title of " Hobgoblin." This Eobin Goodfellow seems to be 
identical with the German elf or cobold //$ned)t 9?u^^rt, 9?it^rec^t, 
9Ju^ert or 9htyj>ert." In the sixteenth and seventeerith centuries 
the Germans used to introduce a jester or fool in their comedies 
commonly called Ruprecht or Rüppel. In Svabia this Ruprecht ap- 
pears as Hollepeter or Holepopel (Hobgoblin), and is in his doings 
and sayings identical with Shakespeare's Puck, in whom we find 
the dramatieal prototype of all the Rupprechts and Rupperts. 
This Puck may betraeed to the Latin " Lar familiaris," for the 


ättiebingS hxufre @£fyHe. 
Filter 33erg unb feud^teö ütfycrt, 


Germ an translation of this expression was " ingournen," meaning 
" keeper of the inner house," which keepers were called in many 
parts of Germany selke, seile, wherefrom we may derive " feller," 
fellow, as well as gut gesell, good fellow. Thatunder Puck, Good 
fellow, the son of Oberon or Obreon was meant is clear, frora the 
analogous description of this cEaracter both in Germany and 
England. Puck was thought of as a little, shrewd cobold in a 
leather dress, with very brown face, able to change his person, 
and very clever in playing amusing but harmless tricks on men. 
Throughout the whole of Goethe's Intermezzo we may trace this 
mischievous spirit of Puck. Puck was the son or servant of 
Oberon, Auberon, Alberon, Alberich, Eiberich, Alban, Alb, Alp, 
Elb, from the last of which we have the Gothic Albs and the 
Anglo-Saxon Elf, according to Grimm the real meaning of 
which word was genius, i.e. " an embodied protecting power ; " 
he connected the word Alb, Elf, also with the Latin albus, and 
the Greek a\<pos (white, shining) meaning therefore a white, 
good spirit. Titania, the queen of the Elfs, has received her name 
from Ovid's Circe, who was the daughter of the Sun-God Titan, 
and called Titania. In imitation of Shakespeare, who assigncd 
to his fairies India as a dwelling place, night as the period of 
their terrestrial exisfence, and the empireof dreams as their field 
for fantastic exploits, Goethe brings in Oberon and Titania as 
presiding gods on the "Walpurgis night to connect thus the world 
of Sagas and fairy tales with the superstitions of the Middle 
Ages. Like Shakespeare, who has peopled in his '• Midsummer- 
Night's Dream " this world with so wondeiful an incorporation of 
the most fantastic fictions, giving a tharming life to pea-blos- 
soms, cobwebs, moths and mustard-seeds, that we know not how 
to describe it except in the poets' own words : 

" The poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling, 
Doth glance from heaven to earth, from eartli to heaven, 
And, as imagination bodies forth 
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen 
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing 
A local habitation and a name — " 

Tlius has Goethe peopled his " Walpurgis-Night's Dream," this 

ghostly world of satire and medieval superstition, with beings of 

reality who appear in the form of spirits. "Whilst Shakespeare 

has selectcd affairs of jealousy and love as the principal amuse- 


3)aö tft bie gange ©ccnc ! w 
Daj3 bic £)od;jeit gölten fct> 
©ott'n fündig 3al;r fetjn oorüber ; 
Slbcr ift bcr Streit vorbei, 
£)aö gelben tft mir lieber. 848 

@etyb iljr (9etfter ü)o td; bin, 
@o jeigt'ö in btefett (gtunben ; 
tfönig unb bie tfönigm, 
Sie finb aufs neu berbuuben. 81 ° 

ment of his sprites, Goethe' s aim was to avenge the offendcd queens 
of beauty, truth and poetry. . w ^ ; 

847 Mieding, montioned in this first epigram, was mtfcninist to 
the court-theatre at Weimar and celebrated for his ability. Goethe 
has written a beautiful poem on " Mieding's death," in which we 
find the following impressive lines : 

„5öie bic Fallit man# tutberroärt'.qe Äraft 
SSetbtnbenb jtüingt, unb flreitenb tarier fdjafft ; 
©o smana, er jebes §anbn)erf, jeben gleiß, 
2)e8 2)tc$ter8 Sßelt entflanb auf [ein ©etyetß ; 
Unb, [o fcerbient, getoäfyrt bie SJJufe uur 
*2)eu Tanten tfym — 2)trector ber 9iatur, 
In his „2)er £rium^ ber ©nfamfett" which has been called by 

him a dramatical "caprice" in six acts, Merculo mentions Mieding 

in the following words : 
, f Unfer §of'(5tat ift mit einem feljr gef^idteit 2)tanne toerme&rt Sorben, 

bcm trir ben £ite( als ^aturmeifter, Directeur de la nature, gegeben 


843 Fifty years of married life are required to constitute a golden 
wedding, but the Herald insinuates that to him the end of the 
strife seems golden, in allusion to Oberon's and Titania's known 
quarreis, which formed the subjeet of so many comedies, poems 
and romances. 

849 By these lines we are reminded of Wieland's Oberon, a 
charming compo&ition füll of descriptive beauty, in which the novel 
" Huon de Bordeaux," Shakespeare's " Midsummer-Night's 



Äommt ber tynä, unb brefyt ficfy quer 
Unb f cfyleift ben guß im SReitjen ; 
£unbert fommen fytnterfyer 
©tcfy aucfy mit ifym ju freuen. ^ 

$riel bewegt ben (Sang 
3n fyimmlif d) reinen £önen ; 
S3iete graben tocft fein fttang, 
£)od? loät er aucfy bie (Schönen. 8,M 

Dream," and Chaucer's "Merchant's Tale" are alternately used, 
and in which Oberon takes an oath not to see Ins queen again, 

S3i§ ein getreues tyaax, üom @d&i<ffcrf fetbfi erforen 
SDurcfy feufdje Eteb' in etn8 sufammenfüeßt, 
Unb ^robefeft in Setben, nne in grenben, 
3)tc §er&en ungetrenut wenn and) bie Leiber fdjetben, 
2)er llncjetreuen ©djnlb bnrd) feine Unfdjulb büjst. 
Oberon's and Titania's reconciliation is also the subject of 
Weber's celebrated opera " Oberon." 

860 Puck. (See Note 846.) " Whenever this spirit of mischief 
stirs, he is followed by hundreds of knavish sprites." 

851 Striet, in the original Hebrew means : " Hon of the Lord." 
(II. Sam. XXIII, 15., 20. Isai. XXIX, 1, 2.*) Agrippa, in 
his " Occult Phtjosopliy," Book III. Ch. XXIV. entitled : 

" Of the names of spirits and their various imposition ; and 
of the spirits that are set over the stars, signs, corners of the 
heaven, and the elements " — says : 

" There are also four princes of the angels, which are set over 
the four winds, and over the four parts of the world, whereof 
Michael is set over the eastern wind ; Raphael over the western ; 
Gabriel over the northern ; tfariel, who by sonie is called Uriel, 
over the southern." 

DifFerent spirits also were assigned to the elements, " for in- 
stance to the air Cherub ; to the water Thersis ; to the earth 
Ariel ; to the fire Seraph, or according to Philon, Nathaniel. 

Gervinus in his classical book on Shakespeare (Set^tg, 2Bifl)eIm 

* In Luther' s translation of. the Bible we find " Ariel " raentioned also in Ez. XLIII, 
15.— tmt this must he a misprmt for "Altar.". 


©arten bic fiel; vertragen wollen, 
Vernen'ö üon uns beiden! 
©enn fiel; p>t\t (leben f ollen, 
s in\inel;t man fic nur gu fd;cibeu. 

% \ tania, 
©dnnollt.ber Sföann unb grillt bic grau, 
<So faßt fte nur bcfyenbc, 
güfyrt mir md) bem Mittag ©ie, 
Unb 31m an Sorbens tfnbe! 852 

Ord;efter £utti. 


tftiegenfdjnauj' unb SUtöcfennaf 
TOt iljren Stirocrmanbten, 
grojeb im &mb' unb ©riß' im ©ra$, 
$)a$ finb bie s Diitfi!auten ! *■ 

©etjt, ba tommt ber £)ubelf aef ! 
@ö ift bie ©etfenbtafe, 
§ört ben ^dmedefcfyuicfefdmacf 
£)urd? feine ftumpfe üftafe! 

(Sngefmann 1849. 4. SBä'nbe.) in speaking of the " Tcmpest " gives 
the following description of Ariel : 

„öS ftnb bie ©etfter, bie im SolfSglauben ben toter ©fementen borfidjen; 
fcie ber 2)ic^ter in s .|3roSfcero'8 ©eroalt gegeben Ijat, mit bereit pfiffe er bie 
@onne toerftuftert, bie @ee anfftürmt, ©eroitter erregt unb bic ©räber er- 
öffnen fann tbrem üDcetfter, s ßro8bero'3 geliebten ©eifterboteu, bem 

Slrtet, fdjeint er bie vereinte toft biefer (Stementargeifter tterttebett gn 
fyaben. (5r erfdjeint einmal als ©eemjmtolje, al3 fteuergeift, als (Srbgetft ; 
feine to orberrfd)enbe -iftatur aber, rote e3 fein Sftame ansbrütfr, ift 
bic beS ©tilgen, beS SuftgeifteS." 

852 Oberon and Titania State that the surest way of euring 
quarrelsome people is to separate them. 

883 The musie of the elfs is here performed by flies, gnats, 
and crickets, toridicule the confused harrnoniea invented by those 
who wish to be considered as original composers. 

854 ©djniffönaf, like 3ia^a!, tltngflang, is a ward used to express 


©etft ber ftcfy crft bilbet. 

©pimtenfug unb £rötenbaud; 
Unb glügelcfyer. bem Sßicfytdjen ! 
gtoar ein £fyierd/en gtebt e8 nid;t, 
Qqü) gibt e8 ein ©ebid/tcfyen. 855 

(Sin ^ßärd)en. 
kleiner ©cfyritt nnb fyofyer <Sprung 
£mrcfy Sonigtfyau unb £>üfte ; 
3toar bu trtypelft mtr genug, 
Docfy gefyt'S nicfyt in bie £üfte. BBI 

Neugieriger SRetfenber. 
3ft ba3 nicfyt 2Ha«ferafcenfyott? 
(sott td? ben klugen trauen? 
£)beron ben fcfyönen <3ott 
%ud) fyeute fyier ju fcfyauen! 8 ' i7 


fteine ftlauen, feinen @(^n)anj! 
£od? bleibt e$ außer 3 lre ^f e ^ 
<2o ti'ie bie ©ötter ©ried}enlanb$, 

confused nonsense. @#nccfef($tttcEefdjnfld is a coincd word, to 
express confusion tbat lasts a considevable time. 

855 A cutting satire against those poets who think that rhymes 
constitute poetry, who seem to be ignorant that even tbe shortest 
poem should be a coherent expression of thoughts. 

856 This little pair represent music and poetry. Poetry is 
described as Walking with small steps, music as making lofty 
bounds, which do not, however, enable eitber to rise into the air ; 
tbe meaning is, tbat wliere tbere is no inspiration iiom above all 
attempts in poetry as well as in music aie in vain. Tbis and 
tbe tbree preceding stiophes seem to bave been added at a later 
date, as tbey are in no vvay connected with Oberon's last words. 

857 In tbe curious traveller, who will not believe in the existence 
of so airy and spiritual a God as Oberon, we find an allusion to 
tbe bookseller Nicolai. (See Note 7üG.) 


<3o tft cutd; er ein Üeufet. 8M 

STi o r t i f d; c r .Uünftter. 
Sa8 idj ergreife ba$ tft Ijcut 
Sürroaljr nur ffigjemoeifc; 
£)ocfy id; bereite mid; bei 3ett 
3ur italiä'n'jcfyen Weife. 85! ' 


$ld;! mein Unglücf füljrt mid? fyer : 
Sßie toirb nid;t fyier gelubert! 
Unb tton bem gangen §e^en^eer 
©inb gtocte nur gepubert. 86() 

853 The orthodox is undoubtedly Frederic Leopold Stollberg,* a 
fanatical Romanist, who made liimself notorious by his attacks 
upon Schiller's „©ötter ©riedjetUattbS," in which the poet (though in 
a mere objective manner) paints with glowing colours the grief of 
an old Helenic Polytheist over the loss of his Olympus. That the 
translator of Homer's " Iliad," Plato's dialogues, and the tra- 
gedies of ^Eschylus, should have attacked Schiller for a panegyric 
on the poetical heaven of Greece justly provoked G-oethe's scorn, 
for nothing is so contemptible in an author as contradiction and 

859 In contrast with the Orthodox who wishes art and science 
to be viewed with the dim eye of sectarianism, Stands the northern 
artist who feels himself driven to Italy, the land of forms. Some 
commentators found in these lines an allusion to the celebrated 
Danish painter, Asmus Jacob Carstens, who died at Home in 
1798, and who was famous for his paintings in the " Kantian" 
style, the aim of which was to represent by colours the abstract 
ideas of time and space. That such attempts should have in- 
curred Goethe's sharpest satire is probable enough. 

860 This epigram in the mouth of the Purist (the renowned 
grammarian, Joachim Henry Campe, who in the Xenien appears 
as a washerwoman cleansing the language of Teut with sand and 
stone) is in vindication of Greek statuary. 

* Born November 7th, 1750, at Bramsted in the Duchy of Holstein, ambassador at 
Copenhagen and subsequently Danish Ambassador at Berlin; he and his whole i'amily 
embraeed Koman Catholicism in 1800, and from that time he attacked with all the 
enthusiasm of a convert the most eminent Protestant writers of Germany. 


3unge §e£e. 
£)er $uber ift fo tote ber <Kod 
gür alt' itnb graue 2Beibd;en; 
£)rum pfc' id; uadt auf meinem 33 ea 
Itnb geig' ein berbeö 2eibd/en. 

2Bir fyaben gu met Lebensart 
Um fyier mit eitel; $u maulen ; 
£)ocfy fyoff id), follt il;r jung unb gart, 
@o ti)ie iljr feib, verfaulen. 8Sl 

gliegenfd;nau^ unb SJtütfetmaf, 
Umfd;ti)ärmt mir nietyt bie üftadte! 
grofd; im 8aub unb ©rill' im ®ra$, 
<Bo bleibt bod? aud; im £acte ! 862 

2B i n b f a fy n e (nad) bev einen ©eite). 
©efellfcfyaft toie man ttmnfctyen lann. 
2Bal?rl)aftig (auter Bräute ! 
Unb 3unggefet(en, 3Jiann für 9Jiann, 
SDie tyoffmtngööoÜften Seute. 

SBinbfafyne (nad) ber anberen Seite). 
Unb tl)itt ftcfy nicfyt ber S3oben auf 
©ie alle ju berf dangen, 
©o ttnlt id) mit befyenbem Sau [ 
©leid? in bie §ölle fpringen. "% 

881 The old witch refuses to enter into a controversy on so 
delicate a subjeet, but teils her that young and beautiful though 
she be, a time will come when her beauty too will fade away and 
wither — mortalia euneta peribunt ! 

862 The conduetor admonishes his band to keep time and not 
to be confused by the presence of the younger witch. 

863 In the weathercocks turning from sidc to sidc we find 
represonted that school of undeeided critics who seem unable to 


?US 3nfcften fint> mir ba, 
9Äit flehten fetyarfen ©tyceren, 
Satan, unfern §crrn tyaipa, 
yiaty Würben ju ncreljren. Wfl 
(Sefyt ! roie fie in gebrängter @$aar 
s Jtaib jufammen fd?er t ^en ! 
$Im (*nbe fagen fie noefy gar 
©ie fyätten gute ^erjen. 

3dty mag in tiefem ^e^entjeer 
SBlity gar ju gern verlieren ; 
3>nn frettiefy biefe h)üßt' kl) efy'r, 
TO Stufen anjufütyren. 

50?it redeten beuten fttrb man n>a«. 

niake up their mind whether greater influence should be assigned 
to nature or to art, and who are consequently apt to turn from an 
unbounded worship of nature to a false, superficial morality. 
Goethe is again aliuding to the Counts Stollberg (two brothers), 
who were renowned in their youth for their gross disregard for 
decency and who in after life became the greatest enthusiasts in 

864 Xenien (Greek x* V0lv ) were called those presents which 
the Greeks were in the habit of making to their visitors and 
guests. The Koman epigrammatist, Martial, was the first to 
employ this word as a title for the sarcastic little couplets, which 
form the XHIth Book of his epigrams, and which he dedicated 
to his frierids and patrons. Under the same title there appeared 
in Schiller's renowned „Sttufenatmattad) für 1797" above 400 
distichs referring to the literary condition of Germany. The 
authors of these, Goethe and Schiller, had one common aim, viz. 
to correct by well-directed satire and plain-spoken truth the 
coarse tendency in German literature. The Xenien caused great 
Sensation throughout the literary world, and on aecount of their 
cutting irony are here defined as the children of Satan. 


$ omm, faffe meinen gipfel ! 

£)er 23locteberg, tote ber beutfcfye *ßarnaß, 

gat gar einen breiten (Gipfel . 835 

Neugieriger föeifenber. 

(Sagt roie Ijetßt ber fteife 3flamt ? 
(Sr getyt mit ftoljen ©^ritten ; 
(5r fdmobert tr>a$ er fdmobern !ann. 
„<£t foürt nad; Sefutten." "* 

3n bem klaren mag icfy gern 
Unb aucfy im Grüben fifcfyen ; 
£)amm fefyt ifyr ben frommen £>errn 
<5ity aucfy mit Teufeln mifdfyen. 887 

835 Hennings appears three several times ; once in his own 
name, and then as "Musaget*" and " Ci-devant genius of the 
age," the titles of tvvo newspapers edited by him. He set him- 
self up as supreme judge in criticism, but displayed such parti- 
ality and party spirit by favouring those who flattered him, and 
condemning his antagonists without any regard for their real 
merits, that Goethe makes him here assert, that he is an abler 
leader of witches than of muses. 

856 In the curious traveller we again recognize Nicolai, though 
now as the antagonist of Lavater, whoni he had accused of Roman 
Catholicism and Jesuitism. 

On fdjno^era see Note 176. 

867 By the Crane Lavater is to be understood, as Goethe him- 
self writing to Eckermann says : " His (Lavater's) gait was that 

*Wemayrefer the readertoabeautitul poemby Goethe under the title „OTufagetcn" 
m his collection of poems, headed ,,2krmifd)te ©cbid)tc," comparing the ,,3Rufagctcn" 
with busy early flies — thanking them ironically that they wake him, and make him 
rnn into the nearest beech-grove to save himself from their impudence : 

Unb ben letbigen 3nfeften 
©on!' t$ mandje gotbne «Stunbe, 
@etyb mir bodj, ifyr Unbequemen, 
SSon bem 2)id)ter l)o$ge}>riefen 
2118 bte toaljren SUinfageten. 



3a für bte grommen, Raubet mir, 
3fl alle« ein 2>et;tfel ; 
@ic bitten auf beut 33(o(föberg fyier 
®ar mandjeö (Sonöentifet. m 

of a crane, for which rcason he has to appear on the Blocks- 
berg as a crane." Lavater, certainly one of the most remarkable 
men of his ago, was born at Zürich, November loth, 1741. In 
his early youth he was clistinguishcd for a devotion to God and 
religion most unusual at his age ; but it was as a lyric poet that 
he first drew the public attention on himself by a collection of 
poems entiled, „©d&tüetjer Eieber" (1767.) A keen Observation, a 
gift which he enjoycd from childhood, and his conäequent know- 
ledge of men, enabled him to form a true sketch of any one's 
nature and character simply from his outward appearance, and 
so skilful did he become in this that he soon cenvinced himself 
that the physiognomy is nothing but an outward delineation of 
the in ward character. This theory he attempted in his later 
writings to form into a regulär and scientific System. So much 
mysticism, however, was mixed up with his doctrine that he met 
with a violent Opposition from all sides, and at last he himself 
began to doubt in the truth of his System. Goethe was once a 
great admirer of Lavater : he said of him after a visit to Zürich 
(1799) : „Sie £reffti<$Feit biefe« äftenföen foric&t fein 2Äunb au« ; 
wenn burd) 2tbtoefenfyeit ftdj bte 3bee öon tfym toerfd)tt>ädjt fyat, rotrb man 
auf 8 neue öon feinem SBefcn überragt. (Sr tft ber Söefte, ©roßte, SBet* 
fefie, 3üngfte alter fterbttdjen unb unfterbtic^en 2ftenf$en, bte idj renne." 
But when Lavater assumed the part of a prophet and set him- 
self up as an unquestionable authority in matters of faith, attack- 
ing with the greatest intolerance all those who were not of his 
own religious opinions, and when he compromised himself in 
defending an impostor like Cagliostro, he provoked both the 
disgust and the Opposition of Goethe, who was unable to bear 
such narrow-mindedness and partiality ; and hence we find the 
scholar and quondam-friend ranked among the evil spirits and 
witches on the Blocksberg, and ridiculed for his intolerance, pre- 
sumption, and superstitious belief in visions and supernatural 

868 In the child of the world we probably see the poet himself 
as he once contrasted himself with Lavater and Basedow. 


£)a fommt ja tooftl ein neueö Gtljor? 
3d; Ijöre ferne trommeln. 
„9ta ungeftört ! @$ finb im föofyr 
£)te unif onen Bommeln." 879 

2öte jeber bocty bie 53eine tupft, 
@td; tüte er tann fyerauSjiefyt ! 
£)er fttumme fyringt, ber plumpe fyupft 
Unb fragt nicfyt wie e3 ausfielt. m 

»^ro^ete redete, $ro£fyete üi\U, 
2)a8 SBcItftnb in ber bitten.« 

The child of the world laughs at the assumed infallibility of 
the crane, thus indicating that what passes with the world as 
piety is too often mixed with worldly purposes. Goethe in his 
„3tefyrmctrft§fejt ju ^ßtunbergroeiiern" makes the following analogous 
remark against intolerance, party-spirit and proselytism in mat- 
ters of faith : 

»3$ gel;e aber im 2anb auf unb nieber, 
Äctyer *) immer neue ©c&roeftern neue ©ruber 
Unb gläubige f ) fte all jitfammett 
2Jltt Rammlern« » SämmleinS * SiebeSftammen. 

869 A whole crowd of philosophers now appears. The title 
„^ctn^er" does not mean that only one dancer speaks, but the 
epigram is a description of the appearing dancers. With respect 
to the word Sbor, see Note 450. Sftofyrbommefn, bittern ; the 
monotonous bittern. Alluding to the noisy and hackneyed 
disputes between the difFerent schools of philosophy, which he 
says, might resemble the din of battle when at a distance, but 
when near were more like the monotonous chattering of the 

870 The dancing master sneers at everyone of them; he laughs 
at their awkward attitudes and clumsy antics (gambols,) wonder- 
ing all the while at the philosopher's conceit, which is above 
caring for appearances. 

• To seize by force and etratagcm. 

t ©läuligc turn them into benevers; the adjective is used here as a verb. 


£a$ fyctßt fiel; fetytoet baö Sumpenpacf 
itnb gab* fid; gern baö 9xcftd;en ; 
(§3 eint fie fyier ber SDubeljad, 
2Bte Or^cnö' Seier bie 23e[tjcn. * 71 


3d; (äffe mtd; nid)t irre fdpetn, 
SRi$t bnrd; fötftil nod; ätoeifel. 

$)er £enfet muß bod; etwas fetyn , 
2Bte ßäb"ö beim f onft and) £enfel ? rtT2 

Shtfcft from lüpfen, to lift, and fyityft from tupfen, to jump ; verbs 
which are no longer used with the unmodified u. 

871 The fiddler represents the independent man, who with his 
own free and clear coneeptions looks upon the quarreis, dissension 
and deadly hatred of these scholastics with unimpassioned eyes of 
a wisc man. His satire is very striking. These philosophers, 
he says, remind him of the lyre of Orpheus whose strains the 
wildest beasts of the forests would hasten to hear, for they are 
contented to assemble on the Blocksberg at the sound8 of a bag- 

872 Dogmatism in its strict philosophical sense, is that method 
of reasoning, which deduces special conclusions from certain 
cstablished general principles or axioms, which latter are ac- 
cepted and granted without proof. Mathematic is the essence of 
dogmatism. As this synthetic method is only practicable when 
we are perfectly sure that our first principles are indisputable 
laws, and as in philosophy such principles are impossible, the 
name dogmatism was given especially to such a method as 
built up a system upon principles, the truth of which was taken 
for granted without sufficient or perhaps without any proof. Kant 
however, goes beyond, and clefines dogmatism " as any doctrine 
which allows the possibility of a systematic Cognition of the 
nature of things." To this dogmatism is opposed on the ono 
side seepticism, which denies the possibility of such a systematic 
knowledge of general truth, and thereforc rejeets the possibility 
of any philosophical system; and on the other side criticism, 
which, aecording to Kant, proeeeds to a systematic theory of 



£)te 'ipijantafte in meinem (Sinn 
3ft bteßmat gar ju ^errtfd; : 
gürtoafyr, »erat idj ba8 aüeS bin, 
<3o bin tcfy fyeute narrt) $. 873 


£)a8 SBefen ift mir recfyt jur Qual 
Unb mug mtd; ha$ fcerbriejsen ; 
3ity fte^e fyter jum erjtenmat 
Wityt feft auf meinen git&en. 874 

knowledge by an examination of the powers of our faculties and 
intellect ; this examination shows, he maintains, that we are 
able to recognize objects only as they appear and not as they 
really are ; our knowledge therefore has only subjective cogency 
of evidence, and will never enable us to fathoin with certamty 
the real nature of things. 

873 Idealism was brought to its highest perfection by Fichte, 
though Bishop Berkeley must be regarded as the real author of 
it, as he was the first to attempt to prove, for the sake of 
exposing the sophistry of materialism, that extension and figure, 
hardness and softness, and all other sensible qualities are mere 
ideas of the mind, which cannot possibly exist in an insentient 
substance ; a theory which, it has been justly remarked, tends to 
unhinge the whole frame of human understanding, by shaking 
our confidence in those principles of belief which form an essen- 
tial part of its Constitution. In Fichte the idealism appears in 
its most exalted form, for regardless of nature, he accepts our 
pure subjectivity as the only truth ; asserting that all appearances 
of the outward world are nothing but mere creations of our mental 
perceptions. The spirit of this philosophical System consists in 
a reduction of everything to the " Ego," which is thus made the 
origine of all existing matter: and it is this tendency, this "I- 
am-I-philosophy " that Goethe now ridicules with the same 
power of mind with which he attacks the dry dogmatist in the 
above lines. 

874 Opposed to the Idealist is the Realist, who accepts that things 
actually and really exist quite independently of our coneeptions, 
and that all our knowledge depends cntirely on the reality and 


AKit biet Oevgttügen bin id) ta, 

Unb freue mid; mit tiefen ; 
Denn ocn ten Xeufeln faun id 
*Uuf gute Reiftet fcfyliejjen. 

2 te jp t if er. 

Sie getm ten ^(ämmdpeu auf v. : 
Unb ataub'u ftd> nah tcm @$< 
Auf Xeufcl reimt ter 3tteife( nur ; 
Xa bin id; recfyt am fycdjt. ' :,; 

grcfd; im l'aub unb (9rilT im ®xa§, 
s -taflud?te Dilettant. 
glteQenfdmau}' uns iWücfennaf 
3fyr fetyb bod) iUtuftfanten ! W7 

actual exUtencc of matter. Goethe shows us the Idealibt refoted 
on the Blocksberg by bis own systein, for jf all be boes aroimd 
him be "Ego" be owns be must be mad. The Realist on die 
contrary feels himself equally in a dilernma ; bis reason teil;-, bim 
there are things around bim wbich are not material, yet in spiie 
of his firm and solid matter be feels the ground shakiug undor 
bis feet. 

The word „baß" in ti . 1 line is equivalent to „gar u 

The supernaturalist co:. imself delighted with such 

Company, as the existtnee of evil tpirits convinees him of the 
reality of bis own benevolent phantoms. 

876 The seeptie compares the supernaturalist to a man dig 
for hidden treasures, a3 he often thinks bimself to truth 

when really he is the farthefct from it. By intiodueiug the word 
»»Btteifet" (doubt) the only rhyme to „Xeufel'' the ow- 

ledges that it ia thib diabolical dement in wbich he feell 
most at home. 

7 The conduetor is in a rage because bis band lo*es time in 
consequence of the confusion eamed by quanelling philosop 

.the, in ridicuüng the different philofcOphicaJ sjstemB, do<. 
wish to condeznn all phik 
rn this taence tl ical hhould t&ke tLe Iead of the tleoietital. 


£)te ©emanbtcn. 
©anSfouct fo fyenSt ba$ §eer 
33on luftigen ©efd;öpfen ; 
$uf ben güßen gefyt's ntcfyt mefyr, 
£)rum gefyn mir auf ben ftöpfen. " r " 

£)ie Unbefyütflictyen. 
©onft fyaben mir mannen Riffen erfc^ran^t, 
^Run aber ©ott befohlen ! 
Unfere ©dntfye finb burcfygetanjt, 
Sßir laufen auf nadten ©ofyten. 879 

23on bem Rumpfe fommen mir, 
SöorauS mir erft erftanben ; 
£)ocfy finb mir gletcfy im SReifyen fyier 
£)ie gtän^enben (Manten. 88 ° 

$lu8 ber §öfye fd;oJ3 icfy fyer 

Wc may refer here to Goethe's remark in his aphorisms on 
Natural Philosophy : „2>ie 3Siffenfd)aft ttrirb baburdj feljr jitrüctgc- 
galten, baß man ftd) abgibt mit bcm, \mQ nidjt ttiffenöwerty, unb mtt 
bem, toa8 md)t imßbar ift.» 

878 After the philosophers come the politicians in spectral pro- 
cession. The diplomatists whirl on, dancmg as it were on their 
heads; alluding to the headlong recklessness of their class of 
men, who will bend, bow, scrape and smile for the sake of popu- 
larity and power. 

879 In this helpless and clumsy crowd we find personified the 
thousands of idlers who had been at one timc allowed to bask in 
the sunshine, to monopolize court favour, but have now lost their 
places and themselves miserable for having been taken out of 
their dement (nattery and idleness.) 

880 In the Wildfire we see the parvenu, who having risen by 
means of a revolution to the highest dignities, forgets all his 
old democratical tendencies and becomes the most üattering of 
gallants, one of the humblest of courtiers and the most obliging 
of servants. 


3m Stern s unb geucrfctyetue, 
Stege nun im ©rafe quer, 
©et fyüft mir auf bte ©eine ? M1 

$)ie aRafftöe«. 
$lafe unb ^tafc ! unb rtng^erum 
©o gcljn bte ©räöctyett nteber, 
®etfter t'ommcn, ©etfter auefy 
©ie fabelt plumpe ©lieber. m 


tretet ntcfyt fo mafttg auf, 
Slöte (Slepfyantenfälber, 
Unb ber *ßlumft' an biefem gaej 
(Set; ^3ud ber berbe fetber ! ■" 


©ab bie liebenbe %tur, 
($ab ber ©etft cuefy glügel, 

881 As the exaet opposite of the Wildfire we find in the Falling 
Star one of those helpless creatures who have been placed by 
chance of birth, without any merits of their own, amongst the 
highest dignitaries of a State ; but thrown upon the world at 
large by a change of circumstances have found themselves useless 
menibers of society. Goethe aims at those grand titled counts, 
barons, Chevaliers, who after the French revolution crowded into 

882 The " solid ones " represent that sturdy but unfortunate de- 
struetive dement of revolutionists, who, regardless of everything 
in their way, plod on towards their aim ; — they have good ten- 
dencies but their limbs are so heavy and unwieldy that they often 
destroy and ruin everything in their course. 

883 Puck admonishes the procession of ghosts and airy phan- 
toms to be gentle. Sftafttg from maften, fattened ; hence heavy, ü 
thick. Puck (see Note 846) wishes hiraself to be the clumsy 
elf, that is one who is allowed to act in the least elfish way ; the 
others he wishes to act in aecordance with the general belief that 
wherever elfs danced, grass and flowers blooined brighter the 
next day. 


goiget metner 9J£äd;ten (Spur, 
s 2luf jum ^Kofeufyügel ! 884 



SBotfenjug unb sftebelflor 
(Stellen fid; oon oben* 
£uft im Saub unb Sötnb im 9?ofyr, 
Unb alle« ift jerftoben. m 

884 Ariel, still airier than Puck, Orders the whole chorus to 
withdraw to a hill of roses, the usual seat of elfs. 

885 The orchestra which begun forlissimo to announce the 
coming revelry — leaves off pianissimo — as if tired of so much 
nonsense. Philosophers, politicians, satire, irony, elfs and sprites, 
epectres and phantoms, vanish as the music dies gradually away. 


SCrübet £ag. 
g a u ft. 23(1 e p (; t ft o \> l) c ( e 8. 

oiu (Stent ! SBcrjtocifetnb ! Crrbärmltd; auf ber ßrbe lauge 
verirrt uub nun gefangen! S JU3 :\Jiiffctfyäteriu im Werfer 31t 

83(5 In tlie „"JJarattyomena 311 ftauft," Goethe has given us a few 
interesting glimpses at the mode in which he intended to repre- 
8ent the evil spirit in all his infernal glory on the Blocksberg : 
and it is a matter of deep regret that of this intention we possess 
only these few bold touches, which merely serve to shew the 
gigantic ideas and wonderful descriptive power which the poet 
could have brought to bear on this dramatical picture of Satan's 
dealings with crime. The outward scenery of the higher region.s 
is thus described : " Desolation and soütude. Flourish of trum- 
pets. Thunder and lightning from on high. Smoke and jets of 
fire. Projecting rock. 'Tis Satan. Great crowd all around. 
Delay. The very thought confusion. Screaming. Song. They 
(probably Faust and Mephisto,) stand nearest in the centre. The 
heat searcely endurable. Those next in the circle. Satan's 
speech. Presentation. Investiture. Midnight. The scene fades 
awav. Volcano. Disorderly dispersion. Eruption and storm." 
What a field for an Imagination such as Goethe possessed ! On 
the Brocken we should have beheld Satan seated on a throne ; 
aecording to the old superstitions he used to appeai* on such 
occasions in the form of a goat with a black human face en- 
throned in solemn silence on a lofty scat or on the middle of a 
stone table, while around him crowded all the adversaries of reason, 
virtue and love. We should have seen him distributing rewards 
to his faithful followers. Unlike Milton,"who surrounded his Satan 
with the gorgeous wealth, the pearls and gold of the east, Goethe 
makes his appear m the midst of desolation and tolitude, con- 
fusion and screams — the natural fruits of his kingdom. In this 
scene all and everything would with Goethe have been figurative 



entfestigen Duetten etttgefyerrt, ba$ tjotbe, unfetige @efd;öpf '. 

and symbolical of the effects of Satan's dominion, as we may 
conclude from the following lines uttered by one of the voiees : 

„3$ ftefye fcon ferne 

Unb fai^e bie Ofyren, 

2)cdj \)ah' id) fdjon mand;eö 

25er 2öorte fcerforen. 

äBer faßt mir e8 beutttd), 

SBer jetgt mir bie ©pur 

£>e8 vorigen Mens, 

Sertiefften Stfatur!" 
In this spectre we find the same insatiable thirst after the secrets 
of nature which drove Faust into the arms of Satan. By the 
hypoeritical demoerat, who next appears to pay his humble rc- 
spects to his infernal majesty, the principle of destruetion is sym- 
bolically represented as highly agreeable to Satan, who, delightcd 
atthe meannessof his democratical flatterer, cries out in rapture: 
„%a\a\l, bu bift erprobt ! 
SMerburcb beleih td) bid; mit aKttttonen «Seelen ; 
Unb wer bc§ Seufets — fo gut roie bu gelobt, 
®em fotC e3 nie an ©d)meid)etyt)rafen fehlen." 
Goethe's objeet in introducing this character was to show how 
easy it is to mislead and to seduce the short-sighted masses who 
are only too ready to believe in the pompous phrases of those, 
who. like this demoerat, try to excite their passions for the attain- 
ment of some selfish objeet. 

In otherpartsof the Brocken called by the poet „liefere 9xegicu" 
we should have witnessed one of those avvf'ul executions which 
were the offspring of a diabolical misinterpretation of the höhest 
doctrine of Christianity. The words of our Saviour, who came into 
this wovld " not to judge but to save," have been turned by those 
who professed to be the arch-keepers of his preeepts into so 
many death- Warrants against men whose only wish was to put 
in practice that love and forbearance, that toleration and self- 
denial, which form the very essence of Christianity. The word 
„bie grau unb fdjftaqe 93rüberfd)aft" refer to those blood-thirsty 
monks — " wolves in sheep's clothing," who chanted " Hosannas " 
during the dying agonies of a victim, sacrificed to their Christian 
love. Goethe says of them : 

,,Wa$ beut't auf 33 Int ift nng genehm, 
28a8 S31nt öergiefft ift \u\% bequem. 


93i0ba^in! baljtu! — 93errätfyerifdjer, tttdjtStoürbtget ©eift, 

Um Witt mtb mm umfveift bcn dkilfu, 
3n ©foty foD ©ut bcrgoffcn fein." 
and lo enhance this description of thcm he adds : 
„Sin öuitqueü riefelt nie allein, 
(£ti laufen anbre $&$tein breiig 
©ie ttäljen fid) bon Ort ju Ort, 
(2ä reißt ber ©tcom btc Ströme fort." 

When we notice in Dante's " Inferno" a striking resemblance 
to the ancient Greek Mythology, and reeugnise Charon and 
M'mos, Plutus and Cerberus in spite of the garb of raedieval 
Christianity in which they are clothed ; when we find thatVirgil is 
Dante's leader through Hell and Cato his guide through Purgatory, 
even if we aeeept Virgil as the symbolieal representative of pure 
human reason unaided by the knowledge of the true God ; or 
agaiu take Cato as tho personification of stoie virtue ending in 
suieide beeause left without the true Hght which conieth from 
above ; stili in all tbis we see only allegorical aüusions to par- 
ticular individuals. It is not so however in Goethe's wrilings ; 
there everything, even the minutest details of each dramatic 
character, represent some general truth : whole Centimes with 
their ignui ance, superstitious and philosophicül Systems ; genera- 
tions, and even classes with their peculiarities and prejudices 
are, eaeh and all, personified and brought vividly before us. Both 
in, Dante and Milton demons as well as angels are of a very 
cquivocal natuie without any well-defincd character. Milton's 
Satan with his indomitable pride, and haughty challenge to the 
Almighty, surpasses everything of this description in poetry. No 
less grand is Dante in his "esthetically hideous demons" as 
Mr. Rosenkranz styles them. " I3ut though there is a peeuhar 
grandeur in the ungovernable fury of Dante's fiend.s, the deaf, 
blind, unspeakablc rage, fierce as the lightning, bat erring from 
its mark or turning senseless against itself, and still further de- 
based by foulness of form and action " (see lluskin's " Stones of 
Yenice/' ) there is nowhere in all these eoneeptions that lifelike 
reality which makes Goethe's creations so dear to us, and in 
which lies the greatest charm of his immortal compositions. It 
is this strict adherence to nature which surprises us everywhere, 
even in his mysterious allegories, in the treatment of his very 
phautoinsand ghosts, and perhaps most strikingjy in the cliaracters 
of Margaret and Faust. 


unb baö fyaft bn mir oerfyeimlicfyt! 887 — ©tefy' nur, ftefy'! 
2Bä($e bie teuflifcfyen klugen ingrimmenb im ftopf fyerum! 
<Stel) unb trui^e mir burcl) teine unerträglid^e ©egcntoart! @e* 
fangen ! 3m untoieberbringlid)en (Stenb ! 33öfen ©elftem über= 
geben unb ber ricfytenbcn gefüfyftofcn 9Jienfd;b,eit ! Unb mid) 
miegft bu inbeg in abgefdnnacften 3 er ftreuungen, oerbirgft mir 
ifyren trad;fenbcn Kammer, unb täffeft fie fyülfloS Herberten ! 8,K 

©ie ift bie erfte nicfyt. 889 


£nmb ! abfd;eulicbeö Untäter ! — SBanble ifyn, bu unenb- 
ltd;er ©etft ! toanbte ben SBurm toieber in feine SpimbSgeftatt, 
rote er fid; oft näd?ttid?er SBeife gefiet, bor mir ^erjutrotten, 
beut fyarmlofen Söanberer bor bie güße gu foltern unb fid? bem 
nieberftürjenben auf bie ©dmltern m Rängen! äßanbl' um 
lieber in feine i*iebling3bi(bung, ba§ er bor mir im (Sanb auf 

887 "VVe meet our hero again on a gloomy day on a desolate or 
open piain. The grief to which he now gives vent aecords weil 
with the state of inind into which he has just been thrown by 
the nevvs of poor Margaret's fate. This short scene is the only 
one written in prose, for the introduetion of which into dramatic 
poetry we are principally indebted to Shakespeare. The free, 
unfettered flow of prose is here certainly raore in hannony with 
Faust's broken spirit than verse — Faust's soul is racked with 
conflicting emotions which create in it one great discord ; his 
brain still reels with the wild scenes of the preceding night, and 
his heart, conscious of guilt, still harbours some love for the vic- 
tim of a moment's lust ; such recollections, such feelings of re- 
morse and grief, could ill brook the restraints of rhyme and metre. 

888 He reproaches the evil spirit for what he himself has done. 
It is one of the foibles of our nature to charge others with ctimes 
of which we ourselves are guilty 

889 What a fiendlike consolation ! ,,@te ift bte erfte mdjt!"— does 
not refer to Faust, but is only a general assertion that crimes of 
this sort have been frequently committed. 



bem^aud) friede, icl; um mit güßen trete, benSBertoötfnetl! 
— Die erfte nic^t ! — Kammer! Kammer! bon feiner Wen 
jcbenfeete jU f äffen, baß mefyt gl8 ein ©efctyityf in t>ic STiefc 
btefeö (Stenbeä berfanf, baß metyt baS erfte genug t(>at für bic 
od;ulb aller übrigen, in feiner unnbenbeu SEobeSuotlj oor ben 
Äugen be$ ewig Sterjefljenben ! Wir toü^tt eö Warf nnb Seben 
burrfj, baS (Stenb biefer etnjigen , bn grinfeft getaffen über baö 
@ctyt<f|al bon SEaufenbe« fyin ! 8<Jl 


9hm finb totr fd)on toieber an ber ©ren^e unfereS SSh^eS, 
ba tüo end; 3Renf$en ber Sinn überfdmappt. SBarnm mad;ft 
bn ©emeinf d;aft mit un$,locnn bn fic nid;t burdjfittjren fannft? 
äöfllfl fitegen nnb bift oorm @d;n>mbel nid)t fid;er? ©rangen 
toir unö bir anf, ober bu biefy unö ? 


g(etfd;e betne gefräßigen 3 a '^ ne m ^ r n W f° entgegen! 
Wir cTett 7 ö ! 893 — ©roßer, fyerrtid;er ©eift, ber bu mir ju er= 
fctyeinen toürbigteft, ber bu mein £)er$ fetmeft unb meine (Seele, 

89J Addressing the spirit of earth — praying him to change the 
evil spirit into a dog and to make him creep before him in the 
dust ; it seems as if Goethe had tried to unite in the fiend the 
attributes both of the dog and the serpent. 

891 I am overwhelmed by rage and despair at the misery of this 
simple creature, and thou art coldly gyinning over the fate of 
thousands ! 

892 Every man who gives himself up to the evil spirit, and 
under his guidance treads the paths of crime, seems at certain 
moments surprised and horrified at the terrors which in con- 
sequence Surround him ; this feeling is generally augmented by 
Üiat bitterest of all reflections, that the misery is self-imposed. 
The sooner therefore we master any bad habit or inclination, the 
better shall we be able to resist the devil in the hour of temp- 

893 „©efräfjtße Bäfyne." An allegorical allusion to the fiend's 
insatiable voracity in matters of evil. 


iüctritm an ben <5<tyanbcjefeflen mid; fdnnieben, ber fid? am 
@d;aben voeibct unb an Verberben ficfy teijt ? " n 

W e p l) i ft o p fy e 1 e 3. 
(5nbfgft bn ? 

Sfatte fie ! ober üxfy btr! £)en grä[}üd;>ften gl'ud; über bid) 
auf 3aT)rtaufenbe ! 

3d? fann bte SBanbe be$ $Ra"d;er$ nid/t (öfen, feine Siegel 
nid?t öffnen. — ^Rette fie ! — 2öer toar'3, ber fie ins Sßerberben 
ftürjtc ? 3d? ober bu ? F95 

?$ a u ft bücft rotfb umljer. 
©reifft bu nad) bem Bonner? 2öofyt, bag er euefy elenben 
©terblid^en nid)t gegeben toarb ! T)en unfduttbig (Sntgeguenben 
in äerfdnnettern, ba$ ifi fo Sfyrannenart, fiefy in Verlegenheiten 
£uft ju machen. 893 

bringe miefy fyin ! ©ie foli frei fetyn 


Unb bie ©efafyr, ber bn biefy auSfe^eft? Sßtffe, uoefy liegt 

884 Faust at once becomesconscious of the fiendish destruetive- 
ness of Satan's nature. 

895 The devil by his cold reproaches seems to enjoy Faust's 
useless storming and rage. Again he answers with that an- 
nihilating question : " Who gave her up to destruetion ? I or 
thou ? '' — Why should he be asked so imperiously to save that 
guilty and condemned girl, who isnow suffeiing in a dungeon for 
the murder of her mother and child ; what has he to do with all 

896 Faust, Struck by the truth of this reasoning, though still 
conscious that it was the evil spirit who excited his passions, and 
that therefore the ereater share in the crime is to be attributed 


to him, can only gaze wildly around him in silence. Mephisto 
on the other hand amuses himself with some general reflections 
on the tyranny of human nature, which in order to get out of any 
difficulty is always willing to destroy the pure and innocent. 


auf bor @tabt 3Mutfd;itlb uon beiner f)anb. lieber bcö Igt* 
ftylagenen Stätte fd;n>eben ra'd;cube ©eifter unb (altem auf 
ten lüiebcrfeljrcnben äftörber. 897 


0a\1> ta^ üon bir? SJtorb unb £ob einer SSJelt über btd; 
Ungeheuer ! Jüljre mid; l)in, fag' id;, unb befrei' fie ! 

3d) fitere btd), unb tvaS id; tfyun faun, fyöre ! £abe id; alle 
2Ka$t im £nmmet unb auf §rben ? £>e3 StfyümerS (Sinn nnll 
id; umnebeln ; bemächtige btd; ber ®d;(itffef, unb fitfyre fie fyer- 
auö mit 3)tenfd;cnfyanb ! 3d; ü>ad;e! bte gauberpferbe finb be= 
reit, id; entführe eud;. £)a$ oermag id;. 898 


2lttf unb baben ! 

Offen ^ erb. 
$auft, 2ftepfyiftopfyete$ auf fc^warjen ^ferben baöer braufenb. 

8 a u ft. 
3Saö toeben bie bort um ben tftobenftein ? 

SSetß uicfyt toaö fie !od;en unb f Raffen. 

897 " The avenging spirits " refer to the servants of justice, 
vho are still on the watch for Valentine' s murderer. 

898 By proposing a nevv crime — the murder of the gaoler. 
Mephistopheles at last consents to give his help ! We must not 
forget that though Faust and Mephisto are two distinet and 
separate dramatic persons, they represent one Single being — that 
is the two natures of one individual man, and therefore "vvhenever 
we hear Mephisto speaking it is only Faust's own rebellious 
nature urging his on. Herein lies the great symbolical secret 
of this poetical coneeption. 

Sfyüwer Stands for Stürmer ; as Sfyurn is also used instead of 
£fyurm. £fyürner means gaoler ; for the prison, which was gcnerally 
a round tower-like building, was called ber SEljuw. 


©cfytoeben auf, fcbtoeben ab, neigen ficfy, beulen \vty. 

SRI e p fy t (t o p fy e l e $. 
(Sine £)e$enjunft. 


<2ie ftrenen nnb toeifyen. 

korbet! vorbei! 899 

893 In the silence of night on black enchanted horses we sec 
Faust and Mephisto hastening on past the place of execution. 
The places called ,,0kljenftetne" (the Kaven's stone) were round 
tower-like buildings on which convicts were exeeuted bythesword, 
a privilege which women shared with the nobility, Citizens and 
peasants having to undergo the more ignominious death on the 
gallows. The gallows stood generally close by the Ükbenfteine, 
and German superstition surrounded both places with innumerable 
spectres and apparitions. It was under the gallows that the en- 
chanting "Alraune" grew. The "Alraune" was originally a 
female ghost endued with prophectic power; but the narae was 
afterwards given to a root generally found growing under the 
gallows, from which little house-spirits were prepared ; these were 
able, it was supposed, to foretell future events, and alv/ays spread 
riches and happiness around them. (See Grimm.) 

Here, too, at midnight witches were believed to assemble, as 
also the ghosts of those who had met their death on this ill-fated 
spot. The witches seen by Faust, whom the devil intentionally 
leads close by the gallows, seem to be cooking and broiling some- 
thing. When Faust exclaims : „@te ftrenen unb tteüjen/' he seems 
to refer not so much to the old superstition that witches could 
create thunder and storm by scattering the dust of corpses into 
the air, as to the concoction of some such infernal broth as that 
which Shakespeare most minutely describes in his Macbeth 

In the poison'd entrails throw 
Toad, that under coldest stone, 
Days and nights has thirty-one 
Swelter'd venom sleeping got, 

Fillet of a fenny snake, 

Eye of newt, and toe of frog, 
Wool of bat, and tongue of dog, 


8 e r i e r. 

(mit einem SBtttlb ©c&tüjTet mtb einer Scmtye, bor einem eiferneu 


3Ätdj fagt ein (ängft entwöhnter ^ebeuter, 

Ter ^tenfd)I)eit ganzer 3ammer fagt und; an. 

,s>ier tooljrtt fie l)intcr tiefer feuchten OJiauer, 

Unb ifyr SBerbredjeu tuar ein guter Söatjn ! 

£)n jauberft ju il?r ju gdjen ! 

T)u füvcfytcft fie toteberjufefyen ! 

gort! tetn 3 a B cn ärgert tett £ot gereut. 

Adder's forlc, and blind- worm 's sting, 
Lizard's leg, and owlet's wing, 

Scale of dragon, tooth of wolf, 
Witches' mummy ; maw, and gulf, 
Of the ravin'd salt sea shavk; 
Koot of kemlock. digg'd i'tlie dark, 
Liver of blaspheming Jew ; 
Gall of goat, and slips of yew, 
Silver d in the moon's ; 
Nose of Turk, and Tartar's Ups ; 
Finger of birth-stranglcd babc, 
Add thereto a tiger's chaudron, 

Cool it with a baboon's blood, 
Then the charm is firm and good. 

Such were the ingredients in which the dark superstition of the 
Middle Ages seemed able to bestow supernatural power ! 

The sight of the place of execution excites in Faust' s breast 
the most painful emotions, as he pictures to himself the youthful 
Margaret ending her short lif'e by the hand of the executioncr ; 
the similar forebodings thrilled through his heart called up by the 
vision on the Blocksberg (See Note 839.) 

900 This last scene of the first part is certainly the most perfect, 
impressive, and finished that Goethe ever wrote ; we must look upon 
it as the aeme of tragical coneeption and achievement. Düntzer 
says of it : " The problem which the poet undertook has been 
44 most admirably solved. This was nothing less than to represent 
" in the midst of her terrifying torments the crushed mind of one, 
" who has murdered a mother and a child : to depict that calm 


Sc ergreift ba3 ©d&fojj. (53 fingt tnwenbig. 9n 

^eine Mutter, bie — -, 

£)te mid; umgebracht fyat ! 

Mein 23ater, fcer @ctye(m, 

£)er mtcfy geffen fyat ! 

Mein (gcfyroefterlem Kein 

§ub auf bte/SBeiu' 

Hn einem fügten Ort ; 

Da toarb id; ein fd;öne3 2Ba(boögtein ; 

gttege fort, fliege fort ! 

" moral purity of mind, scarcely even for a moraent disturbed, 
" freeing and ennobling itself by feelings of the most heartfelt 
" repentance in spite of the overhanging clouds that tbreaten to 
"confound all her senses." How sad must it be for one so young 
to part with life ! Hard must be the bloody Separation from one 
infinitely and eternally beloved ! Terrible the visions of her guilt, 
that are ever recurring to her mind ! But mightier than all the 
horrors, there glows in her heart a pious faith in God, a pure 
heavenly love, that bears her victoriously through all her trials. 
In the gentle, weak, yet purified soul of the loving girl as con- 
trasted with her faded and tortured body. we see represented the 
close combat between what is immortal in us and what is mere 
dust and ashes. In Faust this combat ends in sensualism, Sub- 
mission to the body ; in Margaret this very sensualism leads the 
soul to the source of light and purity. 

901 This slight allusion to the scenery by which the stage is 
supposed to be so divided as to enable us to see at once the in- 
terior of the dungeon and the entrance hall without, has given 
an ample opportunity to the speculative minds of some commen- 
tators for exhibiting their ingenuity. Some pretend that this 
„(g§ fingt inrcenbig" refers to the secret voiee of conscience in Mar- 
garets bosom ; others explain it to be the song of a little bird 
into which her murdered child has been transformed, and that 
she herseif screams Oüt — „fliege fort, fliege fort!" The song itself 
is a strophe of a nursery ballad well-known throughout Germany 
under the title „bci§ SDtäfyrdjen fcon SBadjtyotber (9ttad)anbelboom)," in 
which a wicked stepmother kills a child and dishes it up for the 
father, who, suspecting nothing, eats it and throws the bonos under 


Jctuft (iutff^Iteßenb). 
Sic afynet uictyt, bajj bcr beliebte laufet, 
Tic Letten flirren (fort, baä Strot) baö raufet. 

(Sr tritt ein. 

3Ä ar g ar e t e (fkfc auf bem Sag« b«6erßenb). 
©et}! 2öcl)! 2ic fonimcit. IMttrerSob! 

gaufi (reife), 

2tiü! «Still! M; fommc bid? gu befreien. 

3Ä ftrgar ete (fttf; *or tyn bimoSIsettb). 
93ift bu ein ÜÄenfty, fo f üL;te meine yioti). 

Du wirft bie 2öä<$ter aus beut <3cfylafe fd;rcien! 
@t faßt bte Letten, fte auftufcfylteBen. 

3tö a r 3 a r e t e (auf beu Änieen). 
•©er Ijat btr genfer tiefe ffllatyt 
lieber ntid; gegeben ! 
Tu fyolft ntid; fetyon um 3d£itteruad;t. 
Erbarme t?tc$ uub laß mid? leben ! 

the table. These the little sister collects in a silk handkerchief 
and buries them under a juniper-tree. The tree shakes, and out 
flies the little raurdered boj in the form of a bird, alluding to the 
common superstition that the soul flies up to heaven like a winged 
bird. (See Grimm, page 778.) The bird sings a sweet song, 
and when the stepmother approaches, drops a stone npon her, 
which kills her. Goethe's song is an adaptation of the words 
sung by the bird, and which we give in their original form : 

9fteine Butter, bte mtd) fdjladjt, 

2ftein $ater, ber mtdr) afj, 

üfteln @d)roefter, ber 9ftarlenid?eu, 

Budjt alle meine 33eintd)en 

Unb binb't fte tu ein feiben £udj, 

5üegt'§ unter beu Sftad&anbelbootn. 

Stritt! Avntttl 

3ßat fcör'n fdjöön SSogel bün icf ! 
Nothing conid be more natural than that Margaret in der de- 
solate position should remember one of the rhjmes of her child- 
hood, and one which in its awful simplicity bore so striking 


Gft'ö morgen früi) nid;t jetttg gemmg? 902 

©ic ftefyt auf. 
33in tcfy bocl; nocfy fo jung, fo jung! 
itnb foü fc^on fterben ! 

©cfyöit tüar id) aud;, unb ba§ toar mein Söerbcrbcn. 
Üftafy tüar ber greunb, nun tft er toett ; 
^errtffen tiegt ber tenj, bie 331umen jerftreut. 
gaffe mtd; ntd;t f o gemaltfam an ! 
@d;one mtcfy ! 2BaS fyab' id; bir getrau ? 
&tji mid? nid)t oergeoenS flehen, 
Qäb' id) bid; bod; mein £ag utd;t gefeiten! m 

$an ft. 
Sßerb' xd) ben 3ammer überfte^en ! 

3cfy bin nun ganj in beiner Tladjt 
l>aj} mid> nur erft ba$ finb nod; tränten. 
3d; ^ergt' e$ biefe ganje 9tod;t; 
@ie nahmen mir' 8 um mid; ju fränfen, 

an analogy to her own case ; at the same timo slio reveals the 
füll consciousness of her guilt. It is a mistake to suppose that 
~ the poet intended to show us Margaret recluced by her grief to a 

totally idiotic, uticonscious state of mind, as Shakespeare has 
treated Ophelia. No ! Margaret is perfectly sane. Anticipations 
of a dreadful death, despair, remorse, and repentance, all, the 
horrors of a guilty conscience harrow her heart. This may seem 
madness, but it is reality — reality in its truest, most faithful and 
raost natural shape. It is that eternal justice whioh often con- 
centrates the terrors of an eternity into a few moments, in order 
to save eventually a repentant soul, which overwhelms Margaret 
with all its awe ! The sufferings of such a soul in such a moment 
must be terrible indeed, but justice, dramatical noless than moral, 
requires this. 

902 Prostrated by fright at the thought that it is the executiener 
who is entering her dungeon she is unable to recognise Faust. 

903 Sfteirt Sage, instead of meine Sage, in the sense " in my life," 
in meinem Seben. 

GOKTHE'S FAl'sT. 317 

Unb fagen nun, id; fyätt' e8 umgebracht *"t 

Um? niemals »erb' kl; toieber frei;. 

Sie fingen Vierer auf n\id)l e$ ift b88 bon ben acuten ! 

Sin alte« v l'iäl;rd)cn enbtgt fc, 

ät tycijjtfie'ö teilten ? 9 < 

5*a n ft (»trft fid> nieber). 
(Sin Viebenber liegt bir 31t Süßen 
Tie 3ammcrfned;tfd;aft auf aufstiegen. 9 ^ 

3M a v 8 a v e t c (unrft fö yt ifcm). 
O laß uns fnien bie £>eil'geq anjurufen ! 
Stet; ! unter tiefen Stufen, 
Unter bet ©dtwefle 
Siebet bie £>üüc ! 
£er SBöfe, 

2ftit furchtbarem ©rirnme, 
Stöatyeinöetöfe! 9 * 

Sauft (faut). 
@retd)cn! ©retdfoen ! 91 * 

901 This is the only delusion under which she labours. The 
crime she has cominitted appears to her from its very enormity 
so much like a dream that she looks upon it as a false aecusation, 
she thinks that others have separated her from her child at the 
moment when she was about to nurse it. Although she has 
actually murdered her child, the possibility of her having done so 
never enters her mind. 

16 Eeferring to the nursery tale mentioned note 903. Ac- ^ 
cording to other commentatora it may be a bitter allusion to the 
custom of ballad-singing about the life and execution of every 
condemned criminal. 

36 Faust in Order to arouse her from her delusion throws hirn- 
seif at her feet declaring that he is her old lover. 

907 The torturing pangs of conscience disclose to her horrified 
Imagination, beneath the steps at the very threshold of her 
dungeon, the flames of hell and the evil one in all his rage and 

18 From the brink of that hell she hears Faust's voiee 


Margarete (aufmcrfjom). 

£)a$ toar be$ greumbeS (Stimme ! 

©ie fprtncjt auf; bie fetten falten ab. 
2Bo tft er? 3cfy fyab' Um rufen fyörcn. 
3cfy bin frei! mir folt niemanb toefyreu. 
%n feinen £>al8 tottt tcty fliegen, 
$tt feinem 33ufen liegen ! 

Crr rief ©retten! er ftanb auf ber <Sd)n>e((c. 
bitten burd;8 Reuten unb klappen ber £öl(e, 
£)urd? bcn grimmigen, teitfltf cfyen §ofyn, 
(Mannt' id; ben fügen, ben liebcnben £on. 0C9 

3d; biu'S ! 

X)u bifi'S ! £), fag' ee uod; einmal ! 
3fyn faffenb. 
Gr ift'ö! (Sr ift'ö! 2M)in tft atte Dual ? 
Sßoln'n bie s }lngft beS ficrf'erö? ber Letten ? 
£)u btff 8 ! ftommft mid; ju retten ! 
3cfy bin gerettet ! — 
©cfyon tft bie ©trage rotcbcr ba, 
Sluf ber icfy btd; jum erftcnmate fal). 
Hub ber fyeitere ©arten, 
2Bo icfy unb 93iartl)a beiuer nxtrtcn. 9n 

recalling her to a ncw life. It is the voice of love: the cn- 
dearing diminutive of her name restores her to reality. 

909 She has recognised him. " Tt was the voice of a friend ! " 
In feverish excitement she throws herseif into bis arms, she hangs 
upon bis neck ; through all the howls and shricks of hell, through 
all its devilish mockery she hears the svveet and wcll-known 
voice of love ! 

910 The whole charming dream of by-gone days of love passes 
through her soul. 


Sauft (fortftvekub). 
Momm mit ! tfomra mit! 911 

2W argarctc. 
£) toetle ! 
©eü' ia) bodj i'o gern, wo bu weiteft. üU 


"Kenn bu nid>t etlefi, 

Herten wir'8 treuer büßen muffen. fll! 

ÜÖ2 a r ß a r e t e. 
2Btc? bu f'annft nid;t mefyr ruffen? 
^iciit greunb, fo furg bon mir entfernt, 
Unb fyaft'8 .Muffen oerlerut ? 
"ffiarum wirb mir au beinern ,V)alfe fo bang ? 
SBenn fonft oon beinen Porten, beuten ©tiefen 
Crtit ganger £>tmmcl mid) üüerbrang, 
Hub bu mid) füjjteft als woltteft bu miel; erftiefen — ■ ! 
Kliffe mid)! 
@onft fuff id; bid; ! 9U 

Sie umfaßt ifnt. 
D wefy ! beute Sippen fiub falt, 
©tob ftnmm. 

1(1 ' Faust, fully avvare of their critical Situation, presses her to 
come awaj. 

9 ' 8 It is vvith all the fervour of real lovc, rendered only the 
more powerful by her many sufferings, that Margaret bids him 
stay ; " she likes to stay wherever he stays ! " 

913 Faust, overwhelmed by feelings of wretchedness and self- 
reproach at having blighted the happiness of so sweet a being, is 
unable to return her caresses, but urges her again to fly. 

9U This outburst of love, in which death- Warrant, executioner, 
eternity, Satan, and hell itself, are all forgotten the chilling sense 
of disappointment which she feels at her lover's coldness, and the 
child-like innoecnee of her manner cannot be too highly admired. 


2öo ift bein Sieben 


$ßer brad;te mid; brum ? 9 ' 5 

©ie tuenbetftd) toon tfym. 

ftomm ! golge mir ! Siebten, f äffe Waxtl) ! 
3cfy l^erge bid; mit tanfenbfad;er ©lutt; ; 
9'tor feige mir ! 3d; bitte biefy mir bief? ! 

Margarete (31t xljm ejetoenbet). 
Unb bift bu'g benn? Unb bift bu's aud? gettiß? 

3d; bin' 3 ! flomtn mit ! 

Wi a r g a r e t e. 

£)u macfyft bie geffeln Io8, 
üftimmft lieber miefy in beinen ©cfyocfi. 
Sßte lommt e$, baß bn bid? bor mir nicfyt fd?euft ? — 
Unb toetßt bn benn, mein grennb, toen bn befreift ? 


äomm' ! forum' ! (5d;on betest bie tiefe 9fad)t 

DJteine Butter fyab' id; umgebrad;t, 
SJJeiu tfinb fyab iä) ertränft. 
2£ar e§ nid;t bir nnb mir gefcfyenft? 
£)ir and? — £>n bift'S ! \d) glaub' c8 faum. 
®tb beine §anb! — 1$ aber fie ift feud;t! 
2Bifd)e fie ab I 2öie mtd; bäud;t 
3ft Sölut brau. 

2ict) @ott! toaS fyaft bn getfyan! 
©teefe ben £)egen ein l 
3er) bitte bid? brnm 


915 She feels jealousy rising in her lieart ! She is unable to feel 
or to think of anything but love, and again coniplains of bis 
silence, and bis cooloess. 

916 Faust's continued pressing her to night at lcngth awakens 
in her a füll consciousness of her position. She confesses with 


8afj baö SBergangne öergangeti fetyt, 
Tu bringfl mid> um. 

SÄefat, tu mujjt übrig bleiben ! 
3ü) will btr tie (Gräber befebveiben, 
gßr tie mufct tu forgen 
OHcid; morgen ; 

©er SORutter ten beften pafc geben, 
kleinen dritter fogleid) betrieben, 
3Jiid; ein wenig bei Seit', 
§Rttt nid}! gar 511 weit! 
Unt fcaS kleine mir an tie redete SBntfi 
Demant U)irt fenft bei mir liegen! — 917 
SRtdj an teiue ©eite $u fdmuegen 
£)aö war ein fiitjeö, ein t)ottc$ ©tuet ! 
5lber c$ will mir nid?t mefyr gelingen ; 
ÜÄir iff $ als müfct' tet) mid; 31t tir jwingen, 
3113 ftiegeft tu mid) »on tir jurücf: 
Unt tod; bift bu'8, unt blicfft fo gut, fo fromm. 9 8 

g a u ft. 

güfylft tu tag id; c3 bin, fo fomm! 


childish naivete all the crimes she has committed,butat the same 
time remembers that he also is a murderer ; in the last lines, 
where she entreats him to put away his sword, she refers to her 
brother's death. 

917 Margaret concentrates into these lines all the consequences 
of an ill-guided passion ; she begs for a grave for her mother and 
her brother, for herseif and child. She feels that after all she 
will be very lonely, and that this punishment for having loved one 
who betrayed her will extend even beyoiid the grave, 

918 This contrast with happier days increase3 the effect of her 
heart-rending complaints. 




3nS greie. 

3fft ba£ ®rab braujj, 
dauert ber £ob, fo f omm ! 
23on fyier tnS efoige Sftnbebett 
Hub fetter feinen (Scfyrttt \ — 919 
£n ge^ft nun fort? D Speinricb, fötmtf id? mit! 9:o 

£u lannft! @o tootte mir! £)ie £t)ür' ftcfyt offen. 

3cfy barf niebt fort; für mtd; ift nidjtS &it fyoffen. 
2öa$ t)i(ft eS fliefm? fie lauern bod; mir anf. 
d§ ift fo etenb Betteln jn muffen, 
Unb nod; ba^t mit böfem ©ettnffen ! 
G?8 ift fo etenb in ber grembe fd)U>eifen, 
Unb fie toerben mid) bod) ergreifen ! 92 * 

3d? bleibe bei bir. 

(^efdnoinb! ©efcfyromb! 
Wtttc bein armeö Siinb. 
gort! 3mmer ben 2Beg 
2lm 53ad; hinauf, 
lieber ben ©reg 

919 With real tragical grandeur she refuses to take refuge in 
flight; from her dungeon she will step into her grave — the bed 
of eternal rest; she feels that this life has lost all its charras, and 
is resolved to meet her death unflinchingly. 

920 In this line is expressed the whole grief of a parting, loving 

921 She cannot go — ihere is no hope for her on this earth ; all 
she has to look for is rnerey in another, a better world. This 
description of the life that avvaits those with an evil conscience is 
most touching. 


Ott fccit SÖBoifc Mitteilt, 
Sinfd wo bte Sßfonfe fielet, 
3m Seid;! 
gajj e£ nur g(cid) ! 
(§3 ö>|(j fid) tyeben, 
(§0 $appett nod) ! 
Wette! rette ! m 


SBcftmtc bid,) bod; ! 

5Äur Criuett ©cfyritt, fo bift bu frei! 

$$äreu tuir nur reu 43erg werbet! 
£)a ftfct meine äRutter auf einem (Stein, 
(S8 faßt mtd; faft beim Sd;opfe ! 
£)a fi£t meine Butter auf einem ©teilt, 
Unb toactelt mit bem Äopfe ; 
Sie ttratft nicfyr, fie nieft nicfyr, ber $opf ift tl;r fd;h)er. 
Sie fcf>tief fo lange, fietoacfyt nicfyt mefyr. 
Sie fd;tief bamit wir un$ freuten. 
GS toaren glücflicfye Reiten! m 

$)ilft fyier fein glefyen, fyilft lein Sagen ; 
So toag' icfy'8, bid; ^imoeg^utragen. 

8afj und) ! 9tetn, td; leibe leine ©etoatt ! 

922 Faust's determination to stay with her, troubles her mind so 
much, that, confounding the past with the present, she entreats him 
to hasten to save her child, which in her excitement she sees 
rising before her and struggling in the pool. 

9,3 From Faust's remark "takeone single step and be free " 
she believes herseif in the open air, but there again her mother's 
ghastlj figure appears to her disordeied senses sitting on her 
tomb-stone; the graphic description of her murdered mother's 
apparition and the recollection of the love that caused her death, 
bring Margaiet's self-accusations to their cliraax ! 



gaffe und; nicfyt fo mörbertfd; an! 921 

<2onft fyab' id; bir ja alles 31t $eV getfyan. 925 

©er Sag graut ! Siebten ! öiebc^eit ! 

Sag ! 3a, e8 toirb Sag ! ©er leiste Sag bringt fyerein, 
äflem §od?setttag foüt' e* feilt I 928 
<Sag niemanb, baß bu fd;on bei ©rctdjen ftarft. 
SBel; meinem $ran$e ! 
@« ift eben gefcfyefm ! 927 
2Bir werben uns ttneberfelm ; 
3lber ntd;t beim Sattje. 92S 
©te Stenge brangt fid;, man fyört fie uid;t. 
©er «ßlafc, bie ©äffen 
itönnen fie utd;t faffen. 
©ie ©tocfe ruft, 93 ° baS Stäbd;eu brtd;t. m 

921 Faust has seized her — but the hand which once caressed 
her seems to her now to be that of a murderer. 

925 In the touching appeal, " to remember that in other times 
she has done all that love itself could ask," she implores him 
now, to allow her to expiate the crimes caused by her unbounded 

926 Again she misunderstands Faust's remark " that the day is 
dawning," only remembering that this very day, which is to be 
the last of her life, was to have been her wedding day. 

927 Woe to my wreath, that is, " alas, my chastity is gone ! " 

928 From this exelaraation 

"We shall see each other again 
But not at the dance ! " 

which must peal like a terrible discord through every heart, she 
turns to a description of her execution. 

929 Alluding to the solemn silence in which the people gather 
round the scaffold. 

9 ° The tolling of the sinner's bell. 

•' n It is the custom at cxecutions in Germany for the scntencc 


i s otc fte mid) binben unb patfen ! 
gum §8lutftuty Wl bin td? fdjon entrücft. 
Scroti judt nad; jebem Sftatfen 
Tic Schärfe, bie riadj meinem jücft. 933 
©timrat ließt bic SSclt tote ba$ (#rab! 


O toär* id? nie geboren! 

3R c p fy t ft o ü fy e t e 3 (erföetnt braufiett). 
v JUtf ! ober tfyr fetyb oerloren. 
Unnüfceö 3agcn ♦ 3<uttcrn uufe Räubern ! 
Steine $ferbe fd>anbern, 
©er borgen bäminert auf. 

s Diargarete. 
2Ba3 ftetgt auö beut 33oben fyeranf? 
©er! ber! <gd;i<f tfyn fort! 
SSaS n>ill ber an beut fettigen Drt? 
Gr und mid? ! 934 

to be read over again by the clerk to the eulprit on the place 
where he is to undergo the last penalty of the law, after which 
the judge breaks a little white staff, saying the words : „53et ©ott 
tjt ©nabe, bei Sftenfdjen ntc^t ! " and throws the broken pieces at the 
feet of the eulprit, thus symbolically declaring that he has for- 
feited his life. 

932 Slutfhityf, a high chair, to which the eulprit was bound to be 
decapitated. The word is forraed like SSfatgerüjt, scaffold, 
33Iutgeric§, trial for life. 

933 Describing the horrible suspense which generally overawes 
those who are present, making each feel as if the stroke aimed at 
the culprit's neck were directed against his own. 

Goethe generally uses Juden, but here the u is softened for the 
sake of the rhyme. 

934 Terrified at the apparition of the tempter Margaret shudders ; 
the place where she is about to expiate her sin is holy to her ; 
what does the evil one want there — her soul ! as is implied in 
the exclamation „(Sc antf tmdj ! " 


SDu foüft leben ! 

©ericfyt @otte$i btr tjab' ity micfy übergeben! ■" 
i\)£ e p I) t ft o ^ t) e 1 e ö ($ M gaufl). 
fromm! fomm! 3d; laffe btd; mit ifyr im (Stiel;. 

£)etu bin id;, 33ater ! rette mid; ! 
3t;r (Sngel ! ifyr Zeitigen <Sd;aare n, 
Magert eitel; mutier, mid; ju benmfyreu ! 936 
§cmrid;! mir graut' 8 fcer btr. 937 

®ie ift gerietet ! 938 

(Stimme (*>ott oben). 
3ft gerettet! 939 

SftepfytftoptyeteS (31t ftaitft). 
£)er 31t mir ! 9lJ 

935 n Thou shalt live ! " cries Faust, that is, thou shalt be saved 
and live by me with the help of the devil ! Margaret at once seea 
clearly and cries with all the fervour of a penitent and contrite 
heart — " I give rnyself up to God's judgment." 

936 The last fervent prayer to the Father of all good and to all 
his angels to guard her against the tempter. Here the door flies 
open ; a few steps and she is saved, but saved by the fiend for 
eternal misery — she refuses, and rushes into the arms of death 
and through it to everlasting life. 

937 Purified by her last earnest prayer she shudders with horror 
as she gazes for the last time on her guilty lover ! 

938 The fiend concentrating all his venom exclaims " she is 
judo-ed," with which words he insinuates that it is now too late 
to save her soul from damnation. 

939 But hark ! A voiee from above thunders in answer to the 
evil one, " She is saved ; " — saved by a pure confiding trust in 
God, to whom her soul ascends. 

940 These words of Mephisto have generally been taken as a 
command 011 his part, and as proving without a doubt that Faust 


25eifd)irinbct mit gauft. 941 

is now irrevocably abandoned to Satan's power. But there is 
nothing to Warrant our accepting them in this sense. On the 
contrary, we should conclude that Faust also is from this 
moment saved ; that through all his wanderings the memory of 
Margaret will never forsake him, and that she, though dead, 
still lives to watch over him as a guardian angel, in the end to 
save him. His heart is shaken to its core ; his faith is over- 
powered by doubts; his spirits abandoned to despair; his 
flesh given up to mere earthly pleasures. But in his love's 
misfortune, in the indescribable misery he has brought upon 
a being, so devoted to him as to commit for his sake crimes, 
which at length have brought her to die on the scaffold. he 
recognises the hideous gulf into which sensuality has dragged 
him ; he begins to feel that the laws which God in his eternal 
justice has laid down, are not to be broken with impunity, 
either as regards this world or the next; finally he has seen 
how, in spite of all her offences and the misery into which 
they plunged her, Margaret has been supported in all her 
trials by a strong faith in that God who has deigned to pro- 
nounce her " saved! " 

Nourished by these recollections, there will grow up in his 
heart a new and a purer love than that which he feit for Mar- 
garet, a love for God, which though he be subjected for a 
time to the tortures and temptation of the evil one, may gra- 
dually awaken new hopes and give new powers, enabling him 
at last to seek and obtain forgiveness and eternal life. Thus 
may we be sure,that at the very moment that the demon exclaims, 
triumphantly, " Come hither to me! " he has lost him for ever. 

941 Critics neither acquainted with the allegorical meaning 
of Goethe's Faust, nor the second part, have often taken the 
above stage direction in a literal sense. It is supposed, that 
Faust in disappearing with Mephistopheles, is carried away for 
ever to the infernal regions. Goethe's Faust was never intended 
for the stage in its present form. To justify our explanation, 
that the evil spirit has lost his prey at the moment, when 
he bids him follow, we refer our readers to the Second 
Part of the poem. Faust there often seems to refer to 
Margaret' s fate ; keeps her constantly in mind; and the re- 
membrance of the wrong done to her, separates him more 


(Stimme (oon innen/ wrbalter.b). 
#etnricfy! <§etnricfy ! 942 

and more from his seducer, so that, in fact, from the moment 
Mephistopheles thinks himself sure of Faust's soul, Faust 
begins to nourish an intense disgust for the demon, which, 
continually increasing, ends in Faust's salvation. 

942 There cannot be the slightest doubt that this " Henry ! 
Henry l " is Margaret's warning voiee. It is a dying angel's 
last adieu! 

< m i / — ■ a, — p£^ 





lopter (fermmt W&wfa, 





■ — ^^^^ • 


m^ — ^ & 

^- « ■ n 

The following Catalogues and Lists of 


lished by D. Nutt, may be had on applica- 
tion : — 

Select Catalogue of Modern German 

Books, 86 pages. 

List of Foreign Atlases and Maps. 

List of the most esteemed Elementary 
Books (Grammars, Exercise Books, 
Readers, Dictionaries, etc.) for the 
Study of the German and other 

List of German Juvenile Books. 

List of German Periodicals. 

A List of the most recent Publications of 
Germany, France, Italy, etc., forwardeol rega- 
larly, post free, for one year, on receipt of 24 





Album für Deutschland^ Töchter. Beautifully illus- 
trated by Götze. 5th edition. 1863. Roy. 8vo., 
fancy cloth, gilt edges ... ... ... ... 12 6 

der neueren deutschen Lyrik. 7th edition. 16mo. 

1866, cloth, gilt edges ... * ... ... ... 6 U 

Axdersen's Sämmtliehe "Werke. Cheap Edition, 24 

vols., 12mo. ... ... ... ... ... 16 

Gesammelte Werke. 46 vols., 12mo. 

Märchen meines Lebens .. .. 2 6 

Improvisator 3 6 

O. Z. Roman 3 6 

Nur ein Geiger 3 6 

Bilderbuch ohne Bilder .... 1 

Rines Dichters Bazar 5 

Zwei Baronessen 5 

— Sämmtliehe Märchen. New edition, crown 8 vo, 1868 5 6 

Deutsch von J. Keuscher. Illustrated by L. 

Richter, Th. Hosemann, Graf Pocci, R. de Baux. 4th 

ed., 12mo, 1868, fancy cloth ... ... ... 5 U 

Bilderbuch ohne Bilder. 16mo, fancy cloth, gilt 

edges ... ... ... ... ... ...030 

Archenholz. Geschichte des siebenjährigen Kriegs, sq. 

12mo, 1864, portrait and map, fancy cloth ... 
Auerbach's (Berth.) Schriften. 22 vols., 12mo, 1862-64 

Schwai zwälder Dorfgeschichten. 4 vols, 12mo ... 

Schatzkästlein des Gevattersmanns. 12mo, 1856, 


Barfüssele. 12mo, 1865 

Edelweiss. 12mo, 1864 

Joseph im Schnee. 12mo, 1860 

- Das Landhaus am Rhein. 2 vols.. 12mo, 1869 ... 
Auf der Höhe. 6th ed., 2 vols , 16mo, 1868, cloth 

















Auswahl Deutscher Lieder, with the Music. (Leipziger 

Commersbuch.) 9th ed., 16mo, 1861 ... ... 3 

Baskerville. Poetry of Germany. German Poems 
with the English Translation on opposite Pages. 
12mo, 1858, sewed (5s.) ; cloth, neat ,. ...0 6 

Beckstein. Deutsches Märchenbuch, beautifully illus- 
trated by L. Richter, roy. 8vo, 1857, fancy cloth, gilt 
edges ... ... ... ... ... ... 12 U 

the sanie, 24th ed., 18mo, 1867, woodeuts, boards 2 

Deutsches Balladenbuch, profusely illustrated by 

L. Richter and other artists. Roy. 8vo, 1866, fancy 

cloth, gilt edges ... ... ... ... ... 12 

2 List of Populär German Books. 

Benedix, Haustheater. Kleine Lustspiele für gesellige 

Kreise, 12ino, 1868 ... ... ... ...0 7 

Dr. Wespe, Lustspiel, with English Notes by J. 

Morris, 8vo, boards ... ... ... ...010 

Der Vetter, Lustpiel, with English Notes by 

Weinmann, 12mo, cloth ... ... ... ...026 

Ein Lustspiel, with English Notes by J. Morris, 

8vo, boards ... ... ... ... ...010 

Bible in German ( Perlbibel) 18mo, Leipzig (Bredt) sewed 5 


4to, 1862, superbly illustrated, in rieh embossed cloth, 

gilt edges ... ... ... ... ...110 

Blüthen und Perlen deutscher Dichtung. 16nio, 
fancy cloth, gilt edges 

the same with illustns., 16mo, fancy cloth, gilt edges 

Bodenstedt, F. 1001 Tag im Orient. 12mo, 1859 

Die Lieder des Mirza-Schaffy. 16mo, 1868, fancy 


Bogatzky, Schatzkästlein. 2 vols. sq.l6mo, cloth gilt edges 

Börne's Werke. 12 vols, 12mo, 1862 

Brehm, A. E , Illustrirtes Thierleben. Eine allgemeine 
Kunde des Thierreichs. New cheap edition, with 
numerous beautiful woodeuts in the text, B,oyal 8vo. 10 

Das Leben der Vögel. 2nd edition, 8vo, 1868, 

beautifully illustrated with tinted woodeuts and chromo- 

lith. plates ... ... ... ... ... 15 

Bremer (Frederika) Werke: ... ... ... 250 










Jn Dalekatlien. 2 vols 2 6 

Kleinere Erzählungen 1 6 

Geschwisterleben. 3 vols. ..036 

Die Familie H 1 6 

Das Haus. 2 vols 2 6 

Leben im Norden 1 6 

Die Nachbarn. 2 vols 2 G 

Nina. 2 vols 2 6 

Sommerreise. 2 vols 2 6 

Streit und Friede 1 6 

Ein Tagebuch. 2 vols 2 6 

Die Töchter des Präsidenten 16 

Briefwechsel, A. von Humboldt's mit H. Berghaus, 

1825-58, 3 vols., 8vo, 1863 ... ... ... 14 

Büchmann, G., Geflügelte Worte. Citatenschatz des 

deutschen Volkes. 5th edition, 12mo, 1868 ... 3 6 

Bunsen. Allgemeines evang. Gesang- und Gebetbuch. 

12mo, fine paper ... ... ...• ... 06 

Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress in German. 16mo ... 2 

Bürger's Gedichte. 18mo, 1867, frontispiece, cloth, gilt 

edges ... ... ... ... ... ...030 

Carlen, Flygare, Werke. New Edition, 16mo, 1868-69, 

each voluine ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Ein launenhaftes Weib. 5 vols. 

Ein Jahr. 2 vols. 

Das E'ideicomuiiss. 4 vols. 

Die Braut auf dem Omberg. 2 volo. 

Carove. Das Märchen ohne Ende, 12mo, 1867, cloth ... 
Chamisso's Peter Schlemihl, 8vo, with illustrations 
Colshorn, Th„ Mägdlein's Dichterwald, 8vo, 1867, cloth 
Commersbuch, Allgemeines deutsches, 16mo, 1867 
Common Prayer Book in German, 24mo, cloth 
Conversationslexicon, Brockhaus', llth edition, 15 vols. 

larce 8vo, 1865-68, halfbound, contents lettered ... 5 5 
Coutelle, C, Pharus am Meere des Lebens, 2 series, 

16mo, fancy cloth, gilt edges ... ... each 8 6 

Die Kircheinweihung von Hamarby. 3 vols. 
Kamerer Lassmann. 3 vols. 
Die Krkerstübchen. 2 vols. 
Die Rose von Tistelön. 4 vols. 







List of Populär (lennan Books. 3 

Dahlmann, F. Ch , Geschichte der französischen Revo- 
lution, 12mo, 1864, portrait, cloth ... ... 5 

Geschichte der englischen Revolution, 12mo, 1864, 

portrait, cloth ... ... ... ... ...046 

Davidis, Henry. Praktisches Kochbuch für die gewöhn- 
liche und feinere Küche, 12mo, 18G8, cloth ... 4 6 

Duller, E. Geschichte des deutschen Volkes, umgear- 
beitet von W. Pierson, 2 vols., 8vo, 1861, illustrated 
with 64 woodcuts and three coloured maps ... ... 10 6 

Eberhard, J. A. Synonymisches Handwörterbuch der 
deutschen Sprache. Umgearbeitet von F. Rückert, 
12th edition, 8vo, 1864 ... ... ... ... 14 

A. G. Hannchen und die Küchlein, 16mo, 1864, 

boards ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 6 

Echtermeyer, Th. Auswahl deutscher Gedichte für 

höhere Schulen, 15th edition, 8vo, 1867, boards ... 5 

Eichendorff's Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts, 18mo, 

1867, fancy cloth ... (ds.Gd.); or sewed 3 

Engel's Herr Lorenz Stark, 16mo ... ... ... 010 

Familie Schön berg-Cotta, Die, übersetzt von G. 

Philippi, 2 vols., 12mo, 1867 ... ... ...070 

Feldzug, Der, von 1866 in Deutschland, redigirt vom 
Preussischen Generalstabe, 2 vols., 8vo, 1867-68, with 
numerous plans ... ... ... ... 19 

Feuchtersleben, E. v. Zur Diaetetik der Seele, 32nd 

edition, 16mo, boards ... ... ... ... 026 

Fink's Musikalischer Hausschatz der Deutschen, imp. 

8vo, ... ... ... ... reduced to 8 

Flügel's Deutsche kaufmännische Briefe mit englischen 

Noten, 8vo, boards ... ... ... ...036 

Series of English commercial Letters with German 

Notes. (Key to the preceding work) 8vo, boards ... 3 6 
Schlüssel zur kaufmännischen Correspondenz. 

Englisch, Französisch und Deutsch, 8vo, boards 

Fouque, Der Zauberring. 3 vols. in one, 16mo, 1841 ... 

Die Jahreszeiten. 4 parts in 1 vol. 16mo, 1862, cloth 

Separately : 

Undine ls. Gd. cloth 2s. Od. I Die beiden Hauptleute ls. Gd 

Sintram 2s. Od. cloth 2s. Qd. | Aslauga's Kitter ls. 6d. 

Freiligrath, Gedichte. 12mo, 1864 

Freytag, Gust. Soll und Haben. 2 vols. 16mo, 1867 ... 

Die verlorene Handschrift. 3 vols. 12mo, 1865 

1. Aus dem Mittelalter 8s. Od. Reformation (1500-1600) 

II. 1. VomMittelalterzurNeuzeit. III. Aus dem Jahrhundert ci 

(1200-1500) 6s. 6d. grossen Krieges (1600-1700) 

2. Aus dem Jahrhundert der i IV. Aus neuer Zeit. (1700-1818) 

Geibel, Enim. Gedichte. 12mo, 1868 

Neue Gedichte. 12mo, 1858 

Juniuslieder. 12mo, 1857 

Sophonisbe. Tragödie. 12mo, 1868 

Gellert's Fabeln und Erzählungen. 8vo, 1867 

Geistliche Oden und Lieder. 16mo, 1863 

Gerok, K. Palmblätter. 16rao, 1 S68, cloth, gilt edges ... 

Pocket edition. 32mo, 1867, fancy cloth 

Gervinus, G. G. Geschichte d. deutschen Dichtung. 4th 

edition, 5 vols. 8vo, 1853 ... ... ... in Q 

Gervinus, G. G. Einleitung in die Geschichte des 19. 

Jahrhunderts. 8vo, 18G4 ... ... ... 3 G 










. c 



























4 List of Populär German Books. 

Gervinus, Gr. G. Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts seit 

den Wiener Verträgen. Vols 1—8, 8vo, 1855-66 ... 3 17 
Gessner. Der Tod Abels. 12mo, 1848 ... ...0 10 

Gerörer, A. F. Gustav Adolf von Schweden und seine 

Zeit. 4th edition, 8vo, 1863 ... ... ... 9 6 

Goedecke, K. Eilf Bücher deutscher Dichtung von Seb. 

Brant bis auf die Gegenwart. 2 vols. 8vo. 1849 ... 9 
Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield in English and German, 

ivith illus trations by L. Richter. Crown 8vo, 1866 ... 6 
Goethe's sämmtliche Werke. Best Library Edition, 30 

vols. 8vo, 1858 ... ... ... ... ...3 3 

New edition. 6 vols. Eoyal 8vo, 1866 ... ... 1 16 

40 vols. sq. 16mo, 1840 ... ... ...2 2 

36 vols. sq. 16mo, 1867 ... ... ...14 

36 vols. 18mo. 1868, smallest pocket edition, cloth 14 

Cotta's separate Text Editions for School and College use:- 

Dichtung. 2 vols., 12mo, 18G6 3 
Wilhelm Meisters Lehijahre. 2 

vols., 12mo, 1868 4 

Wandeljahre. 12mo, 1862 3 

Prosa. Herausgegeben von J. W. 

Schäfer. 2 vols., 12mo, 1859 .. 3 

Eeineke Fuchs. 12mo,1866 10 

Torquato Tasso. 12mo, 1867 1 

Wahlverwandtschaften. 12mo,1862 2 

Clavigo. 12mo. 1864 10 

Eprnont. 12mo. 1868 1 

Gedichte. 12mo. 1865 3 

Selection for Schools. l2mo 2 6 

Faust, both parts. 12mo, 1867 ..020 

Götz von BerHchingen.l2mo, 1867 1 
U ermann und Dorothea. 12mo, 

1867 1 

Iphi^enie auf Tauiis. 12mo. 1865 1 
Aus meinem Leben. "Wahrheitund 

Egrnont, with notes and glossary by Charles 

Dickens, jun., 12mo, boards ... ... ...020 

Faust. Both Parts, lOmo, fomcy cloth, gilt edges 1 (i 

Both parts, illustrated by E. Seibertz. Fol., 

1853 — 57 ; with 25 füll page steel engravings and 34 

large woodcuts in the text... ... ... ... 300 

The illustrations reduced and engraved on 

ivood. Eoyal 8vo, 1804 ... ... ... ...09G 

Hermann and Dorothea. Translated into English 

verse, 12mo, 1802, cloth ... ... ... ..030 

Die Leiden des jungen Werther. 12mo, 1807. 

Printed in Roman type ... ... ... ...010 

— Italiänische Eeise. 2 vols., 10mo, 1840 ... 

Eeineke der Fuchs. With 37 süperb engravings 

by W. von Kaulbach, and numerous woodcuts in the 

text. Eoyal 4to ... ... ... ... 1 12 

The plates reduced and engraved on wood. 

Eoyal 8vo, 1857 ... ... ... ...0 8 

— Torquato Tasso. Translated into English verse. 

12mo, 1801, cloth ... ... ... ... 3 

Grimm, Brothers J. and W. Kinder- und Hausmärchen. 

Complete Edition, 3 vols. 12mo, 1857 

School edition. 12mo, boards, 1868 

finepaper, 12mo, cloth, 1864 

Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. 3rd edition, 2 

vols. 8vo, 1868 
— Deutsche Mythologie. 3rd edition, 2 vols., 8vo, 1854 
Die Deutsche Heldensage. 2nd edition, 8vo, 1867 











Grube, A. W. Charakterbilder aus der Geschichte und 

Sage. lOth edition, 3 vols. 8vo, 1865 ... ... J0 6 

Charakterbilder aus der heiligen Schrift. 2 parts 

in 3 vols. Svo, 1853-54 ... ... ... ... 13 O 






1 i 




List of Populär Germern Books. 

Grub r.A.W. Biographische Miniaturbilder für diereifore 

Jugend. 2nd edition, 2 vols. 8vo, 1869, 4 portraita 

Grün, Anast. (Count Auersperg.) Gedichte. 12mo, 1857 

Der letzte Ritter. Ronmnzenkranz. l2mo, 1852 

Schutt. Dichtungen. 12ino, 1847 

( iüNTHER, F. J. Weltgeschichte in 50 Lebensbildern, 8vo, 

1849 ... ... ... ... ... ...030 

Gutzkow, K. Uriel Acosta. Trauerspiel. 1859, cloth, gilt 

edges ... ... ... ... ... ...0 3 

Zopf und Schwert, Lustspiel. Zum Uebersetzen 

ins Englische bearbeitet von H. Plate. 8vo, 1858... 10 
- Die Ritter vom Geiste. 9 vols. 16mo, 1865 ... 18 
Der Zauberer von Rom. 18 vols. 1863, 12mo ... 1 1 

Soldatenleben im Frieden 1 G 

Wachstubenabe -teuer. 3 vols. . . 4 G 

Humoristische Erzählungen. ... 1 G 

Bilder aus dem Leben. . 1 G 

Das Geheimnisa der Stadt. 

3 vols., 18G8 ü 7 


Humoristische Schriften. G vols. 8 6 

Eugen Stillfried. 3 vols 8 G 

Handel und Wandel. 2 vols. ..050 

Namenlose Geschichten. 3 vols. 8 G 

Europäisch es Sklavenleben, ö vols 12 6 

Der Geheime Agent. Dustspiel. 3 G 

Magnetische Kureu. Lustspiel. 3 6 

Halm F. (E. von Münch-Bellinghausen). Werke, 8 vols. 

12mo. 1856—1864 ... ... ... ...220 

Griseldis. 18mo, 1861, fancy cloth ... ...0 5 

Der Sohn der Wildniss. 18mo, 1865 ... ... 4 6 

Der Fechter von Ravenna, Trauerspiel 12mo, 1866 3 6 

Handelscorrespondenz (Allgemeine) in 6 Sprachen 
(Gerinan, Dutch, English, French, Italian, Spanish) 
von Brutzer, Boz, Somerville, Borel, Brano und 
Brasch. 8vo, 1862 ... ... ... ... 9 6 

Hürtel, A. Deutsches Liederlexikon. A collection of 
976 populär German songs with the music for the 
Pianoforte. Roy. 8vo, 1867, cloth ... ...0 9 

Hauff, W. Sämmtliche Werke. 5th edition, 5 vols., 

■ 16mo, 1868, plates ... ... ... ...0 7 

Märchen und Gedichte. 12mo, 1865, frontispiece, 

boards ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 6 

illustrated with 6 etchings by Sonderland. 

12mo, cloth gilt ... ... ... ... ...056 

- Lichtenstein. 12mo, 1868, illustrated, boards ... 3 6 
Das kalte Herz. 12mo, 1855, cloth ... ... 2 

Häusser, L. Deutsche Geschichte vom Tode Friedrich 
des Grossen bis zur Gründung des deutschen Bundes. 
4 vols., 8vo, 1861— 63 ... ... ... ... 1 3 6 

Geschichte des Zeitalters der Reformation, 1517 — 

1648. Herausgegeben von W. Oncken. 8vo, 1868... 13 6 
Geschichte der französischen Revolution, 1789- 

1799. Herausg. von W. Oncken. 8vo, 1867 ... 10 

Hebel, J. P. Allemanische Gedichte (in the original 

dialect). 18mo, 1865 ... ... ... ...020 

Schatzkästlein des rheinischen Hausfreundes. 

12mo, illustrated with 60 wood engravings. 12mo, 1846 3 
Heine's (Heinr.) sämmtliche Werke. Original edition, 21 

vols., 12mo 

New cheap edition. 18 vols., 12mo, 1868, sewed 

the same, neatly bound in fancy cloth ... 

2 8 

1 16 

2 12 


















6 List of Populär Germern Books. 

Heine, H. Buch der Lieder. 12mo, 1868 

Neue Gedichte. 12ino, 1868 ... 

Romanzero. 12mo, 1851 

Deutschland. Atta Troll. 12mo, 1847 

Eeisebilder. 4 vols., 12mo, 1856 

Der Salon. 4 vols., 12mo, 1857— 61 

Harzreise. 16mo, 1853 

Strodtmann, A. Heine's Leben und "Werke. 2 vols. 
8vo, 1867—68 ... 
Herder's Werke. 40 vols., 16rno, 1852—54 (56s) 

Der Cid. Romanze. 12mo 

Hertz, H. König Rene's Tochter. Lyrisches Drama. 

18mo, fancy cloth ... ... ... ...0 3 

Herzog, J. J. Realencyklopädie für protestantische 
Kirche und Theologie. 18 vols. with 4 vols. of Sup- 
plements and Indices. Roy. 8vo, 1853 — 68 ... 8 8 
Hesekiel, Gr. Das Buch vom Grafen Bismark. 3 parts, 

8vo, 1809 ... ... ... ... ... 10 8 

Heyse, J. Ch. A. Handwörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. 

3 vols., 8vo, 1841— 50 ... ... ... ...14 

Allgemeines verdeutschendes und erklärendes 

Fremdwörterbuch. 14th edition, 8vo, 1869 ... 10 6 

(Paul). Novellen. 1. Sammlung, lümo, 1804 ... 4 6 

Neue Novellen. 2. Sammlung. 16mo, 1864 ... 6 

Vier neue Novellen. 3. Sammlung, lOmo, 1859... 5 6 

Neue Novellen. 4. Sammlung, lömo, 1866 ... 7 

Meraner Novellen. 5. Sammlung. lOnio, 1804 ... 7 

Fünf neue Novellen. 6. Sammlung. 12mo, 180G 7 

Novellen und Terzinen. 7. Sammlung. 12mo, 1808 7 

Moralische Novellen. 8. Sammlung. 12ino, 1809 7 

La Rabbiata. 18mo, 1858, bd ... ... ... 1 6 

Hilpert's German and English Dictionary. 2 vols, 4to, 

sewed ... ... ... ... (50s) 18 

Hofacker, L. Predigten für alle Sonn-, Fest -und Feier- 
tage. Large 8vo, 1809 ... ... ... ... 5 

Höfer, E. Erzählende Schriften. 12 vols., 12mo, 1865 110 
Wie das Volk spricht. Sprichwörtliche Redens- 
arten. 5th edit., lOmo, 1800 ... ... ...030 

Hoffmann, E. T. A. Sämmtliche "Werke. Mit Feder- 
zeichnungen von Th. Hosemann. 12 vols., lOmo 18 

■ Kater Murr. 2 vols., 1 2mo, cloth, portrait ... 2 

Ausgewählte Erzählungen. 2 vols., Kimo, cloth 2 6 

Holtei, K. v. Erzählende Schriften. 34 vols, lOmo, 1802 1 18 

Kiiminalgeschichten. 6 vols. . . 7 Noblesse oblige. 3 vols 3 6 

Die Vagabunden. 3 vols 3 6 Christian Lammfell. 5 vols. .. 4 6 

Ein Schneider. 3 vols 3 6 Die Eselsfresser. 3 vols 3 6 

Kleine Erzählungen. 5 vols... 6 Vierzig Jahre. 6 vols 14 

Homer, übersetzt von J. H. Voss. (Ilias and Odyssee). 

2 vols., lOmo, 1801 ... ... ... ...030 

Hotjwald, Das Bild. Trauerspiel. 12mo, 1822 ...020 

Humboldt, A. "W. von. Kosmos. 5 vols., 8vo, 1845 — 02, 

(54s Od) 1 10 
Atlas to ditto, by T. Bromme. 42 col. maps, oblong 

folio, 1861, boards ... ... ... ... 14 

Ansichten der Natur. 3rd edition, 2 vols., 12mo, 

1809 ... ... ... ... ... (9s Öd) 5 6 

List of Populär German Books. 

Humboldt, A W. von. Briefwechsel mit II. Berghaus, 

1825 58. 3 vols., 8vo, 18ö3 ... ... (2fi*) 14 

Briefe an eine Freundin. 2nd edition, !2mo, 1804, 

fanoy eloth ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Ilse, Prinzessin. Ein Märchen aus dem Harzgebirge 
(von Marie Petersen). lOth edition, lOmo, 18ö5, 
cloth, gilt edges ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Immermann, K. Münchhausen. 4 vols. in 2, lGmo, 

cloth ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Irrlichter (Die.) Ein Märchen (von M. Petersen). 12th 

edition, lOmo, 18(iS, fancy cloth, gilt edges ... ... 3 

Jean Paul's (Fr. Richter) siimmtliche Werke. 3rd edit., 

34 vols., 12mo, 1800— 03 ... ... ... ...220 

• Ausgewählte Werke. 16 vols., 16mo, 1865 ...18 

Die unsichtbare Loge. 2 vols. 5 

Hesperus. 4 vols 12 

Quuitus Fixlein 3 6 

Siebenkiis. 2 vols 5 6 

Titan. 3 vols 9 6 

Flegeljahre. 2 vols 7 

Dr. Katzenberger's Badereise. . 3 6 

Leben Jean Paul's 3 6 

Kaiisch, M. M. Leben und Kunst. Gedichte in fünf 

Abtheilungen. 12mo, 1808, cloth ... ... ... 4 

Kaltschmidt, J. K. German and English Dictionary. 

3rd edition, 2 parts, 8vo, 1806 ... ... ... 090 

German and French Dictionary. 2 parts, 8vo, 

1867 ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Kant's (J.) sämmtliche Werke. New edition, chrono- 
logically arranged by G. Hartenstein. 8 vols , 8vo, 
1867—69 ... ... ... ... ... 2 2 

Kritik der reinen Vernunft, herausgegeben von 

G. Hartenstein, 8vo, 1869, portrait ... ... 5 6 

Kaülbac h-A l b tj m. Thierfabeln, Geschichten und 
Märchen in Bildern. Nach Originalzeichnungen in 
Holz geschnitten von Flegel. Text von Jul. Grosse. 
Square folio, 1862, cloth ... 

Kinkel, G. Gedichte. 6th edition, 12mo, 1857 

Otto der Schütz. 23rd edit., 18mo, 1859, cloth, gilt 

Kleist, H. Schriften. 3 vols., 16mo, 1859 ... 

Kletke, H. Album deutscher Dichter. 18mo, fancy cloth, 
gilt edges 

Deutschlands Dichterinnen. 18mo, fancy cloth, gilt 


Klopstock's Werke. 10 vols., 16mo 

Messias. 16mo, bd. ... 

Oden. 16mo, bd. 

Knapp, A. Evangelischer Liederschatz. Stout 8vo, 1850, 

1397 pp. ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Tbe most complete collection of German Hymns. 

Koberstein, A. Grundriss der deutschen Nationallite- 
ratur. 3 stout vols. 8vo, 1859— 66... ... ... 1 18 

Koch, C. F. Historische Grammatik der englischen 

Sprache. 3 vols. 8vo, 1863— 69 ... ... ... 1 10 

Köhler, F. German and English Dictionary. 2 vols., 

8vö, 1861 ... ... ... ... ...0 8 

Kohlratjsch, F. Deutsche Geschichte für Schule und 

Haus. 15th edition, 8vo, 1866 ... ... ...070 

Abridgment. lOth edition, 8vo, 1867, bound 3 













William Shakesppare. 2 vols. .. 7 

Auch eine .In gend 5 ti 

Ein Siill-leben. 2 vols 18 6 

Die hohe Braut. 3 vols 10 ß 

Pachter Feldkümmel :. 2 

Die Französischen Kleinstädter 2 

Der Vielwisser 2 

Der Wirrwarr 2 

8 List of Populär German Books. 

König, Heinr. Gesammelte Schriften. Vols. 1 — 19. 12mo, 1854— G7 

Regina 8 

König Jerome'sCarneval. 3 vols. 17 6 

Hedwig, die Waldenserin. 2 vols. 9 

Die Clubisten in Mainz 3 vols. 10 6 

Geo. Forsters Leben. 2 vols... 12 6. 

Körner's Werke. I vol, 12mo, 4s. ... ... cloth 5 

Diamond Edition, 2 vols., 32mo, cloth ... 3 O 

Leyer and Schwert. Gedichte. 18mo, fancy cloth 2 

Körte, W. Die Sprichwörter und sprichwörtlichen Re- 
densarten der Deutschen. 2nd edition, 8vo, 1801 ... 9 '5 
Kortüm. Die Jobsiade. Grotesk-komisches Heldenge- 
dicht. 16mo, illustrated... ... ... ... 030 

Kotzebue's Theater. 40 vols. 12mo, 1840 ... ...2 

Die Deutschen Kleinstädter .. 1 

Eduard in Schottland 1 6 

Meuschenhass und Reue 2 

Die Organe des Gehirns 2 

Pagenstreiche 1 G 

Ausgewählte Lustspiele. 7 Comedies in 1 vol. 

12mo, 1863 ... ... ... ... ... 3 6 

Kriegschronik (Illustrirte). Gedenkbuch an den Feld- 
zug von 18(6 in Deutschland und Italien. 2nd edit., 
Ibl., 1867, numerous woodcuts, red cloth 

Krummacher, F. A. Parabeln. 8th edition, 12mo, cloth 

F. W. Elias der Thisbiter. 5th ed., 12mo, cloth 

Kugler, F. Geschichte Friedrich's des Grossen mit 40J 
Illustrationen von A. Menzel. Volksausgabe. Large 
8vo, 1867 

the same. Prachtausgabe. Royal 8vo... 

the same, 8vo, 1867 ... 

Kurz, H. Geschichte der deutschen Literatur mit ausge- 
wählten Stücken. 4th edit., 3 stout vols., roy. 8vo, 
1863-64, numerous Vignette portraits ... ... 2 2 

Vol. IV. (von Goethe's Tod bis auf die neueste 

Zeit). Royal 8vo, in course of publication, each part 10 

Lappenberg, J. M. Geschichte von England, fortgesetzt 
von R. Pauli. Vols. 1 to 5, 8vo, 1834—58... 

Laube, H., Die Karlsschüler. 16mo, cloth gilt edges 

Reisenovellen. 10 vols., 16mo, 1846-49 

Layritz, F. Kern des deutschen Kirchengesanges. 
Selection of 733 German Hymns, with the Melodies. 
Imp. 8vo, 1853— 55 ... ... ... ... 14 

Lenau's, Nie, Werke, herausg. von Anast. Grün. 4 
vols., 8vo, 1855, portrait ... 

Gedichte. 12mo, 1862 

Lessing's Sämmtliche Werke, herausg. von W. von 
Maltzahn. Best Library Edition, 13 vols., 8vo, 
1853-57 ... ... ... ... (52s) 

2 vols., Imp. 8vo, 1864 ... ... (16s) 

Gesammelte Schrillen. 10 vols., 16mo, 1858 

Ausgewählte Werke. 10 vols., 8vo, 20s ; or in one 

vol., 12mo, 1868 
- Fabeln, 12mo, 1859 ... 

— German and English on opposite pages. 











2 12 




12mo, 1860, cloth 
— Emüia Galotti. 12mo, 1866 


























List of Populär Ger man Books. 

Lessing. Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts. 12mo, 

Laokoon. 12mo, 1807 

Minna von Barnhelm. 12mo, 18G7 

with explanatory English Notesand Vocabu- 

larv by J. A. F. Schmidt. 12mo, 1808, cloth 

Nathan der Weise. 12mo, 1866 

Stahr, A. Lessing, sein Leben und seine Werke. Gth 

ed., 2 vols., 8vo, 1869 ... 
Lewald, Fanny. Adele. Roman. 1 2mo, 1864 
Erzählungen. 3 vols., 16mo, 1866-68, cloth, gilt 

edges ... ... ... ... ... each 3 6 

Lieder. 150 alte und neue Jäger-, Soldaten- und Volks- 
lieder, with the melodies, and Vignette illustrations 

by L. Richter, sq. ]2mo,fancy boards ... ... 3 6 

See also Volksliederbuch. 
Lübke, W. Geschichte der Architektur von den ältesten 

Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart. 3rd edition, 8vo, 1865, 

583 illustrations... ... ... ... ...110 

Grundriss der Kunstgeschichte. 4th edit., 2 pts., 

Svo, 1868, 403 woodcuts ... ... ... ... 12 

Lucas, N. J. English-German and German-English 

Dictionary. 4 vols., Royal 8vo, 1856-68, boards ... 2 14 
Luther's Tischreden, herausg. und erläutert von 

Förstemann und Bindseil. 4 vols., Svo, 1844-48 (32s) 12 
Geistliche Lieder, herausg. von Rev. Dr. Tiarks. 

8vo, with woodcut borders, and füll length portrait, 

fancy cloth ... ... ... ... (4s) 3 

Marlitt, E. Das Geheimniss der alten Mamsell. 

Roman. 2 vols., l^mo, 1868 ... ... ...070 

Goldelse. Roman. 12mo, 1868 ... ... 3 6 

Masius, H. Naturstudien. Skizzen aus der Thier- und 

Pflanzenwelt. 8vo, 1865 ... ... ...0 8 

Beautifully illustrated by W. Georgy. Royal 

Svo, 1863, handsomely bound in fancy cloth ... 18 

MäTZNER, E. Englische Grammatik. 2 vols. in 3 parts, 

Svo, 1860-65 ... ... ... ... ... 1 10 

Mendelssohn (Moses). Werke, herausg. von G. Men- 
delssohn. 7 vols., 12mo, 1843-45, portrait ... 1 1 
Mendelssohn-Bartholdt, F. Briefe aus den Jahren 

1830-47. 2 vols., Svo, 1864 ... ... ... 16 

Menzel (Karl Ad.) Neuere Geschichte der Deutschen 

seit der Reformation. 2nd edition, 6 vols., 8vo, 

1854-58, bound ... ... ... ... ... 140 

(Wolfgang). Allgemeine Weltgeschichte vom 

Anfang bis jetzt. 12 vols., 12mo, 1863 ... ... 1 18 

Geschichte der Deutschen. 5 vols., 12mo, 1855... 14 

Der deutsche Krieg im Jahre 1866 in seinen 

Ursachen, seinem Verlauf und seinen Folgen. 2 

vols., 12mo, 1867 ... ... ... ... 8 6 

Meter's Convei-sations-Lexicon. 15 vols. and 1 vol. of 

Maps and Plates, 8vo, Hildburghausen, halfbd. ... 7 
Mommsen (Th.) Römische Geschichte. 5th edition, 3 

vols., 8vo, 1868 ... ... ... ... ... 17 6 

Mosen (Jul.) Werke. 8 vols, 16mo, 1863 ... ...10 

Mozin. Complete French and German Dictionary, with 

Supplement. 5 vols. Imp. 8vo, 1856-59 ... ... 2 2 

10 List of Populär German BooJcs. 

Mügge (Th.) Erich Randal. 3 vols., 16mo ... ... 5 6 

Afraja. 3 vols., Himo, or 1 vol. 8vo ... ... 5 6 

Arvor Spang. 2 vols., lOmo ... ... ... 3 6 

Der Voigt von Sylt. 2 vols., 16mo ... ... 3 6 

Mühlbach (Louise - ). Kaiser Alexander und sein Hof. 

4 vols., 12mo. 1868 ... ... ... ...110 

Friedrich der Grosse und sein Hof. 3 vols., 12mo, 

1864 3 6 

und seine Freunde. 4 vols., 12mo, 1864 ... 5 

und seine Geschwister. 6 vols. in 2, 12mo, 

1859 7 

Kaiser Joseph und Maria Theresa. 4 vols., 12nio, 

1868 ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 6 

und Marie Antoinette. 4 vols., 12mo, 1860 5 6 

als Selbstherrscher. 4 vols., 12mo, 1860 ... 5 6 

Napoleon in Deutschland. 4 Abtheilungen. 

12mo, 1859 ... ... ... ... ...14 

Rastatt und Jena. 4 vols. .. G 
Napoleon und die Königin 
Louise. 4 vols 6 

Napoleon und Blücher. 4 vols. 6 
Napoleon und der Wiener 

(Jongrc'ss. 4 vols 6 

Müller, J. Lehrbuch der Physik und Meteorologie. 

Theilweise nach Pouillet selbständig bearbeitet. 

7th edition, in 2 vols., illustrated with 2000 woodcuts 

in the text, and 15 large plates, 8vo, 1869 ... ... 1 15 

■ (Joh. von). Sämmtliche Werke. 40 vols., 12nio, 

1831-35 ... ... ... ... ...18 

24 Bücher allgemeiner Geschichte. 1 vol., 

8vo, 1840 ... ... ... ... ... 5 

(Max). Deutsche Liebe. Aus den Papieren eines 

Fremdlings. 2nd edition, 8vo, 1866, 3s., or cloth gilt 

edges ... ... ... ... ... ...036 

Müllneb, A. Die Schuld. Trauerspiel. 12mo, 1821... 2 6 
Münchhausen's Reisen und Abenteuer. 1855. 12mo, 

fancy boards, illustrations ... ... ... 026 

Musäus. Volksmärchen. 12mo, 1866 ... ... 4 

Prachtausgabe, illustrated with numerous 

woodcuts, Royal 8vo, 1847 ... ... ... 10 6 

Nathusius (Marie). Schriften. 15 vols., 12mo, 1860-68 

7. Die alte Jungfer. Der Vor- 
mund 3 

8. 9. Elisabeth 6 

10. Nachtrage 3 6 

11. Familienskizzen. Herr und 
Kammerdiener 3 6 

12. 100 Lieder, geistlich und 
weltlich. Mit Clavierbeglei- 
tung 5 6 

13-15. Leben 17 6 

1. Dorf- und Stadtgeschichten.. 3 6 

2. Die Geschichten von Christ- 

fried und Julchen 3 

3. 4. Kleine Ei Zählungen 6 

5. Tagebuch eines armen Fräu- 
leins. Joachim von Kamern. 
Riickerinnerungen aus einem 
Mätchenleben 3 6 

6. Langenstein und Böblingen. 

5th edition 3 

— Tagebuch eines armen Fräuleins. 9th edition, 
12mo, 1868 ... ... ... ... 2 6 

Rückerinneruno;en aus einem Mädchenleben. 2nd 

edition, 12mo, 1858 ... ... ... ... 16 

Neandeb, J. A. W. Allgemeine Geschichte der christ- 
lichen Eeligion und Kirche. 2 vols., Eoyal 8vo., 1856 1 15 
Niebelungenlied. Mebelungen Noth und die Klage. 

Herausg. von K. Lachmann. 4th edition, 8vo, 1867 4 6 

üb3rsetzt von K. Simrock. 17th edition, 8vo, 1867 3 6 

Text and German Translation by Simrock on 

opposite pages. 8vo, 1868 ... ... ...070 

List of Populär Gevman DooJcs. 1 1 

Niebelunoenlied übersetzt von J. von Hinsberg. 5th 

edition, 8vo, L846, 6 outline engravings, boards ... 4 G 
übersetzt von O. Marbaeh, mit Holzschnitten 

nach Originalzeichnungen von Bendemann und J. 

Hühner. 4to, 1840, hatf-bound ... ... ...18 

Niebuhr, B. G. Römische Geschichte. Eoyal 8vo, 

1853, cloth ... ... ... ... ...140 

Griechische Heroengeschichten, with Notes by 

Dr. Buchheim. 12mo, 1861, cloth ... ... 2 (5 

Noesselt, Fr. Lehrbuch der deutschen Literatur für 

Töchterschulen. 5th edition, 3 vols, 8vo, 1862 ... 12 6 
Lehrbuch der Weltgeschichte für Töchterschulen. 

14th edition, 4 vols., 8vo, 1867, 8 plates ... ... 12 6 

für Bürger- und Gelehrtenschulen. 4th 

edition by F. Kurts, 4 vols., 8vo, 1859, illustrations 12 6 

Novalis' Schriften. Herausg. von Tieck und Schlegel. 

5th edition, 3 vols., 12mo, 1837-46 ... ... 10 6 

Novellenkranz. Sammlung der vorzüglichsten deut- 
schen Ei Zählungen und Novellen. 8vo, 1840 

Oehlenschlüger, A. Werke. 21 vols., 16mo, 1839-40... 

üorreggio. Trauerspiel. 16mo. 

Oeser, Chr. Briefe an eine Jungfrau über Aesthetik. 
8th edition, 8vo, 1865. 10 illustrations, beautifully 
bound in embossed cloth ... 

Paalzow (Frau von). Eomane. 12 vols., 16mo, 1855 

Uodwie Castle 3 vols 7 I St. Roche. 8 vols ' 

elacob van der Nees. 3 vols. 7 | Thomas Thyrnau. 3 vols. .. 

Pauli, R. König Alfred und seine Stelle in der Welt- 
geschichte. 8vo, 1851 ... 

Bilder aus Alt-England. 8vo, 1860 

Simon von Montfort, der Schöpfer des Hauses der 

Gemeinen. 8vo, 1867, 4s 6d vellum paper 

Pichler (Caroline). Belagerung Wiens. 3 vols., 12mo. 

Die Schweden in Prag. 3 vols., 12mo.... 

■ Wiedereroberung Ofens. 2 vols., 12mo. 

Pischon's Leitfaden der deutschen Literatur. 18th 
edition, 8vo. 1868 

Platen's, Graf, Werke. 5 vols., 16mo, 1854 ... 

Polko, Elise. Dichtergrüsse. 16mo, illustrations, 

fancy cloth, gilt edges ... ... ... ...070 

Unsere Pilgerfahrt. 16mo, 1865, fancy cloth gilt 

edges ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 6 

— Musikalische Märchen. 16mo, 2 vols, 1866, fancy 

cloth gilt ... ... ... ... each 8 

Erinnerungen an einen Verschollenen. 12mo, 




















1863, portrait ... ... ... ... ... 3 6 

Psalmen. Deutsch. Luthers Uebersetzung. 16mo, 

1852, Tauchnitz ... ... ... ... 9 

Putlttz, G. Was sich der Wald erzählt. 21st edition, 

18mo, fancy cloth, gilt edges ... ... ... 3 

Vergissrneinnicht. 6th edition, 1 6mo, 1866, fancy 

cloth, gilt edges ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Lustspiele. Vol. i, 12mo, 1860 ... ... 3 6 

Radenhausen, (C.) Isis. Der Mensch und die Welt. 4 

vols., 8vo, 1863, half-bound neat ... ... ... 1 16 

Rammler, O. F. Universalbriefsteller für Personen jeden 

Standes. 38th edition, 8vo, 1865, 565 pages ... 3 6 

12 List of Populär Ger man Books. 

Ranke, L. von. Sämmtliche Werke. (To be completed 

in 30 to 36vols.) Vols. 1-12, 8 v , 1867-69 ...3 3 

The volumes of this edition are not sold separately. 

— Die römischen Päpste, ihre Kirche und ihr Staat 

im 10. und 17. Jahrhundert. 5th ed., 3 vols, 8vo, 1800-07 18 

Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reforma- 
tion. 3rd edition, 5 vols , 1 2mo, 1 852 ... ... ] 66 

■ Französische Geschichte vornehmlich im 16. und 

17. Jahrhundert. 2nd edition, 5 vols., 8vo, 185' '-62... 2 12 
Englische Geschichte vornehmlich im 10. und 17. 

Jahrhundert. 7 vols., 8vo, 1859-68 ... ...4 8 

Raumer, F. v. Geschichte der Hohenstaufen. 3rd 

edition, 6 vols , 8vo, 1857-1858 ... ... ...110 

Redwitz, O. Amaranth. 1 6 mo, seived, 3s 6d,fancy cloth, 

gilt edges ... ... ... ... ...056 

Eeineke Fuchs. Mit 12 Illustrationen von L. Richter. 

16mo, 1855 ... ... ... ... ... 3 6 

Rellstab, L. 1812. Historischer Roman. 4 vols., 

12mo, 1854 ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Rethel, A. Auch ein Todtentanz. 6 large tinted plates 

engraved on wood, with Text by R. Reinick. 8th 

edition, folio, 1866 ... ... ... ... 2 

Retzsch's Outlines to Schiller's Song of the Bell. 43 

plates, square folio, bds. ... ... (14s.), reduced to 7 

Fight with the Dragon. 16 plates, square 

folio, 1847, bds.... 

Pegasus. 12 plates, square folio, 1840, bds. 

- — Fridolin. 8 plates, square folio, 1843, bds. 

to Goethe's Faust, 2 parts. 40 plates, square 

folio, 1834-36, bds. 

to Bürger's Ballads. 2nd edition, 15 plates, 














square fol., 1854 ... ... (16s.), reduced to 

The Chess-player. 1 plate, square folio, 1836 

The Fight of Light and Darkness. 5 plates, 

square folio, 1846 

Truth and Fancy. 6 plates, square folio, 1838 

See also Shakespeare. 
Reuter, Fritz. Works in Low-Saxon. 12mo, 1863-68, 

embossed cloih ... ... ... ... each 5 

Läuschen und Rimels. 2 vols. 
Reise nach Belligen. 
Olle Kamellen. G vols. 
Schurr Murr. 
Hanne Nute. 

Rhode, F. L. Praktisches Handbuch der Handels 
correspondenz in deutscher, französischer, englischer, 
italienischer und spanischer Sprache. 5th edition, 
8vo, 1866 ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Richter, E. F. Lehrbuch der Harmonie. 7th edition, 

8vo, 1868... ... ... ... 3 6 

Lehrbuch der Fuge. 2nd edition, 8vo, 1868 ... 3 6 

Ludwig. Für's Haus : Frühling, Sommer, 

Herbst, Winter. Folio. Each part containing 15 

plates engraved on wood, in portfolio ... ... 5 6 

Unser tägliches Brod. 15 plates with Text, 1866, 

in portfolio ... ... ... ... ...056 

Kein Hiisung. 


Die Mecklenbürgschen Montecchi und 

Capuletti oder De Reis' nach Kou- 


List of Populär German Book*. 13 

Richter, Ludwig. Der Sonntag. IQ plates, foh in portfolio 9 <> 

Vater Unser. 10 plates, folio im portfolio ... 7 

Christenfreude in Lied und Bild. 52 plates, 5th 

edition, Royal 8vo, cloth... ... ... ... () 5 6 

Schiller' s Lied von der Glocke. IG plates, folio in 

portfolio ... ... ... ... ... () 

Neuer Strauss für's Haus. 15 plates, 4to, folio in 

portfolio ... ... ... ... ... C> (5 

Goethe-Album. 40 plates, folio in portfolio ...0 9 6 

Richter- Album. A selection of 3ü7 of the best 

wood engravings of Richter. 2 vols., royal 8vo, 

Portrait, fancy cloth ... ... ... ... 110 

202 Holzschnitte nach Zeichnungen von Richter. 

4to. 1868 ... ... ... ... ... 5 6 

Erbauliches und Beschauliches. 21 plates, folio, 

in portfolio ... ... ... ... ... 8 6 

Bilder und Reime. Reime und Bilder für Kinder. 

Mit Reimen von W. Hey. 16mo, 1867, 32 plates on 

vood ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 6 

Riehl, W. H. Naturgeschichte des Volkes. 

1. Land und Leute. 5th ed. 1861 6*. | 3. Die Familie. Oth ed. 18G2. 5s. 6d. 

2. Die bürgert. Gesellschaft. 5ih ed. 1859. 6s. j 

Culturgeschichtliche Novellen. 2ndedit., 8vo,1856 (i (i 

Ritter's Geographisch-statistisches Lexicon über alle 

Erdtheile. 5th edit ., 2 stout vols., Royal 8vo, 1865 .17 
Rodenberg, J. Alltagsleben in London. Skizzenbuch. 

12mo, 1860 ... ... ... ... ...0 3 

Ein Herbst in "Wales. 12mo, 1858 ... ... 5 6 

Die Strassensängerin in London. Roman. 12mo, 

1864 ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Tag und Nacht in London. 4th edition, L2mo, 

1863, plates, boards ... ... ... ...0 3 

Die Myrthe von Killarn ey. Ein modernes Idyll. 

16mo, 1867. Illustrated by H. Becker and H. L. 

Brinkmann, cloth, gilt edges ... ... ... 6 

Boquette. O. Gedichte. 16mo, 1859, cloth, gilt edges... 5 
Waldmeister's ßrautfahrt. 27th edition, 16mo, 

1865, fancy boards ... ... ... ... 2 

Erzählungen. 12mo, 1859 ... ... ... 056 

Neue Erzählungen. 12mo, 1862 ... ... 4 U 

RossMässLER, E. A. Der Wald. Royal 8vo, 1862, illus- 

t ratedwith 17 copperplates and H2woodcuts, 27s; bound 1 10 
Das Wasser. 2nd edition, Royal Svo, 18'iO, 9 

tinted lithographic plates and numerous woodeut 

illustrations ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Rotteck, K. von. Allgemeine Geschichte vom Anfang 

der historischen Kenntniss bis auf unsere Tage. II- 

lustrirte Volksausgabe. 12 vols., J2mo, 1868, half- 

bound ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 10 

Rückert, F. Gesammelte poetische Werke. First col- 

lected edition, 12 vols., 12mo, 1867-09 .. ...2 2 
Gesammelte Gedichte. 6 vols., 8vo, 1837-40, 

original edition... ... ... reduced to 110 

Selection by the Author. 15th edition, 

12mo, 1868, portrait ... ... ... ... 6 6 

Die Weisheit des Brahmanen. Cth ed., 12mo, lhiÖ8 7 


List of Populär Germern Books. 

Eückkrt, F. Die Makanien des Hariri. 4th ed., 8vo, 1864 
Liebes-Frühling. 5th edition, 16ino, 1803, fancy 

cloth, gilt edges ... 
Sanders, D. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache mit 

Belegen von Luther bis auf die Gegenwart. 3 

stout vols., 4to, 1859-65 ... 
Handwörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Stout 

8vo, 1869 
Saphir's ausgewählte Schriften. 4th edition, 10 vols., 

12mo, 1869 
Savigny, F. C. v. Geschichte des römischen Eechts im 

Mittelalter. 2nd edition, 7 vols., 8vo., 1834-1851 ... 
System des heutigen römischen Eechts. 8 vols. 

and index, 8 vo, 1840-51 ... 
Schefer, L. Laienbrevier. 14th edition, 16mo, 1867, 

fancy cloth, gilt edges 
Scheffel, V. Ekkehard. 5th edition, 12mo, 1868 
Scheibler, Soph. W. Deutsches Kochbuch für alle 

Stände. 8vo, 18 ^ 8, cloth 
Scherer, G-. Deutsche Volkslieder, profusely illustrated, 

and with the music. 2nd edition, 4to, 1862, bds. 

, W. Deutscher Dichterwald. 18mo, fancy cloth 

Schiebe, A. Lehrbuch der Contorwissenschaft. 3 vols., 

8vo, 1865 

1. Contorwissenschaft. 6tb ed. 10 6 

2. Correspondenz. llthedit. .. 10 6. 

Schiller's Werke, mit Einleitungen von 

12 vols., 8vo, 1866 

12 vols., smallSvo, 1860 ... 

mit Einleitungen von K. Goedeke. 12 vols., 

l6mo, 1867 
12 vols., 32mo, Diamond edition, 1867, cloth, 

gilt tops, very neat, 12s ; or bound in 6 vols., same 


2 vols., Eoyal 8vo, 1867 ... 

Historisch-kritische Ausgabe von K. Goedeke 

(15 vols. in 16). Vols. i-vi, 8vo, 1868-69. 

Subscription price each 
Gedichte. Illustrated with 16 füll page and 27 

smaller Photographie plates and numerous woodeut- 

vignettes. Eoyal 4to, 1859 

Diamond edition, 32mo, 1867 

Cheap School edition. 18mo, 1866 

Cheapest Pocket edition. 32mo, neatly bound 

Buchhaltung. 9th edition.. 

K. Goedeke. 

6 ß 

4 4 


1 1 


2 18 (i 



4 6 

1 8 

. 'j 

4 6 









in cloth, gilt top 
The following worJcs separately, all uniformly and neatly 
printed by Cotta,for School and College use at greatly reduced prices 

Braut von Messina 10 

Don Carlos ■ 2 

Fiesko 1 

Gedichte 2 

Geisterseher 10 

Geschichte des Abfalls der Nie- 
derlande 2 öi 

Geschichte des 30jährigen 

Krieges 2 

.Jungfrau von Orleans ] 

Kabale und Liebe 1 

Macbeth 1 

Ma> ia Stuart 1 

Neffe als Onkel 1 

Parasit 1 

Phädra 1 

Prosa. Auswahl für die Ju- 

Kend 2 

Räuber 1 

Turandot 1 

Wallenstein. The 3 parts 2 

Wilhelm Teil 1 

List of Populär German Book*. 15 

Schillfr's Neffe als Onkel. With Notes by Ch. Dickens, 

jun., 12mo, bds. ... ... ... ... ... i u 

Parasit. With Notes by Ch. Dickens, jun. 12liio, 

boards ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 U 

Song of the Bell, in English and German, on op- 

positc pages. 12mo, cloth ... ... ... 10 

Wilhelm Teil. With Notes by Dr. Bartels. 8vo, 

1887, cloth ... ... ... ... ... 3 i* 

Translated into English verse. 12mo> cloth, } 869 3 (! 

Palleske, E. Schiller's Leben und Werke. 2nd edit., 

2 vols, lönio, 1859 ... ... ... ...0 7 

Wolzogen, Karoline von. Schiller's Leben. Verfasst 

aus Erinnerungen der Familie, seinen eigenen 

Briefen und Nachrichten Körner's. 8vo, l.söl ... 3 (i 
Schlegel, A. W. von. Vorlesungen über dramatische 

Kunst und Literatur. 2 vols , 12mo ... ... 7 

, Fr. von. Sämmtliche Werke. 15 vols, Svo, 

1845-46 ... ... (52s Od), reduced t<> 1,16 

Philosophie der Geschichte. 2 vols., 8VO, 1846 ... 7 

Schleicher, A. Compendium der vergleichenden Gram- 
matik der indogermanischen Sprachen. 2nd edition, 

Bvo, 1860 ... ... ... ... ... lö 

Schleiden, M. J. Die Pflanze und ihr Leben. Oth edit., 

8vo, 1804, 14 woodeuts and 5 coloured plates ... 11 
Das Meer. 8vo, 1867, 23 coloured steel engravings 

and 200 woodeuts in the text ... ... ... 1 11 6 

Schlosser, Fr. Chr. Weltgeschichte, herausg von G. L. 

Kriegk. 19 vols., Bvo, 1847-57 ... ... ... 2 14 

Schmitt henner, F. Kurzes deutsches Wörterbuch, 

völlig umgearbeitet von Dr. F. L. K. Weigand. 3rd 

edition, 8vo, 1800-69 ... ... ... ...18 

Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Jul. Bible pictures, with 

English Text. 180 plates, Royal 4to, bound in 3 vols., 

cloth ... ... ... ... ... each 15 

with German Text. 240 plates, Royal 4to... 1 15 

Schoedler, F. Das Buch der Natur. Kith edition, 2 

vols , bvo, 1867, numerous woodeut illustrations ... 8 
Schopenhauer, A. Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik. 

2nd Edition, 8vo, 1 860 ... ... ... ... 5 6 

Parerga und Paralipomena. 2 vols., 8vo, 1862 ... 17 

Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung. 2 vols., 

8vo, 1859 ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 

lieber den Willen in der Natur. Herausgegeben 

von J. Frauenstädt. 3rd edition, 8vo, 1867 ... 3 6 
Ueber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom 

zureichenden Grunde. Herausg. von J. Frauenstädt. 

3rd edition, 8vo, 1864 ... ... ... ... 3 6 

Schreber, D. G. M. Aerztliche Zimmergymnastik, llth 

edition, large 8vo, 1867. 45 woodeut illustrations, bds. 3 6 
Schulze, Ernst. Die bezauberte Rose. 12mo, 1868, cloth 2 
Schwab, G. Fünf Bücher deutscher Lieder von Haller 

bis jetzt. 4th edition, l^rno, neatly bound ... 5 6 

Die schönsten Sagen des classischen Alterthums. 

4th edition, 3 vols., Bvo, 1857, 6 plates ... ... 10 6 

16 List of Populär Germern Books. 

Schwegler, A. Geschichte der Philosophie im Umriss. 

Gth edition, 8vo, 1807 ... ... ... ... 4 G 

Shakespeare's Dramatische Werke nach Schlegel und 
Tieck's Uebersetzung revidirt und theilweise neu 
bearbeitet mit Einleitung und Noten, unter Red. 
von H. Ulrici herausg. durch die deutsche Shakes- 
peare-Gesellschaft. 12 vols , 8vo, 1867-08, each 2 

übersetzt von Schlegel und Tieck. 9 vols. in 5, 

lOmo, 1853-54, cloth ... ... ... ... 17 

übersetzt von Bodenstedt, Freiligrath, Gilde- 
meister u. A. 12mo, J8G8... ... each play Od F 

Critical Edition by N. Delius. 7 vols., 8vo, 

1808-09 ... ... ... ... ... 2 10 

Gervinns, G. G. Shakespeare. 3rd edition, 2 vols., 

8vo, 1802 ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Petzsch's Outlines to Shakespeare's Plays, with Let- 
terpress in English and German. 100 plates in 
1 vol , square folio ... ... ... ...1160 

Hainlei, Romeo and Jnliet, Lear, Tempest, Othello, Merry Wivea 

ofWindsor, Henry IV. .. .. .. .. each 5 

Simrock, K. Die Edda, die ältere und die jüngere, nebst 
den mythischen Erzählungen der Skalda übersetzt 
und erläutert. 2nd edition, 8vo, 1855 

Gedichte. 12mo, 1803 

Der gute Gerhardt von Köln. lOmo, 1804, bds.... 

Das Heldenbuch. vols , 8vo. 

Gudrun. 18G1 5 6 | Das kleine Heldenbuch. 185 

Nibelungenlied. 1865.... 3 6 j Amelungenlied 1803— 64.3 vols. 

- Pheinsagen. 5th edition, 12mo, 1857 ... 
Walter von der Vogel weide. Uebersetzt. 4th 

edition, lOmo, 1809 
Spielhagen, F. Gesammelte Werke. 12 vols., lOmo, 1867 

Problematische Naturen. Auf der Düne. ClarR Vere. In der zwülfteu Stunde. 
Kuschen vom Hofe. Die von Hoheustein. Durch Nacht zum Licht. 

Die Dorfcoquette. Erzählung. 12mo, 1869 

Spindler, C. Der Jude. 3rd edit., 4 vols., 12mo, 1852 

Der Invalide. 4 vols , 12mo, 1848 

Der Bastard. 2nd edition, 4 vols., 12mo, L S 4S ... 

Der Jesuit. 3rd edition, 3 vols., 12mo, 1852 

Spitta. Psalter und Harfe. 2 parts, 12mo, cloth 

fine edition. 12mo, cloth gilt edges 

Stier, Pud. Die Peden des Herrn Jesu. 7 vols., 8vo, 

Stifter, Adalb. Der Hagestolz. lOmo, 1852, cloth ... 

Der Hochwald. lOmo, 1852, cloth 

Die Narrenburg. lOmo, 1855, cloth 

Der Nachsommer. 2nd edit., 3 vols., 12mo, 1865 

Bunte Steine. 2 vols., 12mo, 1853 

Studien. 7th edit., 3 vols., 12mo, 1807, portrait 

Wittiko. Eine Erzählung. 3 vols., 12mo, 1865-67 

Stoll, H. W. Die Götter und Heroen des classischen 
Alterthums. Populäre Mythologie der Griechen und 
Römer. 3rd edition, 2 vols., 12mo, 1867 ... 
Storm, Th. Sämmtliche Schriften. vols., 12mo, 1808 
Immensee. lümo, fancy cloth gilt edges 





f. 9 

3. 1 8 










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2 H 












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A List of Populär German Books. 17 

Strauss, Dav. Leben Jesu. Populär edition. 2nd edit., 

svo, 1864 ... ... ... ... ... 10 (i 

Sturm, J. Fromme Lieder. 6th edition, 12mo, 18ö7j 

cloth gilt i'dges ... ... ... ... ... 3 <i 

Sybel, H. von. Geschichte der Revolutionszeit von 1789- 

95. 3rd edit., 3 vols. and Supplement, 8vo, 1865-68 1 4 (5 

Prinz Eugen von Savoyen, 12mo, 1861... ... Ü 1 (i 

Tausend und Eine Nacht. Deutsch von H. König. 

24 vols. in 6, 24mo, 1866 ... ... ... ...0 8 

Taylor, H. Philipp von Artevelde. Ein dramatisches 

Gedicht, übersetzt von Dr. A. Heimann. 2 parts, 12mo 8 
Technological Dictionary in English, French, and 

German, by Tolhausen and Gardissal. 3 vols., 

12mo, 1864 ... ... ... ... ... 1 1 

in English, German, and French. 3 vols., Eoyal 

8vo ... ... ... ... ... each 10 6 

German-French-English, by \V. Unverzagt. 2nd edit. 1809. 
Euglish-French-Gennan, reprinting. 
Freiich-English-German, by Ch. Rumpf. 1867. 

Tegner. Die Frithiofssage, übersetzt von Mohnike. 

18mo, 2s; 12mo, cloth ... ... ... ... 3 6 

übersetzt von K. Simrock. IGmo, 1863, plates 5 

— in English, by Eev. W. Strong. 8vo, 1836, 













cloth, portrait ... ... (12s); reduced to 6 

Testament, New. 32mo, roan gilt edges ... ... 1 <> 

Thieme's, F. W. Critical German and English Dic- 
tionary. Eoyal 8vo, sewed 9s ; strongly half-bound... 10 6 

(Black's) Grammatical German and English Dic- 
tionary. 12mo, roan ... ... ... ... 7 

Tholuck's, A. Stunden christlicher Andacht. 7th 
edition, 8vo, 1864 

Tieck's, L. Schriften. 28 vols., 12mo, 1828-54 

Gesammelte Novellen. 12 vols., 12mo, 1852-54... 

Vittoria Accorombona. 2 vols., 12mo, 1840 (14s) 

Franz Sternbald's Wanderungen. 12mo 

Musikalische Leiden und Freuden. 12mo 

Dichterleben. 12mo ... 

Phantasus. 3 vols., 12mo, 1845 

Der junge Tischlermeister. 2 vols., 12mo, 1830... 

Treitschke, H. v. Historische und politische Aufsätze 
zur neuesten deutschen Geschichte. 3id edition, 
8vo, 1867 ... ... • ... ... ... 7 

Tschudi, F. v. Thierleben der Alpenwelt, illustrirt von 
Eittmeyer und Georgy. 8th edition, 8vo, 1867, 
Portrait and numerous woodcut illustrations 

Uhland's, Ludw. Gedichte. 12mo, 1868 

Gedichte. Prachtausgabe. Profusely illustrated 

with ivoodcuts in the Text and 29 fullpagetinted plates 
from designs by Campliausen, Closs, Mackart, and 
other celebrated German artists. Eoyal 4to, 1866 

Ulrici, H. Gott und die Natur. 2nd edition, 8vo, 1866 

Gott und der Mensch. I. Leib und Seele. Grund- 
züge einer Psychologie des Menschen. 8vo, 1866 ... 13 6 

Van der velde's, C. F., Werke. 25 vols., 16mo, 1819-27 

(50s) 110 




1 14 



18 A List of Populär German Books. 

Varnhagen von Ense's Tagebücher. Aus dem Nach- 
lasse des Verfassers. Vols. i-xi, 8vo. 1 860-69 each 

Biographische Denkmale. 2nd edition, 5 vols., 

12mo, 1845-46 

Viehoff H Handbuch der deutschen Nationalliteratur; 
nebst Abriss der Literaturgeschichte, Verslehre, 
Mylistik und Aufgabensammlung. 3parts. ßoy.8vo 
lbbo, cloth ... 7 

Vilmar's A. F. C. Geschichte der deutschen National" 

hteratur. 12th edition, 8vo, 1867 o 7 

Volger's Handbuch der Naturgeschichte, 'ßoy 8vo' 

1842, illustrated with upwards of 2000 woodcuU, cloth JO 
Volksliederbuch (Illustrirtes). Sammlung der belieb 

testen und schönsten Volks-, Jäger-, Liebes-, etc., 

Lieder. lGmo, 1857, boards . . Ol 

Voss' (J. H.) Louise. lK mo , fancy cloth gilt 'edges 2s. • 

12mo, sevjed ... ... y Ol 

Wagner, K. Lehren der Weisheit und Tugend in auserl 

lesenen Fabeln, Erzählungen, Liedern.und Sprüchen. 

2nd edition, 12mo, 1853, bound . n , 

VValter's von der Vogelweide Gedichte, übersetzt von 

Simrock. !6mo, 186!) . P 

WEB iT' G i- .^% emeine Weltgeschichte mit besonderer 
Berücksichtigung des Geistes und Culturlebens der 
Volker (m 2 vols.) Vols. I-VII. 1. 8vo, 1860-(i7 
Lehrbuch der Weltgeschichte mit besonderer 

2 9 (i 

r> i • i.j /.^ , v^g t ovmuui/e uiil Desonaerei 
Rucksicht auf Cultur-, Literatur- undEeligionswesen 
12th edition, 2 vols., 8vo, 18(>7 


Abridgmentofditto. lOth edition, 8vo, 1866 3 
£ es A chl( * te der deutschen Literatur. 8vo, 1867 1 h 
""*«. " ill* H andwörterbuch. der deutschen Sprache. 
7th edition, 8vo, 1862 ... ... * 7 <> 

iTm^* i' ^ocritos. Hinterlassene Papiere eines 
achenden Philosophen. 8th edition, 12 vols. in 6, 
1H68, l'mo, cloth ... 18 

7 a D S" t f chla ? d - Briefe ei nes in Deutschland reisen- 
den Philosophen, ß vols., 12mo, 1855 ... 14 o 

Wieland's Werke. 36 vols. ISmo, 1840 ... (48.) 1 £ 

Oberon. 12mo or l8mo K ' q , 

— Geschichte der Abderiten. 2 vols. 16m'o o ft 

Wildermiith, Ottilie Bilder und Geschichten aus 

f^™ben. 5th edition, 2 vols., 12mo, 1865, portraü 7 

^Aus dem Frauenleben. 5th edition, 2 vols 12mo, 

Die Heimath der Frau*.' 4th edition, J2mo, 1 s64 3 ß 

16m"'l5ä.flf V . eUen "^ Dlch ^^ " vols., 

• Das Goldmacherdorf. Sth edition, lßmo, 1855 1 
Alamontade. l8mo, 1852 

^! kSSC !^ en - ( G °Wmachepdörf, Meister Jorda n ; 

Spnich und Schwank. Die ßranntweinpest.) 8vo, 1840' 2 

Stunden der Andacht. 8 vols., 8vo, 1858 i J o 

Gechichte des Schweizerlandes. 12mo, 1853 2 ß 







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